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Article
Publication date: 26 August 2014

Stephen E. Roulac

The questions of loan availability and pricing were considered from the perspectives of financial economic theory and practice as well as a survey of lenders capable of…

Abstract

Purpose

The questions of loan availability and pricing were considered from the perspectives of financial economic theory and practice as well as a survey of lenders capable of financing a one-year bridge loan to determine the market's willingness to make such a loan and what rate of interest would be charged. Utilizing the sources above, in conjunction with professional knowledge and industry contacts, 101 lenders were selected as representative of the universe of lenders who had the capacity to make directly or otherwise to arrange, a $192 million bridge loan. The survey of lenders involved interviews with 67 of the 86 selected lenders from 59 firms. The paper aims to discuss these issues.

Design/methodology/approach

Loan availability and pricing were considered from perspectives of financial economic theory and practice plus a survey to determine market's willingness to make a loan at what price. Utilizing professional knowledge and industry contacts, 101 lenders were selected as representative of those which had the capacity to make a $192 million bridge loan. When lenders were evaluated against criteria of size, product type, geographic territory, and willingness/capability to provide nonstandard loans, list selected for telephone interviews was narrowed, then subsequently expanded with referrals that led to identification of new potential lenders to be contacted.

Findings

Nine lenders offered conceptualized deal structures to provide the required financing. Though the price may be expensive, especially relative to what borrowers may wish to pay, financing is available. Developers’ and deal-makers’ protestations that “it's impossible,” should be discounted and rejected. Because the subject property is characterized by high-risk, it is logical conclusion that the lenders expressing a desire to provide the bridge loan would expect to earn a high return, meaning that the interest rate would approach, if not exceed, 20 percent.

Research limitations/implications

Because the nature of the research required that the specific identities of the building and the parties were not revealed, some lenders might decline to consider this financing opportunity. And, real world negotiation of financing terms could result in higher rates than quoted and/or disinclination of lenders to proceed. Because of very specialized circumstances surrounding this proprietary research, conducted subject to nondisclosure agreement, publication had to be deferred until those constraints no longer applied. Though the data are more than a decade old, this consideration does not compromise the relevance, validity, or generalizability of the findings.

Practical implications

Markets can accommodate transactions that might be perceived as improbable. Investors which approach opportunities with creativity and open mind, can make deals that would not be possible, were strict, rigid, unbending eligible deal preference parameters to be employed. Strategists establishing policies for real estate enterprises should insist on progressive, expansive thinking in turning the scope of their potential venture involvements. Real estate education and training should address more attention to financial economic theory, strategic initiative, and creative deal making, which priority topics are too seldom prioritized, with the consequence that too many in real estate think narrowly rather than expansively.

Social implications

This research substantiates a fundamental theory of financial economics and refutes conventional applied wisdom. Seldom do researchers and investors have the opportunity to “get inside” the lending decision process for a large scale commercial property, especially one characterized by daunting circumstances and considerable complexity, such as studied here. A unique real world date set – not normally accessible to property scholars – enables study of the proposition that every commodity has a price, no matter how severe or difficult the circumstances, in a manner fully congruent with the new AACSB Business School Deans policy emphasis on relevance in addition to rigor.

Originality/value

As commercial mortgages much less studied than residential mortgages, this paper is significant addition to undeveloped segment of literature. As the majority of mortgage finance research, estimated to be in the range of 90 percent, has been limited to single family residential financing, the study of commercial mortgage financing is relatively under-researched. Further, the studies of commercial mortgage finance tend to be illustrative case studies with stylized facts rather than explorations of empiricism-based investigations. As most researchers engaged in exploring real estate topics limit themselves to public information, research that provides access to real world private transactions is especially important.

Details

Journal of Property Investment & Finance, vol. 32 no. 6
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1463-578X

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 1 February 1975

Peter Cooke

The monograph examines firstly the magnitude of demand for capital investment in individual items of distribution equipment—ships, aircraft and motor vehicles, It then…

Abstract

The monograph examines firstly the magnitude of demand for capital investment in individual items of distribution equipment—ships, aircraft and motor vehicles, It then concentrates on financing motor transport, examining the objectives of acquisition analysis and the relative importance of the company controlling its own fleet. Alternative methods of distributing the product are examined to show how transport involvement can be minimised according to the marketing strategy adopted. The monograph considers, in some detail, alternative approaches to commercial vehicle acquisition. The broad principles of the subject are discussed and three common methods presented—outright purchase, hire purchase and leasing. Worked examples are shown for each method, using discounted cash flow techniques and the net present costs of the alternatives compared. The final section of the paper examines the changing demand for capital in the company for transport from its launch as a one man operation through to the mature large organisation.

Details

International Journal of Physical Distribution, vol. 5 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0020-7527

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Article
Publication date: 28 December 2020

Salman Ahmed Shaikh

This study aims to propose a hybrid microfinance model that integrates various Islamic commercial and social finance institutions through Fintech for efficient and…

Abstract

Purpose

This study aims to propose a hybrid microfinance model that integrates various Islamic commercial and social finance institutions through Fintech for efficient and impactful results. The microfinance model caters to the financial and social intermediation needs through a set of financial services and non-financial support.

Design/methodology/approach

The study uses both a mathematical model and an empirical estimation using micro panel data to establish the core problem in microfinance operations. Conclusions from the mathematical model and estimated results in the empirical analysis are used to suggest an institutional design which embeds technology in the delivery of Islamic microfinance in an integrated structure. For screening and incentive conditions, the study gives illustration through numerical examples.

Findings

The mathematical model highlights the need for financial sustainability, outreach, scale and complementariness of non-financial factors such as commitment, repayment incentives and skills enhancement multiplier. In light of this, the proposed Islamic microfinance model is outlined to create synergies by integrating a diversity of funding sources through social savings and impact investments. The programme also blends financial services with non-financial support to ensure engagement and commitment on a long-term basis. It uses Fintech in various demand and supply-side operations to show how technology embeddedness can help in achieving cost efficiencies and extend outreach.

Originality/value

It is the first study in integrated institutional design in Islamic microfinance literature that embeds Fintech in both demand side and supply side operations comprehensively. The proposed model is conducive for enhancing outreach, scale and impact in the Islamic microfinancial services.

Details

Journal of Islamic Accounting and Business Research, vol. 12 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1759-0817

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 23 May 2008

Roza Hazli Zakaria and Abdul Ghafar Ismail

The purpose of this paper is to validate the concern that banks' increasing involvement in securitization activity restrains banks' lending, as well as their degree of…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to validate the concern that banks' increasing involvement in securitization activity restrains banks' lending, as well as their degree of risk tolerance. Theoretical frameworks claim that securitization reduces risk, hence decreasing banks' degree of risk aversion. Subsequently, banks would be motivated to increase their percentage of assets devoted to risky activities, which is lending to economic sectors. However, banking statistics dictates that banks' lending is on the decline while banks' securitization activities are on the rise.

Design/methodology/approach

The paper refers specifically to the Malaysian Islamic commercial banks and utilizes standard panel data analysis.

Findings

Supportive evidence was found that banks' involvement in securitization activity do restrain their lending activity. In addition, banks tend to have a riskier portfolio composition following their involvement in securitization activity. Taken together, this signals that banks' involvement in securitization activity needs to be regulated or restricted since excessive securitization activities could curtail credit and increase risk inherent in banks' lending portfolio.

Originality/value

This study departs from previous literature in the sense that an alternative method is introduced to measure banks' securitization activity.

Details

Humanomics, vol. 24 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0828-8666

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 9 October 2019

Nur Dyah Nastiti and Rahmatina Awaliah Kasri

The 2015 global economic crisis has triggered the issuance of several banking regulations in Indonesia, including those related to temporary stimulus for Islamic banks and…

Abstract

Purpose

The 2015 global economic crisis has triggered the issuance of several banking regulations in Indonesia, including those related to temporary stimulus for Islamic banks and branchless banking (fintech). However, few studies attempt to evaluate the effectiveness of such regulations. Thus, this study aims to determine the role and assess the effectiveness of such banking regulations.

Design/methodology/approach

The data used cover all 12 Islamic commercial banks in Indonesia during the stimulus period of Q3.2015 to Q2.2017. The variables included were banks’ fundamental factors (Islamic financing, capital adequacy ratio, investment, non-performing financing, return on asset, efficiency, financing deposit ratio and fintech) and macroeconomic variables (inflation, exchange rate and money supply). The model was analyzed by using multiple linear regressions with generalized least square estimation technique.

Findings

The main finding suggests that the stimulus regulation indeed played a positive role in the acceleration of Islamic bank financing. However, the fintech-related regulation was not yet effective to achieve the goal, at least in the short term. Furthermore, the study found that return of assets, operational efficiency, financing deposit ratio and money supply also influenced Islamic financing.

Practical implications

For policymakers, the effectiveness of the temporary stimulus in accelerating Islamic banking financing and preventing the possible negative impacts of the external crisis provides indications that the regulator could conduct similar policy in the future. More generally, the findings are also expected to enrich Islamic banking literature.

Originality/value

This is possibly one of the few studies to investigate the role and effectiveness of banking regulations on Islamic banking financing in Indonesia.

Details

International Journal of Islamic and Middle Eastern Finance and Management, vol. 12 no. 5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1753-8394

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 2 November 2015

Kevin Z Chen, Pramod K Joshi, Enjiang Cheng and Pratap S Birthal

The purpose of this paper is to synthesize lessons from the agricultural value chain models and their associated financing mechanisms in China and India as to provide…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to synthesize lessons from the agricultural value chain models and their associated financing mechanisms in China and India as to provide policy recommendations on how best to facilitate development of efficient and inclusive value chains.

Design/methodology/approach

The paper builds on a review of the existing literature on agricultural value chains and their financing mechanisms, and draws lessons from it for strengthening interface between product and financial markets in order to enable smallholders capture benefits of the value addition.

Findings

From the comparative review of value chain financing mechanisms and current policy contexts the authors find dominance of internal financing of value chains (in terms of provision of inputs, technology and services) in both the countries. Value chain finance from commercial banks and other financial institutions is limited and mainly through tripartite agreements among the financing institutions, lead firms and farmers.

Practical implications

The lessons drawn from various value chain models and their financing mechanisms provide feedback to financial institutions and policymakers to take measures to strengthen value chain finance in smallholder agriculture.

Originality/value

The paper undertakes a rigorous review of the existing value chain models and their financing mechanisms in light of the most recent research on emerging innovations and development strategies, in order to glean key lessons for policy recommendations on strengthening linkages between financial and product markets.

Details

China Agricultural Economic Review, vol. 7 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1756-137X

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 1 September 2000

Index by subjects, compiled by K.G.B. Bakewell covering the following journals: Facilities Volumes 8‐17; Journal of Property Investment & Finance Volumes 8‐17; Property…

Abstract

Index by subjects, compiled by K.G.B. Bakewell covering the following journals: Facilities Volumes 8‐17; Journal of Property Investment & Finance Volumes 8‐17; Property Management Volumes 8‐17; Structural Survey Volumes 8‐17.

Details

Facilities, vol. 18 no. 9
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0263-2772

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Article
Publication date: 1 March 2001

K.G.B. Bakewell

Compiled by K.G.B. Bakewell covering the following journals published by MCB University Press: Facilities Volumes 8‐18; Journal of Property Investment & Finance Volumes…

Abstract

Compiled by K.G.B. Bakewell covering the following journals published by MCB University Press: Facilities Volumes 8‐18; Journal of Property Investment & Finance Volumes 8‐18; Property Management Volumes 8‐18; Structural Survey Volumes 8‐18.

Details

Structural Survey, vol. 19 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0263-080X

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Article
Publication date: 1 March 2000

K.G.B. Bakewell

Compiled by K.G.B. Bakewell covering the following journals published by MCB University Press: Facilities Volumes 8‐17; Journal of Property Investment & Finance Volumes…

Abstract

Compiled by K.G.B. Bakewell covering the following journals published by MCB University Press: Facilities Volumes 8‐17; Journal of Property Investment & Finance Volumes 8‐17; Property Management Volumes 8‐17; Structural Survey Volumes 8‐17.

Details

Property Management, vol. 18 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0263-7472

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Article
Publication date: 1 September 2001

Index by subjects, compiled by K.G.B. Bakewell covering the following journals: Facilities Volumes 8‐18; Journal of Property Investment & Finance Volumes 8‐18; Property…

Abstract

Index by subjects, compiled by K.G.B. Bakewell covering the following journals: Facilities Volumes 8‐18; Journal of Property Investment & Finance Volumes 8‐18; Property Management Volumes 8‐18; Structural Survey Volumes 8‐18.

Details

Facilities, vol. 19 no. 9
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0263-2772

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