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Article

Thomas M. Rice, Lara Troszak and Bryon G. Gustafson

Concerns about the risk of traffic collision injury to both police officers and bystanders are increasing as the use of in-vehicle technologies becoming widespread among…

Abstract

Purpose

Concerns about the risk of traffic collision injury to both police officers and bystanders are increasing as the use of in-vehicle technologies becoming widespread among agencies. This study used national and California data to characterize traffic collisions in which a police vehicle was involved. The paper aims to discuss these issues.

Design/methodology/approach

The authors used a California traffic collision database to retrospectively identify collisions that involved police vehicles for years 2007-2010. The authors summarized collision characteristics with descriptive methods and used log-binomial regression to estimate associations between personal and collision characteristics with officer culpability.

Findings

The authors identified 5,233 traffic collisions in California. In total, 10 percent of law enforcement vehicles were motorcycles. In all, 9 percent of cruisers struck a pedestrian or bicyclist, compared with only 2 percent of motorcycles. Compared with officers aged 50 or older, officers in younger age categories were progressively much more likely to have been culpable. Motorcycle officers were 33 percent less likely to be culpable for their collision involvements. Approximately 100 fatal collisions involving a law enforcement vehicle occur each year in the USA.

Originality/value

The findings from this study indicate that approximately 1,300 injury-producing traffic collisions occur each year in California that involve a law enforcement vehicle. The authors found that younger age, female sex, cruiser operation, traveling unbelted, and single-vehicle collision involvement were positively associated with officer culpability. Officer race and community population were not significantly associated with culpability. The occurrence of fatal collisions in the USA was stable over a 12-year period.

Details

Policing: An International Journal of Police Strategies & Management, vol. 38 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1363-951X

Keywords

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Article

G. Stylios and T.R. Wan

This paper presents a new technique for collision detection between fabric and fabric or fabric and body, applied on our physical‐based fabric drape model. The technique…

Abstract

This paper presents a new technique for collision detection between fabric and fabric or fabric and body, applied on our physical‐based fabric drape model. The technique can produce a realistic 3D virtual fashion show based on fabric mechanical properties and has the ability to handle the collision of clothing with an animated synthetic human. The collision technique appeared efficient and reliable when dealing with complex cases of fabric deformation. A full implementation of the drape model, collision detection with an animated human model is also described and discussed.

Details

International Journal of Clothing Science and Technology, vol. 10 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0955-6222

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Article

Shujun Lu and Jae H. Chung

Aims to make an industrial robot work human‐friendly while coexisting with humans in a same working space, without any modification of the manipulator hardware as well as…

Abstract

Purpose

Aims to make an industrial robot work human‐friendly while coexisting with humans in a same working space, without any modification of the manipulator hardware as well as its motion controller.

Design/methodology/approach

Presents a weighted path planning approach based on collision detection for a robot sharing the same workspace with humans. Using a base and wrist force/torque sensors, a model‐based method is investigated to estimate the collision force and collision position on the manipulator; then a weighted path planning approach is developed to control the human‐robot interaction. Simulation experiments, with collisions between the manipulator and static objects and moving objects, are conducted to validate the efficacy of the method.

Findings

The experimental results illustrate the validity of the developed collision detection and planning scheme and make it possible for industrial robots to work safely around humans. The proposed weighted path planner (WPP) outperforms other three path planners.

Originality/value

Introduces the WPP based on collision detection. The wrist and base force/torque sensors configuration has the friction free benefit, and the developed method does not modify the existing designs of industrial robots. The contact force is well controlled under the human pain tolerance limit, through the modification of the desired path, and does not need torque control which is usually not available to industrial robots.

Details

Industrial Robot: An International Journal, vol. 32 no. 6
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0143-991X

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Article

In Hwan Sul

The purpose of this paper is to develop a new and simple methodology for fabric collision detection and response.

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to develop a new and simple methodology for fabric collision detection and response.

Design/methodology/approach

A 3D triangle‐to‐triangle collision problem was converted to simple 2D point‐in‐triangle problem using pre‐computed 4×4 transformation matrices. The object space was partitioned using voxels to find easily collision pair triangles. k‐DOP was used to find inter‐pattern collisions.

Findings

Complex 3D collision detection problem is solved by simple matrix operations. Voxel‐based space partitioning and k‐DOP‐based hierarchical methods are successfully applied to garment simulation.

Originality/value

This paper shows that the collision matrix method can cover from triangle‐to‐point to triangle‐to‐triangle collision with mathematical validity and can be simply implemented in garment simulation.

Details

International Journal of Clothing Science and Technology, vol. 22 no. 2/3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0955-6222

Keywords

Abstract

Details

The Handbook of Road Safety Measures
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-84855-250-0

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Abstract

Details

The Handbook of Road Safety Measures
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-84855-250-0

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Article

Yuxue Jin, Jie Geng, Zhiyi He, Chuan Lv and Tingdi Zhao

Virtual maintenance simulation is of great importance to help designers find and avoid design problems. During its simulation phase, besides the high precision…

Abstract

Purpose

Virtual maintenance simulation is of great importance to help designers find and avoid design problems. During its simulation phase, besides the high precision requirement, collision detection must be suitable for all irregular objects in a virtual maintenance environment. Therefore, in this paper, a collision detection approach is proposed based on encapsulation for irregular objects in the virtual maintenance environment.

Design/methodology/approach

First, virtual maintenance simulation characteristics and several commonly used bounding boxes methods are analyzed, which motivates the application of encapsulation theory. Based on these, three different encapsulation methods are oriented to the needs of simulation, including encapsulation of rigid maintenance objects, flexible maintenance objects and maintenance personnel. In addition, to detecting collisions accurately, this paper divides the detection process into two stages. That is, in the first stage, a rough detection is carried out and then a tiny slice space is constructed to generate corresponding capsule groups, which will be redetected in the secondary stage. At last, several case studies are applied to illustrate the performance of the methodology.

Findings

The automatic construction algorithm for bounding boxes can be adapted to all forms of objects. The number of detection primitives are greatly reduced. It introduces the reachable space of the human body in maintainability as the collision search area.

Originality/value

The advantages of virtual maintenance simulation could also be advantageous in the industry with further studies. The paper believes this study is of particular interest to the readers of your journal.

Details

Assembly Automation, vol. 41 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0144-5154

Keywords

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Article

KerryAnn O’Meara and Dawn Culpepper

Using the lens of social physics, this study aims to examine how, if at all, one graduate training program fostered collisions or meaningful interactions, between students…

Abstract

Purpose

Using the lens of social physics, this study aims to examine how, if at all, one graduate training program fostered collisions or meaningful interactions, between students and faculty from different disciplinary backgrounds.

Design/methodology/approach

Qualitative, ethnographic case study methods.

Findings

The University of Maryland’s National Research Traineeship program fostered collisions between students and faculty from different disciplinary backgrounds by facilitating exploration, idea flow and engagement within an interdisciplinary scholarly community. These collisions generated productive opportunities for student learning, development and collaborations, but at times also produced non-generative outcomes.

Practical implications

This study names specific, strategic activities (e.g. regular research talks, physical space) that graduate programs can use to facilitate interdisciplinary collaborations among students and faculty and considers the extent to which such activities contribute to organizational change.

Originality/value

This paper applies new theories (collisions and social physics) to understanding interdisciplinary collaboration and identifies aspects of graduate training programs that may be replicable in other institutional settings.

Details

Studies in Graduate and Postdoctoral Education, vol. 11 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2398-4686

Keywords

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Article

Pengcheng Wang, Dengfeng Zhang and Baochun Lu

This paper aims to address the collision problem between robot and the external environment (including human) in an unstructured situation. A new collision detection and…

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to address the collision problem between robot and the external environment (including human) in an unstructured situation. A new collision detection and torque optimization control method is proposed.

Design/methodology/approach

Firstly, when the collision appears, a second-order Taylor observer is proposed to estimate the residual value. Secondly, the band-pass filter is used to reduce the high-frequency torque modeling dynamic uncertainty. With the estimate information and the torque value, a variable impedance control approach is then synthesized to guarantee that the collision is avoided or the collision will be terminated with different contact models and positions. However, in terms of adaptive linear force error, the variation of the thickness of the boundary layer is controlled by the new proximity function.

Findings

Finally, the experimental results show the better performance of the proposed control method, realizing the force control during the collision process.

Originality/value

Origin approach and origin experiment.

Details

Industrial Robot: the international journal of robotics research and application, vol. 47 no. 6
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0143-991X

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Article

Honggang Wang, Shanshan Wang, Jia Yao, Ruoyu Pan, Qiongdan Huang, Hanlu Zhang and Jingfeng Yang

The purpose of this paper is to study how to improve the performance of RFID robot system by anti-collision algorithms. For radio frequency identification (RFID) robots…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to study how to improve the performance of RFID robot system by anti-collision algorithms. For radio frequency identification (RFID) robots operating in mobile scenes, effective anti-collision algorithm not only reduces missed reading but also enhances the speed of RFID robots movement.

Design/methodology/approach

An effective anti-collision algorithm is proposed to accelerate tag identification in RFID robots systems in this paper. The tag collisions in the current time slot are detected by a new method, and then further resolve each small tag collision to improve system throughput, rather than the total tags number estimation. After the reader detected the collision, three different collision resolution methods were described and studied, and the situation of missing tag caused by reader moving is also discussed.

Findings

The proposed algorithm achieves theoretical system throughput of about 0.48, 0.50 and 0.61 and simulates to show that the proposed algorithm performance is significantly improved compared with the existing ALOHA-based algorithm.

Originality/value

The proposed RFID anti-collision algorithm is beneficial to improve the moving speed and identification reliability of the RFID robots in complex environments.

Details

Assembly Automation, vol. 40 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0144-5154

Keywords

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