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1 – 10 of 404
Article
Publication date: 11 July 2016

Sung Ho Han, Bang Nguyen and Lyndon Simkin

The purpose of this paper is to investigate the dynamic process and the meaning of symbolic consumption according to the three symbolic needs (i.e. status needs, social…

2786

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to investigate the dynamic process and the meaning of symbolic consumption according to the three symbolic needs (i.e. status needs, social needs, status and social needs) to understand how symbolic messages are conveyed when consumers choose a brand.

Design/methodology/approach

This paper develops three dynamic models, categorized according to the consumers’ needs. The conceptual framework consists of the six constructs: collectivism/individualism, brand reputation, self-congruence, brand affect, brand identification and brand loyalty. Twelve hypotheses were developed and tested. Data were collected from consumers who had experienced well-known global chain restaurant brands. The three models were tested using confirmatory factor analysis and structural equation modelling.

Findings

Findings highlight the important mediating role of brand affect in symbolic consumption, which previously has not been revealed empirically. Moreover, it is found that self-congruence does not mediate the relationship between brand reputation, collectivism/individualism and brand affect, despite its prominence in previous symbolic consumption studies. In the status and social needs models, brand reputation mediates between collectivism/individualism and self-congruence, brand identification, brand affect and brand loyalty.

Originality/value

This is the first empirical paper to investigate symbolic consumption in the context of three types of models, according to symbolic needs, in the context of restaurant consumption. The study also identifies the major components of the consumer’s symbolic needs based on the attributes of symbolic consumption. Moreover, this study reveals that when both social needs and status needs are mixed, a hierarchy exists between consumers’ symbolic needs. Finally, the study makes an important contribution to the literature by applying the concept of brand affect to symbolic consumption research and exploring the relationships between the external motivational factors and the internal elements of symbolic consumption.

Details

European Journal of Marketing, vol. 50 no. 7/8
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0309-0566

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 3 May 2011

Guohua Wu

The intent of this article is to explore the automobile purchase patterns of Chinese Americans by examining factors driving an intriguing phenomenon – most Chinese…

5633

Abstract

Purpose

The intent of this article is to explore the automobile purchase patterns of Chinese Americans by examining factors driving an intriguing phenomenon – most Chinese Americans prefer Japanese or European brands of automobiles over US brands.

Design/methodology/approach

This article uses data from a sample of 150 respondents using a mall‐intercept survey method. Regression, analysis of variance and Chi‐square analysis were employed. The factors examined include country image, informational influence, collectivism/individualism, and brand loyalty.

Findings

This study has four findings. In their automobile purchase decision making, Chinese Americans perceive the country image of Japan most favorably, that of US least favorably, and that of Europe in‐between. Country image is important, but it is less so than other extrinsic cues such as price, brand name and service, with reliability and safety being the most important intrinsic cues. Opinions of family and friends are important, second to prior knowledge and information from consumer reports. Chinese Americans' collectivism is positively related to their susceptibility to interpersonal informational influence, yet their individualism is not. Chinese Americans are not brand loyal.

Practical implications

The article helps automobile marketers refine their marketing mix to attract Chinese American buyers. A reliable and safe automobile is the most important factor that affects their purchase decisions. Media advertising and salespeople have only marginal influence. Therefore the advice is to strengthen or improve interpersonal influence.

Originality/value

No prior research has examined the automobile purchase patterns of Chinese Americans, who, in 2006, constituted 1.2 percent of the US population, with appealing demographics to marketers.

Details

Journal of Consumer Marketing, vol. 28 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0736-3761

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 1 March 1991

Hyun O. Lee and Randall G. Rogan

Based on the collectivism‐individualism structure, the present study compared organizational conflict management behaviors between Korea (a collectivistic culture) and the…

3367

Abstract

Based on the collectivism‐individualism structure, the present study compared organizational conflict management behaviors between Korea (a collectivistic culture) and the U.S. (an individualistic culture). Employing a three‐way factorial design (Culture type x Relational distance x Power relationship), the present study registered robust effects of culture type in determining one's organizational conflict management behaviors. Specifically, Koreans are found to be extensive users of solution‐orientation strategies, while Americans prefer to use either non‐confrontation or control strategies in dealing with organizational conflicts. Moreover, the data also indicated that Koreans are more sensitive in exercising power when facing conflicts with subordinates in the organization. On the other hand, the effect of relational distance (ingroup vs. outgroup) in determining one's choice of organizational conflict management styles is found to be minimal. Implications of present findings for future intercultural communication research are also discussed.

Details

International Journal of Conflict Management, vol. 2 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1044-4068

Article
Publication date: 1 August 2010

Yue Pan, Xuebao Song, Ayalla Goldschmidt and Warren French

The purpose of the study is to investigate what values are now important to young American and Chinese managers, since they profile the direction in which their country is…

4507

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of the study is to investigate what values are now important to young American and Chinese managers, since they profile the direction in which their country is headed. It aims to explore if the ethical values of young executives in different countries are converging to a common global business culture. It also aims to argue that the individualism‐collectivism value dimension by itself does not capture the differences between the Chinese and American sample members. The vertical‐horizontal dimension, in contrast, seems to better delineate the value orientations among young executives in the two countries.

Design/methodology/approach

In this two‐phase study, both attitudinal and scenario‐based measurements are applied to assess the strength of work value orientations among similar subjects in China and the USA.

Findings

In study 1, Chinese respondents score significantly higher on a hierarchical‐vertical dimension than do the Americans, although the two groups do not differ significantly on the collectivism‐individualism dimension. In study 2, which entails resolving an ethical dilemma, the American subjects apply Egalitarianism as their most frequent expressed value, reflecting their horizontal perspective. The Chinese subjects, in contrast, rely strongly on a traditional vertical value system to resolve the ethical dilemma. Although both American and Chinese negotiators show a collectivist as well as an individualist orientation, their focuses are fundamentally different.

Originality/value

The well‐established collectivism/individualism cultural dimension has been heavily used in cross‐cultural studies, sometimes without much discretion. This study was undertaken as a preliminary attempt to outline the cultural patterns observed among young managers in America and China. The paper argues that cross‐cultural differences underlying ethical conflicts should not be reduced to the single value dimension of individualism/collectivism.

Details

Cross Cultural Management: An International Journal, vol. 17 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1352-7606

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 14 December 2020

Richard G. Brody, Gaurav Gupta and Michael Turner

The purpose of this paper is to examine factors motivating an individual to report a whistleblowing scenario to various stakeholders within a company. This paper examines…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to examine factors motivating an individual to report a whistleblowing scenario to various stakeholders within a company. This paper examines how four factors (country of origin and the espoused national cultures of masculinity, collectivism and uncertainty avoidance) influence the level of responsibility toward three stakeholders at different levels of hierarchy in an organization.

Design/methodology/approach

Using a case-based approach, this study collects data from 432 accounting students from two different countries. Using regression analysis on the pooled data, this paper provides evidence on how accounting students would behave when facing a whistleblowing situation involving their immediate supervisor.

Findings

This study finds that country of origin and espoused national cultural values influence the individual’s decision regarding whom to blow the whistle.

Originality/value

The study has improved upon the methodological deficiencies of previous studies that rely on Hofstede’s (1980) cultural values in that the paper focuses on the espoused national culture at the individual level.

Details

International Journal of Accounting & Information Management, vol. 29 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1834-7649

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 1 September 2006

Jo Ann Duffy, Suzy Fox, Betty Jane Punnett, Ann Gregory, Terri Lituchy, Silvia Inés Monserrat, Miguel R. Olivas‐Luján, Neusa Maria Bastos F. Santos and John Miller

The intent of this cross‐national research is to study the personal and cultural characteristics of successful professional women. High‐achieving women may share certain…

2012

Abstract

Purpose

The intent of this cross‐national research is to study the personal and cultural characteristics of successful professional women. High‐achieving women may share certain personal characteristics, beliefs, and experiences, regardless of the countries in which they live. However, every individual is socialized within a particular national culture, and may be expected to share certain values and expectations with other members of that culture.

Design/methodology/approach

Over 1,100 professionally “successful women” (including high‐level managers, entrepreneurs, academics, government personnel, and professionals) and 531 undergraduate business students in nine countries – Argentina, Brazil, Canada, Chile, Mexico, the USA and the West Indies (Barbados, Jamaica, St. Vincent, and the Grenadines) completed surveys containing two sets of variables: national/cultural (collectivism/individualism, power distance, uncertainty avoidance) and personal (self‐efficacy, locus of control, need for achievement).

Findings

There were significant differences in the personal characteristics between successful women and the student comparison samples, with successful women consistently higher on self‐efficacy and need for achievement, and more internal on locus of control. There were some significant but smaller than expected differences in cultural characteristics between national samples.

Originality/value

This contrast of successful women living in the Americas provides new insights for managers of international companies seeking to be gender inclusive.

Details

Management Research News, vol. 29 no. 9
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0140-9174

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 25 October 2011

Hamid Yeganeh

This article aims at offering and validating a theory‐driven conceptualization of the cultural distance index.

3682

Abstract

Purpose

This article aims at offering and validating a theory‐driven conceptualization of the cultural distance index.

Design/methodology/approach

First, the cultural distance index is conceptualized, its conceptual properties are discussed, and a generic formula is proposed. Subsequently, the generic formula is applied to Schwartz's and Hofstede's frameworks. Finally, using the new formula the cultural distance is calculated, its robustness is examined, and its advantages over the Kogut and Singh's measure are inspected.

Findings

Through this paper it is found that by considering issues such as cultural dimensions' alignment and their relative weight, it is possible to build a more accurate index of cultural distance. Moreover, based on the generic formula it is understood that collectivism/individualism and power distance in Hofstede's framework and conservatism, egalitarianism in Schwartz's model are important cultural dimensions and account for a considerable weight in the cultural distance index.

Research limitations/implications

The index is based on cultural dimensions and naturally it carries all shortcomings attributed to dimensionalization such as symmetry, linearity, stability and causality. In addition, it can be recognized that while alignment is a legitimate method, it should be interpreted cautiously because cultural dimensions are essentially nebulous concepts.

Practical implications

Researchers may use the proposed index to test the implications of cultural differences for a wide range of cross‐national issues such as joint ventures, entry mode choices, mergers, negotiations, organizational behavior, and technology transfer.

Originality/value

This article offers a novel and theory‐driven approach to building the cultural distance index. Considering the popularity of the Kogut and Singh's index in international business, the paper is of major significance.

Details

Journal of Strategy and Management, vol. 4 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1755-425X

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 20 March 2009

Paul A. Fadil, Steven Williamson and Mike Knudstrup

The purpose of this paper is to strengthen the theoretical foundation of the distributive justice literature by isolating and exploring the major independent variables…

998

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to strengthen the theoretical foundation of the distributive justice literature by isolating and exploring the major independent variables (individualism/collectivism; subordinate group membership; and subordinate performance variations) identified from previous studies. Their individual and cumulative influence on supervisory allocation behaviour is the foundation of this paper.

Design/methodology/approach

A conceptual exploration of past studies reveals the variables that impact the allocation choice of supervisors. Utilizing these factors, a theoretically based model that explores the direct and interactive influences of these independent variables on allocation behaviour, as well as the subsequent impact of the allocation behaviour on future supervisors – subordinate social exchanges are developed.

Findings

A cogent, theoretical framework is delineated for a well‐established research stream (distributive justice) that severely needs one. Propositions are also derived to direct future empirical inquiry. In sum, the allocation model succeeds in consolidating the plethora of fragmented studies that currently dot the distributive justice literary landscape.

Practical implications

This paper synthesizes past allocation studies while developing a theoretically based model which illustrate the interaction of the major independent variables. Practically, it also shows that managers cannot ignore cultural factors when compensating employees.

Originality/value

This paper provides a theoretical framework for past studies while laying the groundwork for future empirical inquiries on supervisory allocation choices.

Details

Competitiveness Review: An International Business Journal, vol. 19 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1059-5422

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 1 February 2003

Linda S. Hartenian

Teams have become increasingly popular in firms of all sizes and industries. Managers believe that teams often provide better outcomes than individuals. Firms can hire…

6240

Abstract

Teams have become increasingly popular in firms of all sizes and industries. Managers believe that teams often provide better outcomes than individuals. Firms can hire such talent or develop it. This study explored whether team training, team experience, mentoring, participation in team sports, and collectivism/individualism orientations were correlated with team knowledge, skills, and abilities (KSAs) in problem solving, communication, conflict resolution, goal setting and planning. The most consistent finding was that those with mentors were more likely to be high on all team KSAs. Employees whose teams had been together longer and those in large firms were more likely to report strong team skills. Those with training in conflict resolution and team skills reported higher conflict resolution, goal setting, and planning skills. Implications of these findings for managers are provided.

Details

Team Performance Management: An International Journal, vol. 9 no. 1/2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1352-7592

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 1 April 2001

M. Afzalur Rahim, Nace R. Magner, David Antonioni and Sahidur Rahman

We examined relationships between distributive, procedural, and interactional justice and two types of organization‐directed reactions—organizational commitment and…

Abstract

We examined relationships between distributive, procedural, and interactional justice and two types of organization‐directed reactions—organizational commitment and turnover intention—across two employee samples each from the U.S. and Bangladesh. Regression analyses of questionnaire data indicated that the three forms of justice were related to the organization‐directed reactions of both the U.S. and Bangladesh employees. The specific nature of the justice relationships varied primarily when comparing employees across the four samples, rather than across the two countries.

Details

International Journal of Conflict Management, vol. 12 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1044-4068

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