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Article
Publication date: 1 February 1990

Gordon Wills, Sherril H. Kennedy, John Cheese and Angela Rushton

To achieve a full understanding of the role ofmarketing from plan to profit requires a knowledgeof the basic building blocks. This textbookintroduces the key concepts in…

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11642

Abstract

To achieve a full understanding of the role of marketing from plan to profit requires a knowledge of the basic building blocks. This textbook introduces the key concepts in the art or science of marketing to practising managers. Understanding your customers and consumers, the 4 Ps (Product, Place, Price and Promotion) provides the basic tools for effective marketing. Deploying your resources and informing your managerial decision making is dealt with in Unit VII introducing marketing intelligence, competition, budgeting and organisational issues. The logical conclusion of this effort is achieving sales and the particular techniques involved are explored in the final section.

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Management Decision, vol. 28 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0025-1747

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Article
Publication date: 13 November 2017

Alfonso Siano, Maria Palazzo, Pantea Foroudi and Agostino Vollero

The aim of this conceptual paper is to review Bernstein’s communication wheel to make it a tool that can be used in the selection of a corporate communication mix.

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1485

Abstract

Purpose

The aim of this conceptual paper is to review Bernstein’s communication wheel to make it a tool that can be used in the selection of a corporate communication mix.

Design/methodology/approach

A critical analysis of Bernstein’s communication wheel shows it to be a checklist, a starting point in the examination of corporate communication mix, but it is not as such of great help to the decision maker.

Findings

The findings of reviewing literature highlight that the principle of a clear distinction between strategic decisions and operational decisions is applicable also in the field of corporate communication. For each stakeholder relationship, the authors’ framework suggests typical combinations of activities and means to be used. These combinations are useful to experiment with expert systems which are functional to the choices of corporate communication mix.

Practical implications

The analysis of communication gaps gives directions for formulating strategic decisions. In this framework, tactical decisions concern the components of the communication mix architecture (or communication chain): activities, means and vehicles of communication. On the contrary, Bernstein’s communication wheel includes only generic channels (or media) and gives no indications as to the architecture of the communication mix.

Originality/value

This study illustrates the hierarchy of decisions relating to corporate communication mix, the communication wheel could also be useful in communication planning. If this assumption is held to be true it then becomes possible to lay out a framework for a progressive decision-making path that means making sequential choices (first strategic, then tactical). In the stakeholder approach, the aim of strategic decisions is to choose the stakeholder groups on which a firm has to focus its corporate communication activities.

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The Bottom Line, vol. 30 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0888-045X

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Article
Publication date: 1 March 1988

John Cheese, Abby Day and Gordon Wills

An updated version of the original (1985) text, the book covers all aspects of marketing and selling bank services: the role of marketing; behaviour of customers;…

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3223

Abstract

An updated version of the original (1985) text, the book covers all aspects of marketing and selling bank services: the role of marketing; behaviour of customers; intelligence, planning and organisation; product decisions; promotion decisions; place decisions; price decisions; achieving sales. Application questions help to focus the readers' minds on key issues affecting practice.

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International Journal of Bank Marketing, vol. 6 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0265-2323

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Article
Publication date: 6 March 2020

Soon-Ho Kim and Seonjeong Ally Lee

This study investigates relationships among components of the marketing communication mix, brand identification, brand image, brand love and brand loyalty. The focus of…

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1097

Abstract

Purpose

This study investigates relationships among components of the marketing communication mix, brand identification, brand image, brand love and brand loyalty. The focus of this study is advertisement spending, customers' attitudes toward the advertisement, monetary promotion and non-monetary promotion as marketing communication mix elements.

Design/methodology/approach

Proposed relationships are investigated with 683 previous coffee shop customers, based on a cross-section, online, self-administered survey in South Korea.

Findings

Results identify advertising spending, attitude toward the advertisement, monetary promotion, and non-monetary promotion play key roles in influencing brand identification; however, they do not influence brand image. Both brand identification and brand image further influence brand love on brand loyalty.

Originality/value

This study is the first to investigate the marketing communication mix elements in a coffee shop context.

Details

Journal of Hospitality and Tourism Insights, vol. 3 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2514-9792

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Article
Publication date: 1 July 1983

John A. Meenaghan

Argues that the general area of commercial sponsorship activity, while attracting increasing interest from marketing practitioners as an important strategic option in…

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7942

Abstract

Argues that the general area of commercial sponsorship activity, while attracting increasing interest from marketing practitioners as an important strategic option in marketing communications, has not been the subject of sufficiently rigorous and comprehensive investigation by theoreticians. States the purpose is to establish and consolidate the available body of knowledge combining an overview of the standard conceptual approaches to marketing communication with an examination of the recent academic research in sponsorship, while maintaining a focus on current marketplace practice. Argues for a coherent and structured approach to the management of sponsorship expenditure through the application of a ‘management by objectives’ approach. Parameters are established in terms of a working definition of sponsorship, a review of its commercial development and an overview of current activity. Develops a commercially ration framework within which sponsorship activity may be undertaken. Views objective‐setting as the cornerstone of sponsorship management and outlines a classification of sponsorship objectives that subsumes current practice clarifies the range of potential benefits. Examines the criteria that govern rational sponsorship selection and proposes an evaluation strategy based on stated criteria. Methods of evaluating effects of marketing communications (sponsorship particularly) are examined and new evaluation techniques are advanced to facilitate the implementation of this rigorous scientific approach.

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European Journal of Marketing, vol. 17 no. 7
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0309-0566

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Article
Publication date: 7 November 2019

Enrico Bonetti, Alberto Mattiacci and Michele Simoni

The purpose of this paper is to identify the communication patterns adopted by special organisations, called Producers’ Consortia, to promote Protected Designation of…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to identify the communication patterns adopted by special organisations, called Producers’ Consortia, to promote Protected Designation of Origin (PDO) products. In particular, the paper analyses the key differences among the communication patterns in terms of the task assigned to communication, the communication tools employed to convey key messages to customers and the amount of the budget allocated to the mix of communication.

Design/methodology/approach

The authors analysed the communication activities conducted by all the Italian Consortia (112 in total) over a period of four years. A centred log-ratio transformation (clr) was applied to make the compositional data treatable in the Euclidean space. A clustering procedure was then followed to identify the different communication patterns adopted by the Consortia. The authors adopted an analytical framework where different communication patterns of Consortia are identified by the mostly used types (traditional advertising, public relations and digital communication) and the corresponding aimed consumer response (i.e. awareness, attitude and engagement).

Findings

This paper identifies four relevant and different communication patterns that co-exist in the Italian PDO market. Each pattern responds to a different logic and focusses on a specific task assigned to communication: to increase the awareness of the PDO label, to improve the attitude towards the PDO products and to enhance the engagement with the PDO’s values.

Research limitations/implications

PDO products are key assets of a growing relevance for the European agri-food industry and consumer education is at the very core of the PDO labelling system. By law, the Consortia are in charge of the crucial task of communicating to customers. This research suggests that the communication of PDO is a complex activity that requires a careful choice of the right communication mix. Different patterns are driven by specific logic and are suitable for Consortia with different characteristics. Future research could complete the results of this study using a qualitative analysis of the content of communication activities. Caution should be used when generalising these findings to markets that present relevant differences in consumer food culture.

Practical implications

This research identifies some possible communication mixes that managers of the Consortia can adopt to promote PDO products and some options that can guide the development of their communication activities over time.

Originality/value

This work adds value to the literature on food marketing, and more specifically on food communication, by analysing the yet underexplored issue of how PDO products can be promoted in the “post-modern” food consumption era.

Details

British Food Journal, vol. 122 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0007-070X

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Article
Publication date: 9 November 2010

K. Prakash Vel and Ricky Sharma

The choice of a well‐planned integrated marketing communication (IMC) strategy is crucial for the successful launch of an event. This paper is a case‐study based…

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9572

Abstract

Purpose

The choice of a well‐planned integrated marketing communication (IMC) strategy is crucial for the successful launch of an event. This paper is a case‐study based description of how a brand management consultancy house, TMC, used IMC to launch a world music festival event in Abu Dhabi, UAE, in 2009, registering a visitorship of five‐times their target, 89 per cent satisfaction and a staggering 99 per cent of the visitors planning to visit the festival again in 2010.

Design/methodology/approach

A literature review on event marketing, megamarketing and integrated marketing communications is conducted to illustrate the challenges involved in launching communication campaigns in the marketing of events. Primary research was conducted by way of in‐depth interviews with TMH and the case study is developed based on the information furnished.

Findings

Event marketing requires the support of a well‐crafted IMC plan to realise the objectives set for the event. This paper brings out the role of public relations, direct marketing, social media networking, advertising and media planning in the IMC campaign launched by a brand management consultancy house and how it successfully achieved the objectives for the event.

Practical implications

Traditional communication media may not be sufficient to succeed in the current media clutter and over‐communicated market place. In this context, social networking media are emerging as a new media type and are an important addition to the current media. Understanding the target audience and preparing a customised media mix involving traditional and modern media may have a synergistic effect on end results.

Originality/value

The paper provides the marketers with an IMC perspective to analyse traditional and emerging media types and integrate them with a communications plan to optimise end results. In particular, the paper brings out the need for total customisation of media mix for different market conditions.

Details

Business Strategy Series, vol. 11 no. 6
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1751-5637

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Article
Publication date: 1 April 2001

John M.T. Balmer

Outlines 15 explanations for the fog which has enveloped the nascent domains of corporate identity and corporate marketing. However, the fog surrounding the area has a…

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43886

Abstract

Outlines 15 explanations for the fog which has enveloped the nascent domains of corporate identity and corporate marketing. However, the fog surrounding the area has a silver lining. This is because the fog has, unwittingly, led to the emergence of rich disciplinary, philosophical as well as “national”, schools of thought. In their composite, these approaches have the potential to form the foundations of a new approach to management which might be termed “corporate marketing”. In addition to articulating the author’s understanding of the attributes regarding a business identity (the umbrella label used to cover corporate identity, organisational identification and visual identity) the author outlines the characteristics of corporate marketing and introduces a new corporate marketing mix based on the mnemonic “HEADS”[2]. This relates to what an organisation has, expresses, the affinities of its employees, as well as what the organisation does and how it is seen by stakeholder groups and networks. In addition, the author describes the relationship between the corporate identity and corporate brand and notes the differences between product brands and corporate brands. Finally, the author argues that scholars need to be sensitive to the factors that are contributing to the fog surrounding corporate identity. Only then will business identity/corporate marketing studies grow in maturity.

Details

European Journal of Marketing, vol. 35 no. 3/4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0309-0566

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Article
Publication date: 1 December 2005

Gary Warnaby, David Bennison and Barry J. Davies

This paper investigates brand‐level marketing communications decisions of town centre‐based planned shopping centres in the UK.

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5307

Abstract

Purpose

This paper investigates brand‐level marketing communications decisions of town centre‐based planned shopping centres in the UK.

Design/methodology/approach

Following exploratory semi‐structured interviews with town centre‐based shopping centre managers, the main stage of the research comprised a postal questionnaire. This investigated two main areas: the nature of the process by which marketing/promotional activities were planned; and the actual “marketing” activities used by respondents (and their perceived importance), with particular reference to marketing communications activities. The questionnaire was administered to shopping centre managers in urban shopping destinations classified as major city, major regional, regional and sub‐regional in the Management Horizons Europe UK Shopping Index – 173 destinations in total across the whole of the UK.

Findings

The results are structured using Shimp's categories of general choices, specific choices and programme evaluation. Regarding general choices (i.e. targeting, objectives budgeting), centre positioning was regarded as very important and key target audiences were general public and media at the local/regional level. Objectives focused on raising centre profile and improving footfall. Centres spent an average of 13.6 per cent of operating budget on promotional activities. With regard to specific choices (i.e. mixing communication elements, creating messages), the most widely used promotional elements were found to be press and radio advertising, events and festivals, leaflets and other promotional literature and also public relations. Evidence of integration between communications elements existed although there is potential for greater synergy.

Originality/value

Research into the marketing of planned shopping centres has been somewhat lacking in comparison to other aspects of their operations. As centres face a more intensely competitive environment, the need for effective marketing and promotion is increasingly acknowledged, and this paper provides evidence of the current use of marketing activities in this context.

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International Journal of Retail & Distribution Management, vol. 33 no. 12
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0959-0552

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Article
Publication date: 1 March 2005

Charles Dennis, Tino Fenech and Bill Merrilees

The “4Ps” of the marketing mix have long been popular with students, tutors, trainers and practitioners as a learning and teaching aid. The purpose of this paper is to…

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12099

Abstract

Purpose

The “4Ps” of the marketing mix have long been popular with students, tutors, trainers and practitioners as a learning and teaching aid. The purpose of this paper is to present an equivalent tool for retail and e‐retail: “Sale the 7Cs”.

Design/methodology/approach

The approach is by reference to and synthesis of other authors’ versions of the marketing, retail and e‐retail mixes, distilled into a simplified framework.

Findings

The findings or outcome of the study are summarised into a framework that has seven components, linked by the “C” mnemonic. Starting with C1 for convenience; the framework also includes C2 for customer value and benefit, C3 for cost to the customer, C4 for computing and category management, C5 for customer franchise, C6 for customer care and service and C7 for communication and customer relationships. This simplified mnemonic is new for (e‐)retail.

Originality/value

Mini case examples are used to illustrate the applicability. These have a practical value for trainers and educators as specimen answers to activity exercises. Retailers may find the convenient 7Cs structure useful when planning strategies and tactics.

Details

International Journal of Retail & Distribution Management, vol. 33 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0959-0552

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