Search results

1 – 10 of over 6000
To view the access options for this content please click here
Book part
Publication date: 16 August 2005

Ya-Ru Chen

This chapter examines the underlying concerns people have for relative status within their group (i.e., intragroup status) and their group's relative status to that of…

Abstract

This chapter examines the underlying concerns people have for relative status within their group (i.e., intragroup status) and their group's relative status to that of other groups (i.e., intergroup status). I adopt a deductive approach using arguments and evidence in the cross-cultural research and literature. I begin by reviewing the basic findings in social psychology and organizational behavior literatures, which suggest that both intragroup status and intergroup status will have positive impact on important group outcomes such as people's evaluation of, and commitment to, the group. Moreover, consistent with the notion of the fishpond phenomenon, past findings also suggest that those with high-intragroup status and low-intergroup status show more group-oriented reactions than those with low-intragroup status and high-intergroup status (i.e., people prefer to be a big fish in a small pond than a small fish in a big pond). Next, I provide both psychological and structural reasoning to argue that the fishpond phenomenon will be less likely to emerge in collectivistic than individualistic cultures. I close by considering the implications from the cross-cultural analysis to the broader conceptual understanding of mechanisms underlying people's concerns for intragroup status vs. intergroup status in work groups and organizations.

Details

Status and Groups
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-84950-358-7

To view the access options for this content please click here
Book part
Publication date: 24 March 2021

Katherine K. Chen and Victor Tan Chen

This volume explores an expansive array of organizational imaginaries, or understandings of organizational possibilities, with a focus on how collectivist-democratic…

Abstract

This volume explores an expansive array of organizational imaginaries, or understandings of organizational possibilities, with a focus on how collectivist-democratic organizations offer alternatives to conventional for-profit managerial enterprises. These include worker and consumer cooperatives and other enterprises that, to varying degrees, (1) emphasize social values over profit; (2) are owned not by shareholders but by workers, consumers, or other stakeholders; (3) employ democratic forms of managing their operations; and (4) have social ties to the organization based on moral and emotional commitments. The contributors to this volume examine how these enterprises generate solidarity among members, network with other organizations and communities, contend with market pressures, and enhance their larger organizational ecosystems. In this introductory paper, the authors put forward an inclusive organizational typology whose continuums account for four key sources of variation – values, ownership, management, and social relations – and argue that enterprises fall between these two poles of the collectivist-democratic organization and the for-profit managerial enterprise. Drawing from this volume’s empirical studies, the authors situate these market actors within fields of competition and contestation shaped not just by state action and legal frameworks, but also by the presence or absence of social movements, labor unions, and meta-organizations. This typology challenges conventional conceptualizations of for-profit managerial enterprises as ideals or norms, reconnects past models of organizing among marginalized communities with contemporary and future possibilities, and offers activists and entrepreneurs a sense of the wide range of possibilities for building enterprises that differ from dominant models.

Details

Organizational Imaginaries: Tempering Capitalism and Tending to Communities through Cooperatives and Collectivist Democracy
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-83867-989-7

Keywords

To view the access options for this content please click here
Book part
Publication date: 23 September 2009

Kyle Irwin

Why do strangers in collectivist societies act prosocially? Previous work indicates that generalized trust (trust in strangers) is necessary for prosocial behavior;…

Abstract

Why do strangers in collectivist societies act prosocially? Previous work indicates that generalized trust (trust in strangers) is necessary for prosocial behavior; however, generalized trust exists at low levels in collectivist societies. Researchers have also argued that without trust among strangers, social order is threatened. Yet, collectivist societies are not characterized by social disorder; therefore, individuals must be acting prosocially. Without generalized trust, how is this possible? In this work I argue that institutional trust (a belief that institutions induce others to act in a trustworthy manner) is responsible for prosociality in collectivist societies, not generalized trust. Does a similar relationship hold in individualist societies? Although some evidence suggests that prosocial behavior is predicated by generalized trust, other evidence indicates that the stronger predictor is institutional trust. All arguments are tested with data from the World Values Survey (WVS) with data from 14 countries. Results from regression analyses are reported. The chapter concludes with implications and directions for future work.

Details

Altruism and Prosocial Behavior in Groups
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-84855-573-0

To view the access options for this content please click here
Article
Publication date: 1 June 2005

Michel Laroche, Maria Kalamas and Mark Cleveland

To examine the impact of culture on customer service expectations, specifically, how individualists and collectivists use internal and external sources of information to…

Abstract

Purpose

To examine the impact of culture on customer service expectations, specifically, how individualists and collectivists use internal and external sources of information to formulate their service expectations.

Design/methodology/approach

The context was the airline industry and the subject pool consisted of experienced consumers. A survey was employed to measure individualism/collectivism, various internal/external information sources, and the functional and technical dimensions of “should” and “will” service expectations. Hypothesized relationships were tested using a structural equations modeling approach.

Findings

Both individualists and collectivists relied more on external information sources in formulating their service expectations, gave variable weight to the functional and technical components, and used more realistic “will” expectations to judge service offerings. Internal (external) information sources were relatively more important in forming expectations for collectivists (individualists) than for individualists (collectivists), and “will” (“should”) expectations were more diagnostic for collectivists (individualists) than for individualists (collectivists).

Research limitations/implications

Generalizability of the findings is limited due to the specific industry under study (airlines), the sample (two geographically‐proximate sub‐cultures), and the scope of the cultural variables considered (individualism/collectivism).

Practical implications

Whether managers should leverage the functional and/or technical components of services depends in part on the cultural orientation of their customers. Managers should also recognize that customers’ usage of various information sources in forming service expectations is also, in part, culturally determined.

Originality/value

In this era of globalization, researchers and managers alike need to consider the subtle influences of culture on marketing theories and the formulation of service expectations respectively.

Details

International Marketing Review, vol. 22 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0265-1335

Keywords

To view the access options for this content please click here
Article
Publication date: 1 August 2004

Tao Sun, Marty Horn and Dennis Merritt

Based on a multi‐national lifestyle survey, this study investigated consumer lifestyle differences between individualist cultures (Britain and the USA) and collectivist

Abstract

Based on a multi‐national lifestyle survey, this study investigated consumer lifestyle differences between individualist cultures (Britain and the USA) and collectivist cultures (China and Japan). Congruent with previous findings on values and lifestyles differences between idiocentrics (individualists) and allocentrics (collectivists) at the emic level (USA), this etic‐level (cross‐cultural) study found that consumers in the individualist cultures, compared with those in the collectivist cultures, were more brand‐savvy, travel‐oriented, satisfied with their lives, financially satisfied and optimistic. They were also more likely to consider themselves better managers of finances. Findings that were incongruent with those at the emic level were also discussed (e.g. dressing behavior, opinion leadership and impulsive buying). Additional findings were provided as well (e.g. family orientation, gender roles, safety/security). The findings carry practical implications for international marketers whose products/services cut across both individualist and collectivist cultures.

Details

Journal of Consumer Marketing, vol. 21 no. 5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0736-3761

Keywords

To view the access options for this content please click here
Article
Publication date: 1 March 2002

Lei Wang, James W. Bishop, Xiangming Chen and K. Dow Scott

This study tested the hypothesis of collectivist orientation as a predictor of affective organizational commitment. Data from 510 employees working in two organizations in…

Abstract

This study tested the hypothesis of collectivist orientation as a predictor of affective organizational commitment. Data from 510 employees working in two organizations in China supported the hypothesis, that is, collectivist orientation is a significant predictor of affective organizational commitment when employees' specific organization, age, sex, organizational tenure, educational level, and pay satisfaction are controlled.

Details

The International Journal of Organizational Analysis, vol. 10 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1055-3185

To view the access options for this content please click here
Article
Publication date: 1 September 2004

Yuka Fujimoto and Charmine E.J. Härtel

The authors propose that the nature of prejudice differs across cultures. A model is introduced that proposes that the interpersonal perspective associated with…

Abstract

The authors propose that the nature of prejudice differs across cultures. A model is introduced that proposes that the interpersonal perspective associated with individualist cultures (Westerners) leads to interpersonal prejudices, whereas the intergroup perspective associated with collectivist cultures (Easterners) leads to intergroup prejudices. These prejudices, in turn, are argued to impact on the outcomes of individuals working in intercultural teams. An organisational diversity climate of openness fostered by diversity oriented HRM and the combined use of individualist and collectivist HRM policies and practices is proposed to minimize the negative effects of such prejudices can be minimized.

Details

Cross Cultural Management: An International Journal, vol. 11 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1352-7606

Keywords

To view the access options for this content please click here
Article
Publication date: 14 March 2019

Lifang Zhao, Jiman Lee and Sungok Moon

The purpose of this paper is to examine the relationship between employees’ corporate social responsibility (CSR) perception and their organizational identification in a…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to examine the relationship between employees’ corporate social responsibility (CSR) perception and their organizational identification in a Chinese context. The moderating effect of employees’ collectivist orientation on the relationship between CSR perception and organizational identification is also examined.

Design/methodology/approach

Data were collected from 308 employees of 7 firms in Zhejiang Province, located in southeast China. Hierarchical regression analyses were utilized to test the hypotheses.

Findings

The results indicate that all three dimensions of CSR perception in this study, specifically, economic, philanthropic and strategic CSR perception, are strongly and positively related to the organizational identification of employees. Employees’ collectivist orientation positively influences the relationship between strategic CSR perception and organizational identification. In contrast, collectivist orientation negatively influences the relationship between economic CSR perception and organizational identification. However, no moderating effect of collectivism on the relationship between philanthropic CSR perception and organizational identification was found.

Research limitations/implications

The findings highlight the positive relationship between employees’ CSR perception and their workplace attitudes, shedding particular light on how employees’ personal values influence their responses to CSR in Chinese organizations.

Originality/value

This study extends the current understanding on the relationship between CSR and organizational identification. Particularly, the authors include multiple dimensions of CSR (economic, philanthropic and strategic CSR) in the research model, demonstrating that the link between CSR perception and organizational identification is influenced by employees’ collectivist orientation.

Details

Personnel Review, vol. 48 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0048-3486

Keywords

To view the access options for this content please click here
Article
Publication date: 1 July 2006

Yuka Fujimoto and Charmine E.J. Härtel

Increasingly, organizations in the Asia‐Pacific region are recognizing the importance of cross‐cultural management to the sustainability of their competitive edge…

Abstract

Purpose

Increasingly, organizations in the Asia‐Pacific region are recognizing the importance of cross‐cultural management to the sustainability of their competitive edge. Although the literature is replete with cross‐cultural studies of individualism and collectivism, little information is available on the factors that foster effective individualist–collectivist interaction (ICI) within organizations. This paper attempts to provide a theoretical description of individualists and collectivists at the individual level of analysis, which offers specific testable hypotheses about the effect of self‐representation on prejudice between individualists and collectivists (ICs).

Design/methodology/approach

In this paper, a theoretical model is presented in which intergroup prejudices and interpersonal prejudices mediate the effects of ICI and bicultural orientation toward cross‐cultural experiences and, in which, the dissimilarity openness of the climate moderates the level and outcome of prejudices flowing from ICI.

Findings

The model depicts that the outcomes of ICI are mediated by the intergroup prejudices of collectivists and the interpersonal prejudices of individualists, which are moderated by the extent of diversity‐oriented HRM policies and practices and individuals’ orientation to cross‐cultural experiences. When workforces become culturally diverse, organizations should modify HRM practices to enable the full use of the range of skills and talents available from the diversity, and to ensure affective and behavioral costs are minimized. As globalization and international competition will continue to increase, organizations including those in the Asia‐Pacific region, should seriously re‐evaluate their HRM policies to adapt and take advantage of an increasingly culturally diverse workforce.

Originality/value

The model provides a useful basis upon which organization researchers and practitioners can base their respective agendas.

Details

Cross Cultural Management: An International Journal, vol. 13 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1352-7606

Keywords

To view the access options for this content please click here
Article
Publication date: 4 September 2019

Jen-Shou Yang

The purpose of this paper is to investigate the moderating effects of power distance and collectivistic orientations on the effectiveness of intrinsic, extrinsic and…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to investigate the moderating effects of power distance and collectivistic orientations on the effectiveness of intrinsic, extrinsic and reciprocal motivators in promoting employees’ willingness to cooperate for organizational interest. An integrated theoretical framework which incorporated cultural influence on need priority and on legitimacy of social exchange was established to develop the hypotheses.

Design/methodology/approach

This study used the methodology of information-integration theory to test the research hypotheses.

Findings

This study found that power distance orientation enhanced the effectiveness of extrinsic motivator but mitigated that of intrinsic motivator, and was irrelevant to that of reciprocal motivator. In contrast, collectivistic orientation mitigated the effectiveness of extrinsic motivator but enhanced that of reciprocal motivator, and was irrelevant to that of intrinsic motivator.

Practical implications

Managers may use reciprocal motivators for employees with high collectivism in order to increase their willingness to cooperate for the interest of the organization. Meanwhile, extrinsic motivators may be utilized for employees with high power distance but may not be as effective for those with low power distance. However, managers should not expect intrinsic motivators to be as attractive to those with high power distance as to those with low power distance.

Originality/value

By integrating multiple cultural orientations and multiple work motivators in one study, this research clarified the differential moderating effects of power distance and collectivistic orientations on the effectiveness of intrinsic, extrinsic and reciprocal motivators in promoting employees’ willingness to cooperate. Potential confounding problems in prior studies derived from the correlation between cultural values and coexistence of multiple motivators were discussed.

Details

Management Decision, vol. 58 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0025-1747

Keywords

1 – 10 of over 6000