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Article
Publication date: 4 December 2018

Peter Omondi-Ochieng

This paper aims to predict a college football team’s competitiveness using physical resources, human resources and organizational resources.

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to predict a college football team’s competitiveness using physical resources, human resources and organizational resources.

Design/methodology/approach

Guided by the resource-based theory, the study used archival data of 101 college football teams. The dependent variable was competitiveness (indicated by win-loss records), the independent variables were physical resources (operationalized as home attendance and total revenues), human resources (measured as coaches’ salary and coaches’ experience) and organizational resources (specified as conference rankings and the number of sports). Kendall Tau correlation and binary logistic regression were used to examine the associative and predictive competitive advantages.

Findings

The binary logistic regression model showed an overall percentage predictive correctness of 71.3%, with a Negelkerke R2 of 41.1% of the variance of all predictors – with coaches’ experience, total revenues and home attendance being the best predictors of generating competitive advantages that produced superior win-loss records.

Research limitations/implications

The research focused exclusively on physical, organizational and human resources as sources of competitive advantage and not physiological and/or psychological variables.

Practical implications

College football teams aspiring to be competitive may benefit from this study by applying a three-fold strategy of hiring well-paid high performing and experienced coaches who can increase attendance and revenues.

Originality/value

The study was unique in two ways – one, it made clear the positive significance of coaches’ experience as a source of competitive advantage, and second, it highlighted the catalytic effects of revenues and attendance in fueling competitiveness.

Details

International Journal of Organizational Analysis, vol. 27 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1934-8835

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Article
Publication date: 30 September 2019

Peter Omondi-Ochieng

The purpose of this paper is to analyse the effects of first-mover advantage (FMA) on revenue generation capacity (RGC) of US college football programmes during the 2008…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to analyse the effects of first-mover advantage (FMA) on revenue generation capacity (RGC) of US college football programmes during the 2008 global financial crisis.

Design/methodology/approach

The study used archival data analysed quantitatively using non-parametric regression in the form of binary logistic regression. The study was then framed and interpreted by the resource-dependence theory.

Findings

FMA was positively and statistically associated with donations, branding, media rights and ticket revenues, but not win–loss records. The binary logistic regression model was correctly classified at 82.1 per cent of the variance and indicated that branding and ticket revenues were mostly associated with FMA.

Research limitations/implications

The study was delimited to public college football programmes in the USA during the 2008 global financial crisis.

Practical implications

The findings indicated that despite the 2008 global financial crisis, FMA was positively associated with RGC but not win–loss records.

Originality/value

The study was pioneering in evaluating the effects of FMA as a source of competitive advantage in college football programmes during the challenging time of the 2008 global financial crisis.

Details

Journal of Accounting & Organizational Change, vol. 15 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1832-5912

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Article
Publication date: 16 May 2019

Marcelo J. Alvarado-Vargas and Qi Zou

The purpose of this paper is to focus on two internal organizational factors in college football teams (team powerfulness and team reputation) and their combined…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to focus on two internal organizational factors in college football teams (team powerfulness and team reputation) and their combined relationship on game attendance. Authors aim to validate new data published by Wall Street Journal (WSJ) and NCAA websites; and to develop a new conceptual model to examine the interaction effect of team powerfulness and team reputation on game attendance.

Design/methodology/approach

This study relies on secondary data collected from the WSJ’s “College Football’s Grid of Shame” publication and the NCAA official website. Data for 123 US college football teams are collected representing 13 conferences for seasons 2010–2014. Multi-level regressions are utilized for statistical analyses.

Findings

Results reveal that not only team’s powerfulness is required for more public attendance to games, but also team reputation strengthens this relationship. In other words, team reputation plays an important role in increasing games’ attendance. Team reputation alone does not bring more attendees to games.

Originality/value

This paper studies the relevance of team reputation in the field of sports management. This paper argues that in order to achieve superior financial benefits in college football games, it is important to properly manage team powerfulness and its legal and ethical behavior. In this way, a positive reputation can leverage game attendance to a larger extent.

Details

International Journal of Sports Marketing and Sponsorship, vol. 20 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1464-6668

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Book part
Publication date: 3 June 2015

Armond E. Sinclair and Robert A. Bennett

Much of the extant literature has focused heavily on the recruiting aspects of college sports (Beamon, 2008; Broughton, E., & Neyer, M. (2001). Advising and counseling…

Abstract

Much of the extant literature has focused heavily on the recruiting aspects of college sports (Beamon, 2008; Broughton, E., & Neyer, M. (2001). Advising and counseling student athletes. New Directions for Student Services, 93, 47–53). Far less attention has been given to the supply chain of athletic departments from a macro-level perspective. A supply chain is a stream of information or goods from a supplier to an end customer. This study will provide a synthesis of previous literature, which will be integrated into a conceptual framework explaining the college athlete supply chain and its impact on Black males. We will also utilize secondary data to examine the organizational development of college recruiting and the conceptual nature of college athlete suppliers and manufacturers. The chapter will conclude with recommendations on how best to address the issues of the supply chain where revenue in college football has taken precedence over the collegiate experiences of many Black male student-athletes. This knowledge will be essential to all stakeholders within college athletics, particularly administrators, athletes, recruiters, coaches, and parents of athletes.

Details

Black Males and Intercollegiate Athletics: An Exploration of Problems and Solutions
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78441-394-1

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Article
Publication date: 9 October 2017

Nels Popp, Jonathan Jensen and Rhett Jackson

The purpose of this paper is to isolate factors predictive of event attendees, and assist tourism professionals such as members of host committees, in maximizing the…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to isolate factors predictive of event attendees, and assist tourism professionals such as members of host committees, in maximizing the number of out-of-town visitors to their region and optimizing tourism-related revenue when hosting college football bowl games.

Design/methodology/approach

A total of 16 demand variables were entered into a hierarchical regression model, including the stature of the event and market-related variables, as well as team-related variables reflecting team or program stature and current season performance.

Findings

A final model containing seven variables (bowl age, market population, conference affiliation, bowl game stature, season wins, home attendance, and distance traveled) predicted 77.5 percent of the variance in bowl game attendance.

Research limitations/implications

This paper illustrates the use of predictive modeling for major sport event attendance with a unique sample and variables explored. Future research may build off the model to explore attendance for other populations or events.

Practical implications

The applied nature of this study allows practitioners working in the tourism and event management field to incorporate a predictive model to best select participants in sporting events to maximize event attendees.

Originality/value

Understanding the variables which predict event attendees in the context of college football bowl games provide useful data to practitioners. This study advances this area of research by treating event participants as unique observations (something which has not been done in prior studies), and looking at a new data set which incorporates the College Football Playoff era.

Details

International Journal of Event and Festival Management, vol. 8 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1758-2954

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Book part
Publication date: 3 June 2015

Luke A. Fedlam

Most professional athletes are broke financially within a short few years after they stop playing. It is easy for outsiders to place the blame squarely on the athlete…

Abstract

Most professional athletes are broke financially within a short few years after they stop playing. It is easy for outsiders to place the blame squarely on the athlete himself. This rush to judgment, however, is not entirely accurate. Black student-athletes who have the talent and ability to play professional sports are hyper-focused on getting to the next level, and the system around them is built to accommodate that focus. A lack of educational, financial, and legal structures creates a dynamic that sets the athlete up for failure. This chapter will focus on the legal and financial realities that Black males face when transitioning into and out of professional sports. In order to shift the current paradigm, this chapter will also provide solutions for both the athlete and the coaches, friends, family members, and agents who surround the athlete, in order to empower the athlete to positively impact himself, his family, and his community.

Details

Black Males and Intercollegiate Athletics: An Exploration of Problems and Solutions
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78441-394-1

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Article
Publication date: 6 June 2019

Tyler Custis, Meghan Hoben and Payton Larsen

The purpose of this paper is to explore why the stagnant version of amateurism that is being used by the National Collegiate Athletic Association (NCAA) and its member…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to explore why the stagnant version of amateurism that is being used by the National Collegiate Athletic Association (NCAA) and its member institutions to limit student–athlete compensation is creating labor law and antitrust violations, and ultimately contributing to a black market in college athletics.

Design/methodology/approach

The qualitative portion of the examination uses a review of historic and recent cases regarding labor law and antitrust violations and applies them to the college athletic industry. Furthermore, the quantitative portion creates a scaled revenue sharing calculation utilizing financial reports from university athletic departments and corresponding professional revenue-sharing agreements to discern an approximate value of a student–athlete’s participation.

Findings

The authors find that the current structure of the NCAA and regulatory framework perpetuate injustice for those who lack a voice in the system. Furthermore, the research shows a wage disparity of millions of dollars creating a lack of free market and black-market tensions to reach free market equilibrium.

Social implications

This research creates reasoning to restructure the NCAA system to adjust for modern commercialization and profits of the industry.

Originality/value

This paper highlights the legal and regulatory abuses by the NCAA, and demonstrates how the compensation gap created by these legal violations is creating a strain on free market flow ultimately leading to a black-market effect in the industry.

Details

Sport, Business and Management: An International Journal, vol. 9 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2042-678X

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Article
Publication date: 12 August 2014

Douglas K. Lehman

Abstract

Details

Reference Reviews, vol. 28 no. 6
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0950-4125

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Book part
Publication date: 17 March 2010

Melody L. Boyd and Kimberly A. Goyette

Purpose – Research finds that youths who are able to align their educational and occupational ambitions are better able to realize both. In this chapter, we describe when…

Abstract

Purpose – Research finds that youths who are able to align their educational and occupational ambitions are better able to realize both. In this chapter, we describe when and how the educational, occupational, and family aspirations and expectations of a subgroup of youth often marginalized in traditional status attainment research are aligned.

Methodology/approach – We use qualitative data from the Gautreaux Two program in Chicago, which gave vouchers to families in existing public housing to move to low-poverty and racially diverse areas. Our sample includes in-depth qualitative interviews with 93 children in 57 of the families included in the study.

Findings – Our results show that there are two groups of youths – one group whose educational, family, and occupational ambitions are aligned and one whose ambitions are misaligned. Many of the narratives of the youths whose ambitions are at odds reflect the ways in which competing ideologies of success for inner-city children can lead to misaligned aspirations. Both groups of youths also discuss their awareness of the difficulties they face in realizing even their aligned ambitions.

Research limitations/implications – This research provides implications for policies and programs seeking to improve youths' experiences both in housing mobility programs and disadvantaged neighborhoods and schools.

Originality/value of paper – This chapter adds to previous research by considering how youths' family plans intersect with their educational and occupational ambitions. Also, we explore the alignment of ambitions among a group of youths who may be considered socially marginalized, those who have grown up in urban housing developments.

Details

Children and Youth Speak for Themselves
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-84950-735-6

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Article
Publication date: 4 April 2016

Jonathan A. Jensen, Lane Wakefield, Joe B. Cobbs and Brian A. Turner

Due in large part to the proprietary nature of costs, there is a dearth of academic literature investigating the factors influencing the costs for sport marketing…

Abstract

Purpose

Due in large part to the proprietary nature of costs, there is a dearth of academic literature investigating the factors influencing the costs for sport marketing investments, such as sponsorship. Therefore, the purpose of this paper is to provide an analytical framework for market intelligence that enables managers to better predict and forecast costs in today’s ever-changing sport marketing environment.

Design/methodology/approach

Given the dynamic and ultra-competitive nature of the athletic apparel industry, this context was chosen to investigate the influence of four distinct factors on sponsorship costs, including property-specific factors, on-field performance, and market-specific factors. A systematic, hierarchical procedure was utilized in the development of a predictive empirical model, which was then utilized to generate predicted values on a per property basis.

Findings

Results demonstrated that both property-specific and performance-related factors were significant predictors of costs, while variables reflecting the attractiveness of the property’s home market were non-significant. Further analysis revealed the potential for agency conflicts in the allocation of resources toward properties near the corporate headquarters of sponsors, as well as evidence of overspending by challenger brands (Adidas, Under Armour) in their quest to topple industry leader Nike.

Originality/value

Though the context of apparel sponsorships of US-based intercollegiate athletic programs limits the generalizability of the results, this study represents one of the few in the literature to empirically investigate the determinants of sponsorship costs, providing much-needed guidance to aid decision making in a highly volatile, unpredictable industry.

Details

Marketing Intelligence & Planning, vol. 34 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0263-4503

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