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Article
Publication date: 13 March 2017

Cecilia McInnis-Bowers, Denise Linda Parris and Bella L. Galperin

This paper aims to explore the relationship between entrepreneurship and resilience in an indigenous context. The overarching research questions are: What are the…

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to explore the relationship between entrepreneurship and resilience in an indigenous context. The overarching research questions are: What are the mechanisms that link entrepreneurial thought and action to resilience in a marginalized context? How can entrepreneurial thought and actions lead to building economic, community and cultural resilience?

Design/methodology/approach

An exploratory-naturalistic case study methodology was used to examine the entrepreneurial journey of the Boruca. Data were collected from in-depth semi-structured and unstructured interviews among 10 informants over a five-year period. Constant comparative method was used to analyze the data.

Findings

Due to the need to survive, the Boruca engaged in entrepreneurial thought and action, which, in turn, led to the development of community, cultural and economic resilience. The authors developed a conceptual model to illustrate how individual resiliency gained through entrepreneurial thought and action led to community, cultural and economic resiliency of the Boruca.

Research limitations/implications

This paper examines the entrepreneurial journey of one of the eight indigenous tribes of Costa Rica. Future research should expand their sample to include the other indigenous contexts.

Practical implications

From a practical standpoint, this paper suggests the need for entrepreneurial training among indigenous businesses as a key factor in developing resiliency. This is applicable for non-profit, for-profit and public organizations interested in preserving world ethnic cultures and empowering indigenous people.

Social implications

Gaining deeper and richer insights into the linkages of resilience and entrepreneurial success is important for supporting efforts of those seeking to forge pathways out of poverty.

Originality/value

This paper suggests a different view of the relationship between resilience and entrepreneurship when the context is outside of the resource-rich context of the developed world.

Details

Journal of Enterprising Communities: People and Places in the Global Economy, vol. 11 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1750-6204

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Article
Publication date: 11 January 2019

Anupama Vohra and Neha Bhardwaj

The purpose of this study is to outline a conceptual framework for customer engagement in the context of social media for emerging markets. Three competing models of…

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Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this study is to outline a conceptual framework for customer engagement in the context of social media for emerging markets. Three competing models of customer engagement were identified and tested to arrive at the best suited model for the given contexts. The alternative conceptual frameworks involve the constructs of active participation, community trust and community commitment in relation to customer engagement.

Design/methodology/approach

Data were collected using questionnaires sent via e-mail to respondents. Structural equation modelling was then used to arrive at the best suited model, while also empirically testing for the relationships among the constructs.

Findings

The study, by way of an empirical comparison of alternative conceptual frameworks, presents a customer engagement framework best suiting the social media context for emerging markets. The study also outlines active participation, community trust and community commitment to be acting as antecedents to customer engagement. Further active participation is identified as a necessary antecedent to customer engagement based on the comparative assessment of the frameworks.

Research limitations/implications

While there is not much consensus on the nature of customer engagement, the study offers insights to marketers in terms of managing customer engagement with their brand communities. The study identifies the role and importance of inducing active participation in a brand community context. Further, it also identifies community trust and community commitment to be occurring as antecedents to customer engagement, with commitment implying for a more pronounced role in the framework.

Originality/value

There is no consensus among researchers regarding the nomological network surrounding customer engagement. Further, very few of these studies have focussed on this construct in the context of emerging markets. This study thus attempts to close the above gap, by testing for alternative conceptual frameworks involving customer engagement, in the context of social media for emerging markets.

Details

Journal of Research in Interactive Marketing, vol. 13 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2040-7122

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Article
Publication date: 7 June 2011

Sean P. Goggins, James Laffey and Michael Gallagher

This paper has two purposes. First, to provide insight into the formation of completely online small groups, paying special attention to how their work practices develop…

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4296

Abstract

Purpose

This paper has two purposes. First, to provide insight into the formation of completely online small groups, paying special attention to how their work practices develop, and how they form identity. Second, to pursue conceptual development of a more multi‐level view of completely online group experience, which can be made visible through analysis of the unique interaction logging system used in this study.

Design/methodology/approach

The authors conduct a mixed methods study that integrates interviews, grounded theory analysis, case study methods and social network analysis to build a multi‐layered view of completely online group and community development.

Findings

Completely online group formation is explicated as a socio‐technical system. The paper identifies themes of tool uptake and use, and patterns of interaction that accompany group formation and development of completely online group practices. These patterns show little respect for the boundaries of space and time. It then shows how groups who are paired together for two non‐sequential activities develop a common internal structural arrangement in the second activity, and are viewable as groups in the larger course context in four of six cases.

Research limitations/implications

The time bounded nature of the group and community, combined with the educational context limit the generalizability of these findings.

Practical implications

The study shows how completely online group development can be made visible. Managers of work teams and teachers who work with classrooms in completely online contexts need to recognize the dynamic structure and interaction practices of completely online teams.

Originality/value

First, little research has been conducted on completely online group formation. Second, a conceptual understanding of how group members relate to one another and how groups interact with other groups in the same socio‐technical context is not explored in prior work. Third, the paper performs this analysis including data from rich, contextualized usage logs, which enables greater insight into online group interactivity than prior research.

Details

Information Technology & People, vol. 24 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0959-3845

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Book part
Publication date: 12 May 2017

Mitsuru Kodama

This chapter discusses the theoretical framework of the strategic knowledge creation process for realizing business innovation. It presents an explanation of the…

Abstract

This chapter discusses the theoretical framework of the strategic knowledge creation process for realizing business innovation. It presents an explanation of the relationship between the concept of the business community that originates with the formation of “Ba” (which is required in the formulation and execution of the strategic knowledge creation process) and the strategic knowledge creation process. The chapter also analyzes and examines the theoretical framework where the holistic leadership of practitioners achieves new business innovation through the formation of a business community, which is the organizational platform for practicing strategic knowledge creation, that is, the sharing, inspiration, creation, and stockpiling of knowledge.

In particular, the chapter presents a dynamic, theoretical framework where all practitioners at every level of management demonstrate holistic leadership across a three-layered structure (three practice layers) including the formal organization layer, the informal organization layer, and the psychological boundary layer to connect elements for formulating and executing macro and micro strategies and the business community, which has its origins in the formation of “Ba,” to drive the strategic knowledge creation processes.

Details

Developing Holistic Leadership
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78714-421-7

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Book part
Publication date: 25 July 2008

Rhonda L.P. Koster

Towns and cities across Canada face rapidly changing economic circumstances and many are turning to a variety of strategies, including tourism, to provide stability in…

Abstract

Towns and cities across Canada face rapidly changing economic circumstances and many are turning to a variety of strategies, including tourism, to provide stability in their communities. Community Economic Development (CED) has become an accepted form of economic development, with recognition that such planning benefits from a more holistic approach and community participation. However, much of why particular strategies are chosen, what process the community undertakes to implement those choices and how success is measured is not fully understood. Furthermore, CED lacks a developed theoretical basis from which to examine these questions. By investigating communities that have chosen to develop their tourism potential through the use of murals, these various themes can be explored. There are three purposes to this research: (1) to acquire an understanding of the “how” and the “why” behind the adoption and diffusion of mural-based tourism as a CED strategy in rural communities; (2) to contribute to the emerging theory of CED by linking together theories of rural geography, rural change and sustainability, and rural tourism; and (3) to contribute to the development of a framework for evaluating the potential and success of tourism development within a CED process.

Two levels of data collection and analysis were employed in this research. Initially, a survey of Canadian provincial tourism guides was conducted to determine the number of communities in Canada that market themselves as having a mural-based tourism attraction (N=32). A survey was sent to these communities, resulting in 31 responses suitable for descriptive statistical analysis, using Statistical Package for the Social Sciences (SPSS). A case study analysis of the 6 Saskatchewan communities was conducted through in-depth, in person interviews with 40 participants. These interviews were subsequently analyzed utilizing a combined Grounded Theory (GT) and Content Analysis approach.

The surveys indicated that mural development spread within a relatively short time period across Canada from Chemainus, British Columbia. Although tourism is often the reason behind mural development, increasing community spirit and beautification were also cited. This research demonstrates that the reasons this choice is made and the successful outcome of that choice is often dependent upon factors related to community size, proximity to larger populations and the economic (re)stability of existing industry. Analysis also determined that theories of institutional thickness, governance, embeddedness and conceptualizations of leadership provide a body of literature that offers an opportunity to theorize the process and outcomes of CED in rural places while at the same time aiding our understanding of the relationship between tourism and its possible contribution to rural sustainability within a Canadian context. Finally, this research revealed that both the CED process undertaken and the measurement of success are dependent upon the desired outcomes of mural development. Furthermore, particular attributes of rural places play a critical role in how CED is understood, defined and carried out, and how successes, both tangible and intangible, are measured.

Details

Advances in Culture, Tourism and Hospitality Research
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-84950-522-2

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Article
Publication date: 18 July 2019

Mir Shahid Satar

There has been a substantial realization of the importance of community engagement (CE) for social enterprise (SE) missions. However, the emerging literature on CE in…

Abstract

Purpose

There has been a substantial realization of the importance of community engagement (CE) for social enterprise (SE) missions. However, the emerging literature on CE in social enterprises is riddled with theoretical inconsistencies and there is universal lack of studies in this direction. For the sake of advancing the field, the purpose of this paper is to identify and analyze the elements of CE in SEs. Further, a comprehensive preliminary model is developed integrating the five fundamental dimensions of CE in SE setting.

Design/methodology/approach

The paper is based on the critical analysis of the extant literature across disciplines to identify the relevant themes that can affect the CE in SEs.

Findings

The paper develops a preliminary social enterprise community engagement model (SE-CEM), which results from a broad literature analysis. The proposed model attempts to offer a comprehensive perspective outlining the institutional, organizational, individual, community and process dimensions likely to predict engagement success in SE context.

Originality/value

This paper pioneers in presenting a holistic approach to understanding the dimensions that constitute CE in SEs. The SE-CEM incorporates the determinants of CE in social entrepreneurship (S-ENT) context to direct a future research agenda. The preliminary model can further be developed and empirically tested by researchers. Moreover, practitioners can also gain benefits from the model and promote S-ENT.

Details

Journal of Enterprising Communities: People and Places in the Global Economy, vol. 13 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1750-6204

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Article
Publication date: 10 July 2019

Brita Backlund Rambaree

The purpose of this paper is to examine corporate social responsibility (CSR) content in the context of four differing national institutional arrangements for welfare. An…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to examine corporate social responsibility (CSR) content in the context of four differing national institutional arrangements for welfare. An analysis is presented on how self-reported CSR differs in content across two western welfare states (the UK and Sweden) and two emerging economies in southern Africa (South Africa and Mauritius).

Design/methodology/approach

This paper is based on a qualitative content analysis of the CSR self-reporting of 40 companies. This involved 10 of the largest companies incorporated in four countries, namely, Sweden, the UK, South Africa and Mauritius. The content is categorised into community involvement, socially responsible production and socially responsible employee relations. For each category, an analysis is provided of the reported issues (the question of what), the geographic focus of reported issues (the question of where) and ways of working with these issues (the question of how), as well as the extent of reporting and level of reporting (the question of how much).

Findings

The study shows that companies place focus on aspects, issues and localities in ways that differ between countries and can be understood in relation to current institutional arrangements for welfare. The content of self-reported CSR can be both complementing and mirroring the welfare arrangements. Differences in self-reported CSR agendas are particularly evident between the two western welfare states on the one hand and the two emerging economies on the other, as these represent two distinct contexts in terms of welfare arrangements.

Originality/value

This paper contributes to research on the institutional embeddedness of CSR in three ways: first, by going beyond measures of country differences in terms of extent of CSR to consider differences in CSR content; second, by focusing on the social aspects of CSR and placing these differences in relation to welfare configurations; and third, by contributing with empirical findings on how CSR content differs across national settings and across the established/emerging economy divide.

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Book part
Publication date: 23 September 2016

Reed E. Nelson, Anderson Santana and Matthew S. Wood

Entrepreneurship involves complex interactions between individuals and environments but there is little research on these dynamics. We address this gap by conducting an…

Abstract

Entrepreneurship involves complex interactions between individuals and environments but there is little research on these dynamics. We address this gap by conducting an inductive qualitative study of entrepreneurs in the exclusive tourist destination of Tiradentes, Brazil. Tiradentes has a unique architectural, cultural, and economic heritage that serves as a unique sociocultural backdrop that influences entrepreneurs’ models of start-up thinking and action. Specifically, our investigation revealed that entrepreneurs’ backgrounds (native vs. nonnative) and social identities come together with the sociocultural fabric of the community in a way that moved them towards a “Joia” or “Bijuteria” orientation, each of which were associated with a distinct mindset. This diversity had implications for entrepreneurs’ conceptualizations of start-up models possible within the backdrop of Tiradentes sociocultural fabric and this influenced the actions entrepreneurs took such as the geographic location chosen for the business and the business practices used. We discovered that entrepreneurs favoring one orientation over another tended to occupy predictable physical and social positions in the community while also espousing similar values and perspectives. These results are used to elaborate the theory on the link between the external and internal explanation for entrepreneurial thinking and action. The net effect is new understanding regarding ways models of start-up thinking and action can be investigated.

Details

Models of Start-up Thinking and Action: Theoretical, Empirical and Pedagogical Approaches
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78635-485-3

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Article
Publication date: 17 May 2021

Sophie Hennekam, Pauline de Becdelièvre and François Grima

This study examines how the collective construction of career sustainability takes place through a career community of interim managers.

Abstract

Purpose

This study examines how the collective construction of career sustainability takes place through a career community of interim managers.

Design/methodology/approach

We draw on 31 interviews with interim managers who are part of a career community in the form of a professional association of interim managers in France.

Findings

The findings show the importance of career communities as a vehicle through which to create a sustainable career. More specifically, we show that occupational career communities provide mutual and reciprocal career support, collective being and belonging through sense-making as well as collective learning leading to the collective creation of a sustainable career.

Originality/value

We add to the literature on sustainable careers by providing a collective community-level analysis and make a theoretical contribution by using the concept of career communities in shedding light on the career sustainability of interim managers. In the light of the increase in non-standard forms of employment, career communities might become an interesting vehicle for career management and development.

Details

Personnel Review, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0048-3486

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Book part
Publication date: 21 May 2009

Claudia Bird Schoonhoven and Elaine Romanelli

Although a growing body of literature that we will discuss later in the paper gives evidence of changing perspectives on entrepreneurship – perspectives that reveal…

Abstract

Although a growing body of literature that we will discuss later in the paper gives evidence of changing perspectives on entrepreneurship – perspectives that reveal increasing emphasis on the collectivity – two troubling themes persist: (1) the “myth of the lonely only entrepreneur,” and (2) the supply versus demand perspectives on mass entrepreneurial activity. In the sections that follow, we briefly describe these perspectives and argue that they have long since overstayed their welcome.

Details

Entrepreneurial Strategic Content
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-84855-422-1

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