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Article
Publication date: 6 July 2020

Johanna J. Schwartz, Joshua Hamel, Thomas Ekstrom, Leticia Ndagang and Andrew J. Boydston

Additive manufacturing (AM) methods such as material extrusion (ME) are becoming widely used by engineers, designers and hobbyists alike for a wide variety of…

Abstract

Purpose

Additive manufacturing (AM) methods such as material extrusion (ME) are becoming widely used by engineers, designers and hobbyists alike for a wide variety of applications. Successfully manufacturing objects using ME three-dimensional printers can often require numerous iterations to attain predictable performance because the exact mechanical behavior of parts fabricated via additive processes are difficult to predict. One of that factors that contributes to this difficulty is the wide variety of ME feed stock materials currently available in the marketplace. These build materials are often sold based on their base polymer material such as acrylonitrile butadiene styrene or polylactic acid (PLA), but are produced by numerous different commercial suppliers in a wide variety of colors using typically undisclosed additive feed stocks and base polymer formulations. This paper aims to present the results from an experimental study concerned with quantifying how these sources of polymer variability can affect the mechanical behavior of three-dimensional printed objects. Specifically, the set of experiments conducted in this study focused on following: several different colors of PLA filament from a single commercial supplier to explore the effect of color additives and three filaments of the same color but produced by three different suppliers to account for potential variations in polymer formulation.

Design/methodology/approach

A set of five common mechanical and material characterization tests were performed on 11 commercially available PLA filaments in an effort to gain insight into the variations in mechanical response that stem from variances in filament manufacturer, feed stock polymer, additives and processing. Three black PLA filaments were purchased from three different commercial suppliers to consider the variations introduced by use of different feed stock polymers and filament processing by different manufacturers. An additional eight PLA filaments in varying colors were purchased from one of the three suppliers to focus on how color additives lead to property variations. Some tests were performed on unprocessed filament samples, while others were performed on objects three-dimensional printed from the various filaments. This study looked specifically at four mechanical properties (Young’s modulus, storage modulus, yield strength and toughness) as a function of numerous material properties (e.g. additive loading, molecular weight, molecular weight dispersity, enthalpy of melting and crystallinity).

Findings

For the 11 filaments tested the following mean values and standard deviations were observed for the material properties considered: pa = 1.3 ± 0.9% (percent additives), Mw = 98.6 ± 16.4 kDa (molecular weight), Ð = 1.33 ± 0.1 (molecular weight dispersity), Hm = 37.4 ± 7.2 J/g (enthalpy of melting) and = 19.6 ± 2.1% (crystallinity). The corresponding mean values and standard deviations for the resulting mechanical behaviors were: E = 2,790 ± 145 MPa (Young’s modulus), E’ = 1,050 ± 125 MPa (storage modulus), Sy = 49.6 ± 4.93 MPa (yield strength) and Ut = 1.87 ± 0.354 MJ/m^3 (toughness). These variations were observed in filaments that were all manufactured from the same base polymer (e.g. PLA) and are only different in terms of the additives used by the manufacturers to produce different colors or different three-dimensional printing performance. Unfortunately, while the observed variations were significant, no definitive strong correlations were found between these observed variations in the mechanical behavior of the filaments studied and the considered material properties.

Research limitations/implications

These variations in mechanical behavior and material properties could not be ascribed to any specific factor, but rather show that the mechanical of three-dimensional printed parts are potentially affected by variations in base polymer properties, additive usage and filament processing choices in complex ways that can be difficult to predict.

Practical implications

These results emphasize the need to take processing and thereby even filament color, into account when using ME printers, they emphasize the need for designers to use AM with caution when the mechanical behavior of a printed part is critical and they highlight the need for continued research in this important area. While all filaments used were marked as PLA, the feedstock materials, additives and processing conditions created significant differences in the mechanical behavior of the printed objects evaluated, but these differences could not be accurately and reliably predicted as function of the observed material properties that were the focus of this study.

Originality/value

The testing methods used in the study can be used by engineers and creators alike to better analyze the material properties of their filament printed objects, to increase success in print and mechanical design. Furthermore, the results clearly show that as AM continues to evolve and grow as a manufacturing method, standardization of feedstock processing conditions and additives would enable more reliable and repeatable printed objects and would better assist designers in effectively implementing AM methods.

Details

Rapid Prototyping Journal, vol. 26 no. 7
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1355-2546

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Article
Publication date: 4 September 2017

Liliya Frolova, Alexander Pivovarov and Tatyana Butyrina

The purpose of this work is to study the patterns of pigment colour formation and to develop metal compositions for obtaining spinels using the precipitation and heat…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this work is to study the patterns of pigment colour formation and to develop metal compositions for obtaining spinels using the precipitation and heat treatment methods.

Design/methodology/approach

Precursor materials were prepared using co-precipitation method. Phase composition of pigments were determined by X-ray diffraction. Colour of pigments was determined spectrophotometry. Modelling of colour formation was performed using simplex method. Planning in the future to carry out full synthesis of pigments of blue, red and yellow colours.

Findings

The paper deals with the results of theoretical and experimental research on the synthesis pigments of blue, red and yellow colours based on Fe-Co-Al-O spinel. The influence of the chromophore cation content and the heat treatment temperature on optical and colour characteristics of pigments were studied.

Originality/value

The resulting composition-property diagrams make it possible to evaluate the effect of chromophore cations and heat treatment on the colour formation for Fe2O3-Al2O3-CoO system. Crystal-phase composition of the pigments is installed and its relationship with the optical colour characteristics. That makes it possible carry out targeted synthesis of pigments blue, red and yellow colours in further. The phase composition of pigments and its relationship with optical and colour properties has been established thus enabling the directed synthesis of blue, red and yellow pigments.

Details

Pigment & Resin Technology, vol. 46 no. 5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0369-9420

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Article
Publication date: 2 March 2012

Maja Stanic, Branka Lozo and Diana Gregor Svetec

The purpose of this paper is to evaluate and discuss colour properties, stability and lightfastness after accelerated exposure in xenon‐arc light apparatus, of 3D ink jet…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to evaluate and discuss colour properties, stability and lightfastness after accelerated exposure in xenon‐arc light apparatus, of 3D ink jet prints produced by using 3D colour printing process.

Design/methodology/approach

3D colour prints were produced using ZCorporation 3D printing method. The samples were divided into groups according to the finishing process applied (untreated, finished with different infiltrants). Colorimetric properties were measured using spectrophotometer. Samples were placed into xenon‐arc based weathering apparatus (Xenotest), using the preset glass filtered sunlight, standard indoor conditions. Colour stability was evaluated as change in colour after repeating the spectrophotometer measurements and comparing spectral and specific colorimetric values of initial and exposed samples.

Findings

Based on methodology used, the analysis has shown the changes in colour appearance of differently finished 3D prints, which were mostly attributed to chroma and lightness variations. The colour stability of samples studied noticeably varied and is dependent on colour, percentage of ink coverage and finishing method. Issues of colour and stability of 3D ink jet prints could become important as 3D printing emerges into new application areas, in which the object properties will need to be maintained for a certain amount of time.

Research limitations/implications

The research is comparative and is limited to the specific materials and procedures used.

Originality/value

The paper describes aspects of colour 3D printing for which the published research and literature data are still, for the most part, lacking. Colour measurements methodology and evaluation of stability described could be of value for further research and for users of the technology.

Details

Rapid Prototyping Journal, vol. 18 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1355-2546

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Article
Publication date: 6 July 2015

Maryam Ataeefard

This paper aims to investigate the effect of paper properties (whiteness, gloss and roughness) on colour laser printing quality. Paper characteristics have a significant…

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to investigate the effect of paper properties (whiteness, gloss and roughness) on colour laser printing quality. Paper characteristics have a significant influence on print quality and are crucial variables for predicting and reproducing colour.

Design/methodology/approach

Six kinds of paper with different properties were selected and the effects of the paper characteristics on the printed paper were studied. Samples were printed with cyan, magenta and yellow toner with a laser printer under identical conditions. The papers and printed papers were evaluated with atomic force microscope, scanning electron microscope, gloss-meter, spectrophotometer and densitometer.

Findings

Results showed that print quality is statistically dependent on paper type, and the average optical density of printed paper varied for different papers. Furthermore, the increase in the roughness and gloss of the papers in comparison to whiteness more significantly affected the optical density of paper by reducing it.

Practical implications

To achieve high-quality print, laser printing paper and toner require controlled characteristics.

Originality/value

For the first time, the present study evaluated the influence of paper properties on the quality of colour laser printing.

Details

Pigment & Resin Technology, vol. 44 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0369-9420

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Article
Publication date: 3 May 2016

Baolian Zhang, Zhenzhen Zhang, Xuening Fei, Yingchun Gu and Lu Yu

The purpose of the study reported in this paper was to prepare modified C.I. Pigment Red (PR) 170 to reduce production cost and improve application performance. The…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of the study reported in this paper was to prepare modified C.I. Pigment Red (PR) 170 to reduce production cost and improve application performance. The structure of the modified pigment was characterised. The colour strength, thermal stability, mobility, aqueous dispersability and ultraviolet (UV) resistance of modified pigments were studied.

Design/methodology/approach

Silica fume was added into the diazonium salt solution under acidic condition, followed by the activation to generate new surface. Subsequently, coupling component was dropwise added to the system to form the modified pigments evenly on the surface of silica fume in situ. The structure and properties of the modified pigment were studied by fourier transform infrared spectoscopy (FT-IR), X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), thermal gravity analysis (TG-DTA), UV-visible diffuse reflectance spectra (UV-Vis DRS), and commission internationale de L‘Eclairage (CIE L*a*b*) colour measurements.

Findings

The morphology and particle size of the modified pigment were controlled by the modification of the silica fume, and the organic pigment and silica fume formed a core–shell structure. The properties of the modified pigment including colour strength, thermal stability, mobility, aqueous dispensability and UV resistance were improved significantly.

Research limitations/implications

The effect of the amount of silica fume on the thickness of the organic pigment layer and the effect of the thickness of the organic pigment layer on the properties of the modified pigment need to be studied further.

Practical implications

This paper shows a feasible method of the modification of the PR170 with the silica fume, and the modification can improve the properties of the PR170. The use of silica fume to modify organic pigment can realise the reuse of solid waste and reduce the production cost of the organic pigment.

Social implications

This modification method of the organic pigment is adaptive and it can be adjusted to the modification of other species of the organic pigment.

Originality/value

The modification of the PR170 with the silica fume was carried out in its preparation process, which synchronised the preparation and modification of the organic pigment. The properties of the modified pigment were improved, which were beneficial for their application in inks and coatings.

Details

Pigment & Resin Technology, vol. 45 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0369-9420

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Article
Publication date: 5 August 2020

Akshita Agrawal and Sheetal Chopra

This paper aims to extract the dye colourant from teak leaves using different aqueous mediums (Alkaline, Neutral and Acidic); to characterize the dye in terms of yield %;…

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to extract the dye colourant from teak leaves using different aqueous mediums (Alkaline, Neutral and Acidic); to characterize the dye in terms of yield %; ash content and moisture content; to standardize the conditions of application of dye extracted from teak leaves on selected natural and synthetic fabrics using selected natural and chemical mordants; to assess the colour value (K/S, L*, c*/ h*, a*, b*) and fastness properties of the dyed samples in terms of wash, rub, light and perspiration fastness; and to develop dyed and printed designs using combinations of mordant and extracted dye.

Design/methodology/approach

Stage 1 – Extraction of dye from teak leaves; and characterization of dye: yield% ash content and moisture content. Stage 2 – Preparation of fabrics for dyeing; optimization of mordanting parameters using pre mordanting method followed by post mordanting; and optimization of dyeing parameters. Stage 3 – Testing of dyed fabric – Colour Measurement; K/S L*a*b*/L*c*h*; fastness properties; wash fastness done in the Laundrometer using ISO 2 standard test method; crock fastness done by Crockmeter using AATCC 116–1995 test method; perspiration fastness tested by perspirometer using AATCC 15– 2007 test method; and light fastness assessment in Mercury Bulb Tungsten Filament (MBTF) light fastness tester using AATCC Test Method 16–2004.

Findings

The findings of the study show that waste teak leaves can be used as an effective dye for natural as well as synthetic fabrics giving a wide range of colours on wool, silk and nylon. The maximum relative colour strength of the extracted dye on unmordanted dyed samples was found to be at pH 5 on wool and silk and at pH 7 on nylon. A range of shades was obtained with the use of different mordants. The extracted dye showed moderate to good fastness properties in terms of light, wash, rub and perspiration on wool and silk and excellent on nylon. Fastness properties were found to improve with the application of mordants both as pre and post method. Various combinations of mordants and dye result in obtaining pleasing and harmonious colours which were used aesthetically for printing.

Research limitations/implications

Due to time constrains, extraction in an organic medium could not be done, which could be a further scope for study.

Practical implications

Dyeing using teak leaves is a step towards sustainability and effective waste utilization with promising potential for application on natural as well as synthetic fabrics. Good colour with added properties will provide excellent solutions for eco-friendly methods of dyeing.

Social implications

This paper demonstrates the new possibilities offered by innovative uses of by-products of the timber industry and open good prospects for alternatives to synthetic colourants and new markets for the textile industry. It offers a new tool for the development of slow fashion.

Originality/value

It is a common practice to prune the tree branches to improve wood quality; thus, leaves are easily available as by product from pruning and also from wood harvesting. In the present study, waste teak leaves (Tectona grandis L.) were used for the extraction of dye.

Details

Research Journal of Textile and Apparel, vol. 24 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1560-6074

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Article
Publication date: 5 September 2016

Benjamin Tawiah, Liping Zhang, Anli Tian and Shai Shao Fu

The purpose of this paper is to colour aluminium pigment to the highest chroma using SiO2 and organic silane with dichlorotriazine reactive dye and investigate its…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to colour aluminium pigment to the highest chroma using SiO2 and organic silane with dichlorotriazine reactive dye and investigate its reaction mechanism, chemical stability and thermal properties to improve its applicability in surface coatings.

Design/methodology/approach

Aluminium pigment was encapsulated by the catalysed sol-gel method using SiO2, followed by modification with γ-glycidoxypropyltrimethoxysilane (GPTMS). Purified reactive dye (1-Amino-4-[3-(4,6-dichlorotriazin-2-ylamino)-4-sulfophenylamino]anthraquinone-2-sulfonic acid (X-BR)) was covalently immobilized onto modified SiO2 to obtain coloured aluminium pigment. The reaction mechanism, chemical stability and thermophysical properties were investigated by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscope, transmission electron microscope and thermogravimetric analyses (TGA).

Findings

The results showed that X-BR was covalently attached to modified Al/SiO2 with maximum colour grafting of 95 per cent when the dosage of GPTMS and X-BR per weight of modified Al/SiO2 was 25 and 15 per cent, respectively, at pH 8.5 and a temperature of 40°C. The coloured aluminium pigment had good chemical stability with excellent anti-migration properties in many solvents.

Research limitations/implications

The organic silane used required a careful control of pH to ensure maximum colour grafting efficiency meanwhile other silanes with amine groups could also be used effectively with different kinds of colorants besides reactive dyes.

Practical implications

The method used is less cumbersome and provides a simple route to preparing coloured aluminium pigment.

Originality/value

The use of organic-inorganic SiO2/γ- GPTMS with purified reactive dye to covalently colour aluminium pigment to the highest chroma is novel and will help advance the frontiers of knowledge on coloration of aluminium pigments.

Details

Pigment & Resin Technology, vol. 45 no. 5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0369-9420

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Article
Publication date: 1 February 2008

Xiuliang Hou, Li Wei, Xinlong Zhang, Huihui Wu, Qicheng Zhou and Shan-yuan Wang

Catechu liquor, which is deep brown-red in color, was purified with a micro-filtration membrane and the stability of catechu dye to different levels of temperatures and pH…

Abstract

Catechu liquor, which is deep brown-red in color, was purified with a micro-filtration membrane and the stability of catechu dye to different levels of temperatures and pH were investigated in this paper. The effects of the dyeing conditions on color characteristic values and color fastnesses of the dyed wool fabrics were also investigated. The results show that the liquor of catechu dye is stable at pH values of 3-7 and its color changes to a deeper brown-red when its pH value is above 8. The preferable dyeing conditions for wool fabric with refined powder catechu dye are as follows: dyeing temperature of 100±C, pH value of 6.5 for the dye bath and catechu dye of 1-4% (o.w.f).

The dyed wool fabric has good color fastnesses to washing, alkali perspiration and dry rubbing. However, its color fastness rating to wet rubbing is poor, ranging from 2-3. Further research will be needed on this aspect.

Details

Research Journal of Textile and Apparel, vol. 12 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1560-6074

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Article
Publication date: 3 January 2017

Monthon Nakpathom, Buppha Somboon, Nootsara Narumol and Rattanaphol Mongkholrattanasit

The present study aims to focus on the feasibility of using an aqueous extract from the fruit shell of Camellia oleifera Abel as a source of natural colourant in…

Abstract

Purpose

The present study aims to focus on the feasibility of using an aqueous extract from the fruit shell of Camellia oleifera Abel as a source of natural colourant in printing-paste preparation for pigment printing of cotton fabric. The effects of pre- and post-mordanting with three common metallic mordants, that is AlK(SO4)2, CuSO4 and FeSO4 on colour yield and colour fastness properties are also investigated.

Design/methodology/approach

The printing paste was prepared by mixing the concentrated Camellia oleifera Abel fruit shell extract solution with commercially available synthetic thickener and binder. The fabric sample was printed with the prepared printing paste using a flat-screen printing technique. To determine the effects of pre- and post-mordanting, AlK(SO4)2, CuSO4 and FeSO4 mordant aqueous solutions with various concentrations were applied using the pad-dry technique. Comparisons between printing with and without mordants were evaluated in terms of colour strength (K/S values) and colour fastness to washing, light, crocking and perspiration.

Findings

Without the mordants, the printed fabric had a yellowish brown shade with acceptable colour fastness properties, that is fair to good wash fastness, moderate light fastness, good to very good crocking fastness and fair to good perspiration fastness. The use of mordants, especially CuSO4 and FeSO4, not only enhanced colour strength but also imparted different colours to the fabric. Compared to the unmordanted fabrics, colour fastness properties were mostly comparable or improved in the mordanted fabrics depending on the type and concentration of mordants.

Research limitations/implications

Although in the case of CuSO4 the light fastness was increased to a good to very good level, it is recommended that the final print be produced with a concentration of less than 0.125 gL−1 to yield the print with the residual amount of Cu metal under the limit, that is less than 50 ppm as regulated by the Oeko-Tex® standard.

Practical implications

The obtained prints from Camellia oleifera Abel fruit shell extract provided shades with satisfactory colour fastness to washing, light, crocking and perspiration. The extract from Camellia oleifera Abel fruit shell has the potential to be used as an alternative to synthetic dye in the textile industry.

Originality/value

The use of Camellia oleifera Abel fruit shells, which are considered as abundant byproducts of tea seed oil production, as natural colouring agents for pigment printing of cotton fabric has been reported for the first time. It will minimise the environmental impact of this waste and create more valuable textile products.

Details

Pigment & Resin Technology, vol. 46 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0369-9420

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Article
Publication date: 22 October 2018

Monthon Nakpathom, Buppha Somboon, Nootsara Narumol and Rattanaphol Mongkholrattanasit

The purpose of this study is to investigate the possibility of dyeing polyester (PET) fabric with natural dye extracted from annatto seeds using high temperature dyeing method.

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this study is to investigate the possibility of dyeing polyester (PET) fabric with natural dye extracted from annatto seeds using high temperature dyeing method.

Design/methodology/approach

PET fabric was dyed with annatto extract by varying dyeing parameters (temperature, time, pH and dye concentration) to determine the optimum dyeing conditions. The influences of KAl(SO4)2, FeSO4, gallnut mordants or a commercial UV absorber on colour yield and fastness properties were further studied.

Findings

Optimum results were obtained when the fabric was dyed at 130°C for 30 min in a dyebath containing 15 per cent (owf) annatto dye at pH 6. The dyed fabric had an orange shade and exhibited good to excellent wash, crock, perspiration fastness and fair light fastness. Further dyeing with mordants or UV absorber mostly resulted in lower colour yield and similar fastness properties.

Research limitations/implications

Although the light fastness was slightly improved to moderate level for the sample with UV absorber, a noticeable colour staining on cotton portion of multi-fibre fabric occurred when subjected to standard washing test. Compared to C.I. Disperse Orange 73, the annatto dye exhibited comparable colour fastness but had inferior light fastness when dyed at approximately the same colour strength.

Originality/value

Natural colourants from annatto seeds can be used to dye PET fabric at high temperature without mordants, yielding deep orange shade and satisfactory fastness properties. This study provides a promising application to reduce the environmental impact of synthetic dyes.

Details

Pigment & Resin Technology, vol. 48 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0369-9420

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