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Given the previous research on the disparities of lending rates and their relationship with lending institutions for women-owned and minority-owned businesses, the study…
Given the previous research on the disparities of lending rates and their relationship with lending institutions for women-owned and minority-owned businesses, the study poses the research question: How much Paycheck Protection Program (PPP) funding was distributed to women-owned and minority-owned businesses in comparison to other firms? Additionally, as the purpose of the PPP funding was to assist small businesses in retaining their workforce, the authors pose a second research question: Of those who received PPP funding, how many jobs on average were retained? And importantly related to our first research question, are there differences across gender and race in the average number of jobs retained?
This is one of the first empirical studies with an initial sample size of 661,218 loans from July 2020 that examines whether the United States PPP had the intended impact to save jobs in small businesses and to examine any reported differences across gender and race in loans issued and jobs saved.
The authors find that significant differences exist between women- and men-owned businesses across all five loan categories, with male-owned firms receiving over 80% of PPP loans. However, women-owned firms saved more jobs on average across all but the largest loan category. Significant differences were also found between minority- and White-owned businesses with minority-owned businesses generally saving more jobs on average across most loan categories.
A limitation of this study pertains to certain missing data that were not reported by participants. While a participant may have included their gender, they may not have included their race. Therefore, the varying sets of data may not be a reflection of the same individuals. Additionally, the industries were not included in this analysis, which may shed light on the job creation differences across gender and race.
Many of the industries that have been significantly impacted have been the tourism, restaurant and hospitality sectors, and knowing “where the money was allocated” can assist policymakers in allocating additional funds to those businesses, especially those who did not receive funding in the initial first waves of PPP.
This is one of the first empirical studies that examine over 600,000 loans and found that women-owned firms saved more jobs across all loan categories except the largest loans. Significant differences were also found between minority- and White-owned businesses with minority-owned businesses generally saving more jobs on average across most loan categories.
Extant literature on entrepreneurship highlights the importance of the entrepreneurs' social network in mobilizing resources for their ventures. Over the last few years…
Extant literature on entrepreneurship highlights the importance of the entrepreneurs' social network in mobilizing resources for their ventures. Over the last few years, entrepreneurial crowdfunding opportunities have become a subject of growing research interest as it acts as a tool to mobilize financial resources. However, many of these studies are limited within the scope of new ventures, creative industries, and commercial entrepreneurship. In this study, we examine crowdfunding within the context of social entrepreneurship in order to gain a deeper understanding of the motivation and the characteristics of the pool of individuals that contribute to social entrepreneurial crowdfunding. Data for this study have been collected from four cases of social entrepreneurial crowdfunding campaigns. The campaigners, who raised the funds in France for social ventures based in India, shared their knowledge of 157 individuals that contributed to their crowdfunding campaign. The findings inform that crowdfunders mainly originate from the crowdfunding campaigner's helper network, such as family, friends, and colleagues. A small percentage were also acquaintances and strangers. This network of individuals was motivated to support the campaigner achieve her/his goal or was attracted to the social cause that triggered them in creating a social impact. Moreover, the crowdfunders were generally open-minded and well-traveled individuals accustomed to participating in social and voluntary activities. Our study reveals that some members of the helper network are likely to disappoint by not supporting the crowdfunding campaign, thus emphasizing a twist to the existing literature on entrepreneurship. This has practical implications that prompt social entrepreneurs to exercise their social capital, networking skills, and communication strategies to attract and expand their community of helpers in order to trigger individuals from both their helper network as well as individuals outside their current network toward crowdfunding.
This study aims to consider how research methodologies and methods can afford holistic inquiry into gendered embodied consumption. Noting the salience of gender in past…
This study aims to consider how research methodologies and methods can afford holistic inquiry into gendered embodied consumption. Noting the salience of gender in past and present discourse surrounding the body and building on poststructuralist feminist hermeneutic philosophy and practice, the authors introduce a novel methodological framework situated within three considerations borne of the current socio-cultural landscape: the politics of embodiment, embodied identity and intersectionality.
To assist scholars and practitioners in interpreting themes of gendered embodiment in textual data surrounding consumption topics, the authors orient the framework around three principles of listening, questioning and hospitality. This framework fosters embodied empathy by linking the researcher’s body to those of research participants. To illustrate the method, the authors interpret consumption narratives extracted from semi-structured interviews with 26 women-identified recreational runners on the topics of embodiment, sport and media.
The interpretations of gendered consumption narratives show that using the principles of listening, questioning and hospitality invites an understanding of consumers as multifaceted, contradictory and agentic. The authors argue that consumers’ everyday experiences are often simple and quiet but embedded in history wherein bodies are both biological and inescapably social.
The methodological framework allows both the researcher’s and research participants’ embodiment to play a role in the research process. It also illuminates the entanglement of embodiment and consumption in a fraught, politicized context. The authors show that by listening to consumers, questioning their narratives and traditional interpretations thereof and inviting consumers to feel comfortable and heard, researchers can see what other approaches may overlook.