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Article
Publication date: 1 October 2005

Thomas Klikauer

Aims to test Walton and McKersie’s theory on labour negotiations, specifically in the case of German car manufacturers.

Abstract

Purpose

Aims to test Walton and McKersie’s theory on labour negotiations, specifically in the case of German car manufacturers.

Design/methodology/approach

The research is based on interviews with industrial actors in Germany’s car industry – an empirical case study.

Findings

The article explains the structural force behind the managerial drive towards production. While German managers act at an enterprise level, a structural force has been responsible for the success of Germany’s post‐WW II manufacturing. Germany’s collective bargaining structure removed wage and working‐time bargaining from local management and opened four managerial options: production, productivity, innovation, and quality. This structure forced management to focus on these four options because they lie within the realm of management prerogative. The article explains how structural divisions between intra‐enterprise level arrangements and extra‐enterprise level collective bargaining at a conceptual level can best be understood.

Originality/value

Argues that a regional and industry collective bargaining structure has supported the success of a competitive car industry in Germany.

Details

Employee Relations, vol. 27 no. 5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0142-5455

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 31 December 2019

David Kraichy and Joseph Schmidt

Using organization-level data, the purpose of this paper is to investigate whether and how turnover spreads at different job levels (i.e. managers, non-managers) and how…

Abstract

Purpose

Using organization-level data, the purpose of this paper is to investigate whether and how turnover spreads at different job levels (i.e. managers, non-managers) and how vacancy rate and manager span of control precipitate continued turnover.

Design/methodology/approach

Organization-level longitudinal data were collected quarterly from 40 Canadian organizations on various HR metrics from 2009 to 2012, totaling 232 observations. The authors used covariate balance propensity score (CBPS) weighting to make stronger causal inferences.

Findings

The organization-level data provided limited support for turnover spreading at different job levels. Instead, vacancy rate predicted subsequent non-manager turnover rates, whereas span of control predicted subsequent manager turnover rates.

Practical implications

The implications of this research are twofold. First, to offset continued turnover among non-managers, it may be wise for organizations to fill vacancies promptly, particularly when unfilled positions affect job demands and resources of those who remain. Second, to minimize ongoing manager turnover, organizations may benefit from redesigning work units to have smaller manager-to-employee ratios.

Originality/value

This study adds to the collective turnover literature by demonstrating that organizational factors play a substantive role in predicting continued manager and non-manager turnover. Moreover, by using longitudinal data and CBPS weighting, this research allowed for establishing temporal precedence and greater confidence that these factors play a causal role. Lastly, this research highlights how the factors precipitating collective turnover differ between managers and non-managers.

Details

Employee Relations: The International Journal, vol. 42 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0142-5455

Keywords

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Book part
Publication date: 18 August 2006

Kerstin A. Aumann and Cheri Ostroff

In recent years, theory and research have been increasingly devoted to understanding organizational behavior in cross-cultural and global contexts, with particular…

Abstract

In recent years, theory and research have been increasingly devoted to understanding organizational behavior in cross-cultural and global contexts, with particular attention being paid to the appropriateness of various human resources management (HRM) practices because practices that may be effective within one cultural context may not be effective in other cultural contexts. This chapter argues that a multi-level perspective is needed to explain the interplay between HRM practices and employee responses across cultural contexts. Specifically, the multi-level framework developed in this chapter elucidates the importance of fit between HRM practices, individual values, organizational values, and societal values. Societal values play a key role in the adoption of HRM practices, and the effectiveness of these HRM practices will depend largely on “fit” or alignment with the values of the societal culture in which the organization is operating. HRM practices also shape the collective responses of employees through organizational climate at the organizational level and through psychological climate at the individual level. For positive employee attitudes and responses to emerge, the climate created by the HRM practices must be aligned with societal and individual values. Building on these notions, the strength of the societal culture in which the organization is operating serves as a mechanism that links relationships between climate, value fit, and attitudes across levels of analysis. The chapter concludes with some recommendations for future research and implications for practice.

Details

Multi-Level Issues in Social Systems
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-84950-432-4

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Book part
Publication date: 18 September 2006

Teppo Felin and Nicolai Foss

Making links between micro and macro levels has been problematic in the social sciences, and the literature in strategic management and organization theory is no…

Abstract

Making links between micro and macro levels has been problematic in the social sciences, and the literature in strategic management and organization theory is no exception. The purpose of this chapter is to raise theoretical issues in developing micro-foundations for strategic management and organizational analysis. We discuss more general problems with collectivism in the social sciences by focusing on specific problems in extant organizational analysis. We introduce micro-foundations to literature by explicating the underlying theoretical foundations of the origins of individual action and interaction. We highlight opportunities for future research, specifically emphasizing the need for a rational choice programme in management research.

Details

Research Methodology in Strategy and Management
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-0-76231-339-6

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Article
Publication date: 1 November 2006

Curt M. Adams and Patrick B. Forsyth

Recent scholarship has augmented Bandura's theory underlying efficacy formation by pointing to more proximate sources of efficacy information involved in forming collective

Abstract

Purpose

Recent scholarship has augmented Bandura's theory underlying efficacy formation by pointing to more proximate sources of efficacy information involved in forming collective teacher efficacy. These proximate sources of efficacy information theoretically shape a teacher's perception of the teaching context, operationalizing the difficulty of the teaching task that faces the school and the faculty's collective competence to be successful under specific conditions. The purpose of this study was to examine the influence of three contextual variables: socioeconomic status, school level, and school structure on teacher perceptions of collective efficacy.

Design/methodology/approach

School level data were collected from a cross‐section of 79 schools in a Midwestern state. Data were analyzed at the school level using hierarchical multiple regression to determine the incremental variance in collective teacher efficacy beliefs attributed to contextual variables after accounting for the effect of prior academic performance.

Findings

Results support the premise that contextual variables do add power to explanations of collective teacher efficacy over and above the effects of prior academic performance. Further, of the three contextual variables school structure independently accounted for the most variability in perceptions of collective teacher efficacy.

Research limitations/implications

A sample of 79 schools was considered small to accurately test a hypothesized model of collective teacher efficacy formation using structural equation modeling. That approach would have had the advantage of permitting the researchers to identify the relationships among the predictor variables and between the predictors and the criterion. Additionally, there was a concern of possible aggregation bias associated with aggregating collective teacher efficacy scores to the school level. Despite these limitations, the findings hold theoretical and practical implications in that they defend the theoretical importance of contextual factors as efficacy sources. Furthermore, formalized and centralized conditions conducive to promoting perceptions of collective efficacy in teachers are identified.

Originality/value

Extant collective efficacy studies have generally not operationalized Bandura's efficacy sources to include the effects of current context. This study does.

Details

Journal of Educational Administration, vol. 44 no. 6
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0957-8234

Keywords

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Book part
Publication date: 27 June 2013

Ronit Kark and Boas Shamir

In this chapter, we integrate recent theories on followers’ self-concept and transformational leadership theory in order to develop a conceptual framework for…

Abstract

In this chapter, we integrate recent theories on followers’ self-concept and transformational leadership theory in order to develop a conceptual framework for understanding the exceptional and diverse effects transformational leaders may have on their followers. We propose that transformational leaders may influence two levels of followers’ self-concept: the relational and the collective self thus fostering personal identification with the leader and social identification with the organizational unit. Specific leader behaviors that prime different aspects of followers’ self-concepts are identified, and their possible effects on different aspects of followers’ perceptions and behaviors are discussed.

Details

Transformational and Charismatic Leadership: The Road Ahead 10th Anniversary Edition
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78190-600-2

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Article
Publication date: 24 February 2020

Juan Francisco Canal Domínguez and César Rodríguez Gutiérrez

This paper analyses the relationship between wage dispersion and firm size within a “two-tier” system of collective bargaining (firm bargaining and multi-employer…

Abstract

Purpose

This paper analyses the relationship between wage dispersion and firm size within a “two-tier” system of collective bargaining (firm bargaining and multi-employer bargaining levels). Collective bargaining has a decisive role in setting wages in Spain, and its regulation highly limits the possibility for smaller firms to negotiate their own collective agreement.

Design/methodology/approach

Based on the Spanish Structure of Earnings Survey 2006, 2010 and 2014, the authors use variance decomposition in order to deeply analyse the effect of bargaining level on wage dispersion and compare the value of each decile of the distribution of wages for the purposes of identifying the quantitative differences in wage compression.

Findings

In general, the outcomes positively linked firm size and firm bargaining to wage dispersion. However, if firm size is taken into account, the effect of firm bargaining is limited among small firm workers because this type of firm is not usually covered by firm bargaining. On the other hand, the time analysis allows observing a wage compression that follows different patterns depending on firm size, compressing the higher part of the distribution in case of small firms and the lower part in case of large firms. This should be explained by the fact that wage negotiation is dependent on firm size.

Social implications

Firm size has determined firm adjustment strategies to face the recent economic crisis and allows to evaluate the impact that changes in collective bargaining can have on wage distribution

Originality/value

There is no research that has tried to analyse the relationship between wage dispersion and firm size in a context where collective bargaining is essential to understand the wage structure. Normally, firm size plays a decisive role in wage policy given that the capacity of a company to negotiate an agreement is closely linked to its size.

Details

International Journal of Manpower, vol. 41 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0143-7720

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 13 July 2015

Melissa Mitchell and Christopher D. Zatzick

The purpose of this paper is to examine skill underutilization and collective turnover in a large professional service firm (PSF). The authors hypothesize that skill…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to examine skill underutilization and collective turnover in a large professional service firm (PSF). The authors hypothesize that skill underutilization is positively related to collective turnover, that skill underutilization is greater among professionals than nonprofessionals, and that the positive relationship between skill underutilization and collective turnover is stronger for professionals than for nonprofessionals.

Design/methodology/approach

Using survey data from a large PSF, the authors test these predictions across 191 groups (professional and nonprofessional) in 80 offices. Collective turnover rates were taken from company records one year after the survey was administered.

Findings

The authors find support for the prediction that skill underutilization is positively related to collective turnover. In addition, skill underutilization is greater among professionals than nonprofessionals within a PSF. However, the relationship between skill underutilization and collective turnover did not differ between professionals and nonprofessionals.

Research limitations/implications

While the authors find that skill underutilization is positively related to collective turnover, future research is needed to measure the group processes that occur among group members and lead to collective turnover. Limitations of this study include the inability to validate the aggregation of data from the individual level to the group level, and the generalizability of findings to other PSFs or to involuntary turnover situations.

Practical implications

Understanding the antecedents of collective turnover is of particular concern to PSFs, as they are composed of highly skilled, intrinsically motivated professionals, who generate value for the firm. These findings are particularly timely, given the significant levels of underemployment in countries throughout the world.

Originality/value

In addition to extending skill underutilization and collective turnover research to the occupational group level, the findings highlight the importance of providing development opportunities for employees during difficult economic conditions in order to minimize collective turnover.

Details

Journal of Management Development, vol. 34 no. 7
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0262-1711

Keywords

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Book part
Publication date: 6 June 2006

Roderick M. Kramer

Sociologists, social psychologists, and organizational theorists alike have shown a great deal of interest in the concept of social capital. To a large extent, this…

Abstract

Sociologists, social psychologists, and organizational theorists alike have shown a great deal of interest in the concept of social capital. To a large extent, this interest has been fueled by accumulating evidence that social capital plays a vital role in the development of more cooperative relationships within groups and organizations. Inspired by this evidence, a primary goal of the present paper is to examine more systematically the psychological underpinnings of social capital within contemporary workplaces. Drawing on social identity theory and related theories on the self, this paper develops a framework for conceptualizing how individuals’ psychological identification with a workgroup enhances their willingness to engage in behaviors that contribute to the creation of social capital within that workgroup. The paper reviews empirical evidence in favor of the framework, and draws out theoretical and applied organizational implications of the framework.

Details

Advances in Group Processes
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-0-76231-330-3

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Abstract

Details

Developing Leaders for Positive Organizing
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78714-241-1

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