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Article
Publication date: 17 October 2008

K. Bousson

Most of the existing approaches for flight collision avoidance are concerned with local traffic alone for which the separation is based on the pairwise analysis of…

Abstract

Purpose

Most of the existing approaches for flight collision avoidance are concerned with local traffic alone for which the separation is based on the pairwise analysis of aircraft trajectory trends, which is not efficient with regard to some flight path requirements along waypoints. The purpose of this paper is to deal with the global collision avoidance problem which aims at separating aircraft taking into consideration the global traffic in a given area instead of considering them pairwise. It aims to model the concept of global collision avoidance and propose a validated algorithm for the purpose in the framework of free‐flight.

Design/methodology/approach

The collision avoidance procedure computes online the appropriate speed and heading for each aircraft, at each sampling time‐instant, to generate a collision‐free flight trajectory along scheduled waypoints. The method accounts for automatic assignment of priority indexes that are updated from one control time horizon to the next. The paper considers here the case of aircraft flying at the same altitude, but the proposed method is easily extendable to the general 3D situation. Owing to the predictive features that are inherent to collision avoidance, the collision‐free trajectories are generated using model predictive control approach. A simulation example is presented in the end and its results show the suitability of the proposed approach.

Findings

Since the model predictive control approach is used, the collision avoidance procedure is anticipative; therefore, the avoidance capability depends only on the prediction horizon rather than on the control horizon.

Practical implications

The computation of the trajectory guidance information (speed and heading) at each time‐step is fast, therefore the proposed method is well suited for online processing requirements in real world applications.

Originality/value

The paper provides a flexible modelling framework and a computationally effective algorithm, both based on model predictive control concepts, to cope with global collision avoidance for flight safety enhancement in the framework of free‐flight.

Details

Aircraft Engineering and Aerospace Technology, vol. 80 no. 6
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0002-2667

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Article
Publication date: 1 February 1996

Paul Brunn

Planning for collision avoidance is essential in any robot application, but for most single robot cells the ancillary equipment and tooling remain in fixed and known…

Abstract

Planning for collision avoidance is essential in any robot application, but for most single robot cells the ancillary equipment and tooling remain in fixed and known positions relative to the cell and thus collision avoidance strategies can be planned once only, at the start of program development. With multiple robot cells not only do the robots have to avoid the tools and furniture of the cell but also one another. The technology to allow robots to navigate around objects and select optimum paths is still not as cheap or reliable as would be required for use in standard manufacturing applications. Concludes that multiple robots in the same space can have many advantages and the technology exists to allow them to work together in an unsynchronized manner, checking for collisions before each movement, but that technology currently requires considerable effort on the part of robot users to develop and test their own software.

Details

Industrial Robot: An International Journal, vol. 23 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0143-991X

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Article
Publication date: 1 December 2003

Dave Barnes and Mike Counsell

Teleoperations in hazardous environments are often hampered by the lack of available information regarding the state of the remote robotic device. Typically, ideal camera…

Abstract

Teleoperations in hazardous environments are often hampered by the lack of available information regarding the state of the remote robotic device. Typically, ideal camera placements are not possible, and an operator is left with the problem of performing complex manoeuvres in the presence of severe blind‐spots. To address this dilemma, we have been investigating the use of a haptic interface, which not only allows an operator to communicate motion commands to a robot, but also allows the robot to communicate to the operator its motion when performing autonomous collision avoidance. This haptic interface provides total operator control, plus vital information that can be used to decide if and how a robot's autonomous operation should be overridden. This paper details our work in this area and presents the results we have obtained from operator/task performance experimentation with this new haptic communication approach.

Details

Industrial Robot: An International Journal, vol. 30 no. 6
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0143-991X

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Article
Publication date: 14 October 2020

Xianliang Zhang, Weibing Zhu, Xiande Wu, Ting Song, Yaen Xie and Han Zhao

The purpose of this paper is to propose a pre-defined performance robust control method for pre-assembly configuration establishment of in-space assembly missions, and…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to propose a pre-defined performance robust control method for pre-assembly configuration establishment of in-space assembly missions, and collision avoidance is considered during the configuration establishment process.

Design/methodology/approach

First, six-degrees-of-freedom error kinematic and dynamic models of relative translational and rotational motion between transportation systems are developed. Second, the prescribed transient-state performance bounds of tracking errors are designed. In addition, based on the backstepping, combining the pre-defined performance control method with a robust control method, a pre-defined performance robust controller is designed.

Findings

By designing prescribed transient-state performance bounds of tracking errors to guarantee that there is no overshoot, collision-avoidance can be achieved. Combining the pre-defined performance control method with a robust control method, robustness to disturbance is guaranteed.

Originality/value

This paper proposed a pre-defined performance robust control method. Simulation results demonstrate that the proposed controller can achieve a pre-assembly configuration establishment with collision avoidance in the existence of external disturbances.

Details

Aircraft Engineering and Aerospace Technology, vol. 93 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1748-8842

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Article
Publication date: 20 November 2009

Blesson Varghese and Gerard McKee

The purpose of this paper is to address a classic problem – pattern formation identified by researchers in the area of swarm robotic systems – and is also motivated by the…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to address a classic problem – pattern formation identified by researchers in the area of swarm robotic systems – and is also motivated by the need for mathematical foundations in swarm systems.

Design/methodology/approach

The work is separated out as inspirations, applications, definitions, challenges and classifications of pattern formation in swarm systems based on recent literature. Further, the work proposes a mathematical model for swarm pattern formation and transformation.

Findings

A swarm pattern formation model based on mathematical foundations and macroscopic primitives is proposed. A formal definition for swarm pattern transformation and four special cases of transformation are introduced. Two general methods for transforming patterns are investigated and a comparison of the two methods is presented. The validity of the proposed models, and the feasibility of the methods investigated are confirmed on the Traer Physics and Processing environment.

Originality/value

This paper helps in understanding the limitations of existing research in pattern formation and the lack of mathematical foundations for swarm systems. The mathematical model and transformation methods introduce two key concepts, namely macroscopic primitives and a mathematical model. The exercise of implementing the proposed models on physics simulator is novel.

Details

International Journal of Intelligent Computing and Cybernetics, vol. 2 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1756-378X

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 31 July 2021

Shifa Sulaiman and A.P. Sudheer

Most of the redundant dual-arm robots are singular free, dexterous and collision free compared to other robotic arms. This paper aims to analyse the workspace of redundant…

Abstract

Purpose

Most of the redundant dual-arm robots are singular free, dexterous and collision free compared to other robotic arms. This paper aims to analyse the workspace of redundant arms to study the manipulability. Furthermore, multi-layer perceptron (MLP) algorithm is used to determine the various joint parameters of both the upper body redundant arms. Trajectory planning of robotic arms is carried out with the help of inverse solutions obtained from the MLP algorithm.

Design/methodology/approach

In this paper, the kinematic equations are derived from screw theory approach and inverse kinematic solutions are determined using MLP algorithm. Levenberg–Marquardt (LM) and Bayesian regulation (BR) techniques are used as the backpropagation algorithms. The results from two backpropagation techniques are compared for determining the prediction accuracy. The inverse solutions obtained from the MLP algorithm are then used to optimize the cubic spline trajectories planned for avoiding collision between arms with the help of convex optimization technique. The dexterity of the redundant arms is analysed with the help of Cartesian workspace of arms.

Findings

Dexterity of redundant arms is analysed by studying the voids and singular spaces present inside the workspace of arms. MLP algorithms determine unique solutions with less computational effort using BR backpropagation. The inverse solutions obtained from MLP algorithm effectively optimize the cubic spline trajectory for the redundant dual arms using convex optimization technique.

Originality/value

Most of the MLP algorithms used for determining the inverse solutions are used with LM backpropagation technique. In this paper, BR technique is used as the backpropagation technique. BR technique converges fast with less computational time than LM method. The inverse solutions of arm joints for traversing optimized cubic spline trajectory using convex optimization technique are computed from the MLP algorithm.

Details

Industrial Robot: the international journal of robotics research and application, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0143-991X

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Article
Publication date: 2 July 2020

Zoltan Dobra and Krishna S. Dhir

Recent years have seen a technological change, Industry 4.0, in the manufacturing industry. Human–robot cooperation, a new application, is increasing and facilitating…

Abstract

Purpose

Recent years have seen a technological change, Industry 4.0, in the manufacturing industry. Human–robot cooperation, a new application, is increasing and facilitating collaboration without fences, cages or any kind of separation. The purpose of the paper is to review mainstream academic publications to evaluate the current status of human–robot cooperation and identify potential areas of further research.

Design/methodology/approach

A systematic literature review is offered that searches, appraises, synthetizes and analyses relevant works.

Findings

The authors report the prevailing status of human–robot collaboration, human factors, complexity/ programming, safety, collision avoidance, instructing the robot system and other aspects of human–robot collaboration.

Practical implications

This paper identifies new directions and potential research in practice of human–robot collaboration, such as measuring the degree of collaboration, integrating human–robot cooperation into teamwork theories, effective functional relocation of the robot and product design for human robot collaboration.

Originality/value

This paper will be useful for three cohorts of readers, namely, the manufacturers who require a baseline for development and deployment of robots; users of robots-seeking manufacturing advantage and researchers looking for new directions for further exploration of human–machine collaboration.

Details

Industrial Robot: the international journal of robotics research and application, vol. 47 no. 5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0143-991X

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Article
Publication date: 19 November 2019

Pengcheng Wang, Dengfeng Zhang and Baochun Lu

This paper aims to address the collision problem between robot and the external environment (including human) in an unstructured situation. A new collision detection and…

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to address the collision problem between robot and the external environment (including human) in an unstructured situation. A new collision detection and torque optimization control method is proposed.

Design/methodology/approach

Firstly, when the collision appears, a second-order Taylor observer is proposed to estimate the residual value. Secondly, the band-pass filter is used to reduce the high-frequency torque modeling dynamic uncertainty. With the estimate information and the torque value, a variable impedance control approach is then synthesized to guarantee that the collision is avoided or the collision will be terminated with different contact models and positions. However, in terms of adaptive linear force error, the variation of the thickness of the boundary layer is controlled by the new proximity function.

Findings

Finally, the experimental results show the better performance of the proposed control method, realizing the force control during the collision process.

Originality/value

Origin approach and origin experiment.

Details

Industrial Robot: the international journal of robotics research and application, vol. 47 no. 6
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0143-991X

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 9 February 2018

Qiang Zhou, Danping Zou and Peilin Liu

This paper aims to develop an obstacle avoidance system for a multi-rotor micro aerial vehicle (MAV) that flies in indoor environments which usually contain transparent…

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to develop an obstacle avoidance system for a multi-rotor micro aerial vehicle (MAV) that flies in indoor environments which usually contain transparent, texture-less or moving objects.

Design/methodology/approach

The system adopts a combination of a stereo camera and an ultrasonic sensor to detect obstacles and extracts three-dimensional (3D) point clouds. The obstacle map is built on a coarse global map and updated by local maps generated by the recent 3D point clouds. An efficient layered A* path planning algorithm is also proposed to address the path planning in 3D space for MAVs.

Findings

The authors conducted a lot of experiments in both static and dynamic scenes. The results show that the obstacle avoidance system works reliably even when transparent or texture-less obstacles are present. The layered A* path planning algorithm is much faster than the traditional 3D algorithm and makes the system response quickly when the obstacle map has been changed because of the moving objects.

Research limitations/implications

The limited field of view of both stereo camera and ultrasonic sensor makes the system need to change heading first before moving side to side or moving backward. But this problem could be addressed when multiple systems are mounted toward different directions on the MAV.

Practical implications

The developed approach could be valuable to applications in indoors.

Originality/value

This paper presents a robust obstacle avoidance system and a fast layered path planning algorithm that are easy to be implemented for practical systems.

Details

Industrial Robot: An International Journal, vol. 45 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0143-991X

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 3 February 2020

Grant Rudd, Liam Daly and Filip Cuckov

This paper aims to present an intuitive control system for robotic manipulators that pairs a Leap Motion, a low-cost optical tracking and gesture recognition device, with…

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to present an intuitive control system for robotic manipulators that pairs a Leap Motion, a low-cost optical tracking and gesture recognition device, with the ability to record and replay trajectories and operation to create an intuitive method of controlling and programming a robotic manipulator. This system was designed to be extensible and includes modules and methods for obstacle detection and dynamic trajectory modification for obstacle avoidance.

Design/methodology/approach

The presented control architecture, while portable to any robotic platform, was designed to actuate a six degree-of-freedom robotic manipulator of our own design. From the data collected by the Leap Motion, the manipulator was controlled by mapping the position and orientation of the human hand to values in the joint space of the robot. Additional recording and playback functionality was implemented to allow for the robot to repeat the desired tasks once the task had been demonstrated and recorded.

Findings

Experiments were conducted on our custom-built robotic manipulator by first using a simulation model to characterize and quantify the robot’s tracking of the Leap Motion generated trajectory. Tests were conducted in the Gazebo simulation software in conjunction with Robot Operating System, where results were collected by recording both the real-time input from the Leap Motion sensor, and the corresponding pose data. The results of these experiments show that the goal of accurate and real-time control of the robot was achieved and validated our methods of transcribing, recording and repeating six degree-of-freedom trajectories from the Leap Motion camera.

Originality/value

As robots evolve in complexity, the methods of programming them need to evolve to become more intuitive. Humans instinctively teach by demonstrating the task to a given subject, who then observes the various poses and tries to replicate the motions. This work aims to integrate the natural human teaching methods into robotics programming through an intuitive, demonstration-based programming method.

Details

Industrial Robot: the international journal of robotics research and application, vol. 47 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0143-991X

Keywords

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