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Article

Jon S.T. Quah

The purpose of this paper is to explain why Botswana, Hong Kong Special Administrative Region, New Zealand, Rwanda and Singapore have succeeded in combating corruption and…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to explain why Botswana, Hong Kong Special Administrative Region, New Zealand, Rwanda and Singapore have succeeded in combating corruption and identify the lessons for policy makers in other countries.

Design/methodology/approach

The five countries are compared to identify the reasons for their success in combating corruption and the lessons that can be learnt by policy makers elsewhere.

Findings

Political will of the five governments is critical because combating corruption effectively requires them to provide the anti-corruption agencies (ACAs) with the necessary powers, budget, personnel and independence to enforce the anti-corruption laws impartially. New Zealand has succeeded in curbing corruption without an ACA because it relies on other institutions to maintain its good governance. Singapore’s rejection of the ineffective British colonial government’s method of using the police to curb corruption and its reliance on a single ACA was emulated by Hong Kong, Botswana and Rwanda. However, having a single ACA does not guarantee success unless it has the powers, budget, personnel and independence to perform its functions impartially as a watchdog instead of an attack dog against the government’s political opponents. As combating corruption remains a work in progress in the five countries, their policy makers must sustain their effective ACAs to meet the rising threat of private sector corruption.

Originality/value

The paper will be useful to scholars and policy makers concerned with improving the effectiveness of anti-corruption measures in those countries where corruption is rampant.

Details

Asian Education and Development Studies, vol. 6 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2046-3162

Keywords

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Article

Akume T. Albert and F.C. Okoli

This paper aims to assess if the Economic and Financial Crimes Commission (EFCC) has been effective in combating corruption in Nigeria from 2003-2012.

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to assess if the Economic and Financial Crimes Commission (EFCC) has been effective in combating corruption in Nigeria from 2003-2012.

Design/methodology/approach

The paper adopted a documentary analytical approach.

Findings

The organization has not been effective in combating corruption in Nigeria.

Research limitations/implications

The study is between 2003-2012.

Practical implications

There is a need to correct those identified inhibitors that undermined the Commission’s capacity, such as intrusive government interference, lack of autonomy, poor funding and weak laws, among others, to mitigate corruption.

Social implications

Eliminating those identified constraints will remove the incentive to be corrupt, thereby curbing the desire to be corrupt.

Originality/value

This paper is an original assessment of the EFCC's effectiveness in combating corruption in Nigeria during the specified period.

Details

Journal of Financial Crime, vol. 23 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1359-0790

Keywords

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Book part

Jon S. T. Quah

Singapore and Hong Kong are the least corrupt Asian countries according to their rankings and scores on Transparency International’s Corruption Perceptions Index in 2018…

Abstract

Singapore and Hong Kong are the least corrupt Asian countries according to their rankings and scores on Transparency International’s Corruption Perceptions Index in 2018 and other indicators. This chapter explains why these two city-states have succeeded in minimizing corruption and identifies the four best practices which might serve as lessons for policy-makers in other countries.

Details

Corruption in the Public Sector: An International Perspective
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-83909-643-3

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Article

Gerald Caiden

Official corruption has always plagued the conduct of public affairs and taxed every generation to keep it within reasonable bounds. Concerned governments have tried to…

Abstract

Purpose

Official corruption has always plagued the conduct of public affairs and taxed every generation to keep it within reasonable bounds. Concerned governments have tried to apply whatever available remedies came to hand with varying success. Yet whenever one of corruption's many manifestations seemed to diminish, so another would demand attention. Combating it was and remains a tireless affair requiring continual vigilance and experimentation. This paper seeks to address these issues.

Design/methodology/approach

The paper studies the history of official corruption and efforts to combat it.

Findings

This checkered history of anti‐corruption efforts shows how the repertoire of techniques expands and how the corrupt evade their application. This everlasting battle of wits depends much on how seriously people and governments take the challenge of corruption, the nature of how public power is exercised, the triumph in governance of self‐interest over the general public interest, the level of personal integrity particularly at the apex of society, and fortune in selection of right targets. Nothing succeeds like success which, given institutional and human weaknesses in local cultures, is so difficult to achieve.

Originality/value

The paper provides an original study of the history of official corruption, efforts to fight it and the problems that are encountered.

Details

Asian Education and Development Studies, vol. 2 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2046-3162

Keywords

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Book part

Gerald E. Caiden

In nature, the adaptable survive best. In human affairs, elites do better than others, much better when they take advantage of both fair and foul means to exercise public…

Abstract

In nature, the adaptable survive best. In human affairs, elites do better than others, much better when they take advantage of both fair and foul means to exercise public authority and influence. Where absolutism prevails, the disadvantaged cannot make much headway unless their betters make concessions to share communal treasures, govern responsibly and accountably, and refrain from abusing social norms. The evolution of the welfare democracy has brought about the greatest success in making communal benefits more accessible and attainable to all, recognizing the universal dignity and rights of every individual, and, above all, curbing corrupt institutions and practices wherever revealed. Although the ideals of the welfare democracy have been confined to relatively few countries, they illustrate what is achievable. They also have been active in convincing the international community to recognize two landmark United Nations conventions concerning both private and public sectors to strive for greater global success in combating corruption, despite unpromising circumstances and the many obstacles that still favor the corrupt and corrupted at everyone’s cost. Context is the most important variable. Success in curbing corruption requires the adaptation of reforms to the specific context. It cannot be imposed without thorough knowledge of the circumstances and devoted agents on the ground.

Details

Different Paths to Curbing Corruption
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78190-731-3

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Abstract

Details

Different Paths to Curbing Corruption
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78190-731-3

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Article

Mohammad I. Azim, Kuang Sheng and Meropy Barut

Combatting corruption is an important social and commercial issue in most human societies. Many researchers have revealed how an effective anti-corruption practice can…

Abstract

Purpose

Combatting corruption is an important social and commercial issue in most human societies. Many researchers have revealed how an effective anti-corruption practice can possibly minimise corruption in an organisation. However, studies focusing on organisations which are relatively successful in managing corruption at the employee level are relatively rare. On this note, this study aims to focus on Grameen Bank in particular, a Nobel-Prize-winning microfinance institute that was able to minimise its level of corruption among its employees in a country where corruption is the norm.

Design/methodology/approach

This paper uses standard economic theory to explain the perceptions and behaviours of the employees of Grameen Bank who live and work in a highly corrupt socio-cultural environment. This paper used questionnaires to ascertain the perceptions of Grameen Bank employees’ notions regarding corruption-combating behaviours. Interviews were also conducted among Grameen’s board members, managers and officers to further explore the nature and effectiveness of this organisation’s anti-corruption mechanisms.

Findings

Corruption can never be entirely eradicated; however, it can be diminished and opportunities for corruption can be minimised. This paper found, through an analysis of employees’ perceptions relating to governance and corruption in the Grameen Bank, that corruption exists, but there are systems in place to prevent it and to assist with staff morality. This research also uncovered a number of best practices in Grameen Bank’s governance to minimise corrupt behaviours, which include, but are not limited to, strong monitoring, decentralisation of authority, review of decision-making process, high internal audit intensity, impersonal punishment, anti-corruption cultures and transparency.

Originality/value

This study suggests that it is possible for organisations to resist corruption, especially microfinance institutions, even when they operate in a highly corrupt socio-cultural environment.

Details

Managerial Auditing Journal, vol. 32 no. 4/5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0268-6902

Keywords

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Article

Akume T. Albert

The purpose of this paper therefore is to identify and examine major issue-areas in law, prominent among which are the Plea-Bargain and S308 Immunity Clause, and how they…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper therefore is to identify and examine major issue-areas in law, prominent among which are the Plea-Bargain and S308 Immunity Clause, and how they impact the process of effectively combating corruption in Nigeria.

Design/methodology/approach

The paper uses documentary sources and analytical method to examine the issues involved.

Findings

The identified issue-areas are inhibitors rather than facilitators.

Research limitations/implications

The implication is that the government needs to change the existing laws to strengthen the fight against corruption.

Practical implications

This is to ensure that the war against corruption is strengthened and effective.

Social implications

To ensure that offenders face the full weight of the law for their action.

Originality/value

This paper is the author's original work and all references are appropriately acknowledged.

Details

Journal of Financial Crime, vol. 23 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1359-0790

Keywords

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Article

Jon S.T. Quah

The purpose of this paper is to analyse the contextual differences and causes of police corruption in Indonesia, Japan, the Philippines, South Korea and Taiwan and to…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to analyse the contextual differences and causes of police corruption in Indonesia, Japan, the Philippines, South Korea and Taiwan and to assess their governments’ effectiveness in minimising this problem.

Design/methodology/approach

The paper begins by identifying the contextual differences in the five countries before analysing their major causes of police corruption and their governments’ effectiveness in minimising it.

Findings

Police corruption is a more serious problem in Indonesia and the Philippines because of their more difficult governance environments, low salaries of police officers, red tape, lack of meritocracy in recruitment and promotion, and lack of accountability of police officers. By contrast, the perceived extent of police corruption has declined in Japan, South Korea and Taiwan in recent years because of the improvement in the salaries of their police officers and the implementation of various police reforms.

Originality/value

This comparative analysis of combating police corruption in five Asian countries will be of interest to policy makers and scholars concerned with minimising this problem.

Details

Asian Education and Development Studies, vol. 9 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2046-3162

Keywords

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Article

Michael Hylton and Gladys Young

The Caribbean countries referenced in the paper are parties to the Inter‐American Convention against Corruption and to its Follow‐up Mechanism (MESISIC). The convention…

Abstract

Purpose

The Caribbean countries referenced in the paper are parties to the Inter‐American Convention against Corruption and to its Follow‐up Mechanism (MESISIC). The convention has been in force for more than a decade, and the follow up mechanism has just completed its first round of review. The purpose of this paper is to provide timely and useful information as to the progress made in reducing corruption.

Design/methodology/approach

The paper discusses some of the legislative and other measures to combat corruption taking into account corruption perception indices. The MESISIC reports were the primary source of information for the purposes of this paper. Reference was also made to the corruption perception indices produced by Transparency International and the World Bank as well as reports in the local media in each country.

Findings

It is found that the countries reviewed have taken substantial steps to combat corruption. It is also noted, however, that there were many areas of weakness, in particular lack of enforcement. In the circumstances, it is concluded that the countries reviewed were not doing enough to combat corruption and that much more needed to be done.

Originality/value

The authors are not aware of any similar research or paper. This paper reviews and presents the position in all seven countries, and should be valuable to anyone who wishes to ascertain the steps which have been taken by these countries in relation to the fight against corruption.

Details

Journal of Financial Crime, vol. 14 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1359-0790

Keywords

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