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Book part
Publication date: 24 July 2020

Francis J. Yammarino, Minyoung Cheong, Jayoung Kim and Chou-Yu Tsai

For many of the current leadership theories, models, and approaches, the answer to the question posed in the title, “Is leadership more than ‘I like my boss’?,” is “no,”…

Abstract

For many of the current leadership theories, models, and approaches, the answer to the question posed in the title, “Is leadership more than ‘I like my boss’?,” is “no,” as there appears to be a hierarchy of leadership concepts with Liking of the leader as the primary dimension or general factor foundation. There are then secondary dimensions or specific sub-factors of liking of Relationship Leadership and Task Leadership; and subsequently, tertiary dimensions or actual sub-sub-factors that comprise the numerous leadership views as well as their operationalizations (e.g., via surveys). There are, however, some leadership views that go beyond simply liking of the leader and liking of relationship leadership and task leadership. For these, which involve explicit levels of analysis formulations, often beyond the leader, or are multi-level in nature, the answer to the title question is “yes.” We clarify and discuss these various “no” and “yes” leadership views and implications of our work for future research and personnel and human resources management practice.

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Research in Personnel and Human Resources Management
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-80043-076-1

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Article
Publication date: 15 August 2019

Muhammad Azeem and Leonardo Mataruna

The purpose of this paper is to investigate important determinants of the culture of collective leadership in academic organizations. The present school improvement…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to investigate important determinants of the culture of collective leadership in academic organizations. The present school improvement framework of Dubai School Inspection Board (DSIB) does not include cultural factors such as collective leadership, which is, according to many researchers, a leading factor of the operational efficiency and sustainable growth. The research objective was to identify the set of conditions that extend support to the development of collective leadership culture in the school work environment. In order to achieve research objectives, a sample of 271 employees from 12 underperforming private schools in Dubai was selected to examine the degree of the presence of visible practices promoting the culture of collective leadership. The past literature was explored to identify three manifest variables as determinants of the culture of collective leadership in the organization. The descriptive research design was adopted, and factor loadings on three manifest variables were examined through exploratory factor analysis (EFA) to validate the scale, and later the model hypotheses were tested using the linear regression model. The study has revealed that shared vision, employee’s commitment to achieving the organizational goal, and collaboration are key determinants, whereas staff commitment is the most important determinant of collective leadership. Generalization of the findings is one of the main concerns due to small sample size, which can be improved in future similar studies by running the model on the larger sample size. Indeed, this study is one of the few that provides a quantitative approach to the measurement of collective leadership in schools, and its findings can be a source of guideline for institutions in higher education and non-academic organizations as well.

Design/methodology/approach

The descriptive research design was adopted to explain the the characteristics of the population with respect to variables used in the model. The underlying variables were explored through the past literature; therefore, EFA was also undertaken to validate the relationship between scale items and manifest independent variables of the hypothesized construct. The testing of hypothesis makes this research “confirmatory” that allows making inference about the parameters of the multiple regression models in this empirical model.

Findings

The concept of collective leadership is explaining the wider role of leadership function in an organization. It is one of the cultural aspects that can be seen through everyday practices in any educational institution. These practices include shared vision among employees, commitment to achieving the common goal, and collaboration and teamwork. The results show that staff commitment is the most important determinant of collective leadership. The understanding of a cultural aspect of collective leadership is necessary to deal with the problems of nonperforming educational organizations. It is important that school leaders must think beyond the current DSIB model and include elements of collective leadership in their strategic plans. This will enable them to achieve sustainable students and organizational achievements. Employees’ clarity on the objectives, trust and collaboration are prerequisite of such culture.

Research limitations/implications

Generalization is one of the main concerns in this study. The larger sample size can help overcome this problem. The sample size in the current study was also gathered without stratification of the population. Schools can be classified with respect to gender, ethnicity, curriculum and social status. These factors were controlled in this study but can produce different results if included for the analysis. Data collection can be expanded to the entire country, Middle East and Asian region for further generalized interpretation. This will also open the scope to the cross-cultural analysis on the subject. Moreover, the mediating or moderating role of many other variables needs to be involved in the model for more accurate findings, such as curriculum, economic status of students, employees nationality and qualification, leadership experience and school budgetary volume are considered important factors which may affect school performance. A similar study can be conducted for the entire country covering all states.

Practical implications

The culture of collective leadership is not a sole cultural factor that creates success for the institution. When an organization achieves maturity in the collective leadership, employees set up goals in their own work in alignment to the overall organizational objectives. These goals will act as challenges, and with the motivated employees will take up these challenges and find new and improved ways to address the problems. This will provoke the creative thinking among employees. They will start realizing the importance of the critical knowledge in the work. Ultimately, when the organization develops a system to identify, store and make use of such knowledge, it will become learning organization, which is ready to meet future challenges.

Social implications

This study will help organizations in other sector and industry as well, especially in service industry including financial institutions, higher education, etc. This will also provide guidelines to the education ministries across the region and beyond.

Originality/value

This is a new contribution in the field of HRM or workplace practices. It describes the factors determining the culture of collective leadership that in return creates success for the organization. This paper was never published before.

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International Journal of Educational Management, vol. 33 no. 6
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0951-354X

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Article
Publication date: 10 April 2017

Zhenpeng Luo, Einar Marnburg and Rob Law

This study aims to investigate the mediating role of collective identity in the relations among transformational leadership, procedural justice and employee organizational…

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Abstract

Purpose

This study aims to investigate the mediating role of collective identity in the relations among transformational leadership, procedural justice and employee organizational commitment.

Design/methodology/approach

An empirical survey was conducted in 43 hotels in mainland China with 585 valid responses. In addition to descriptive statistics and the test of the presence of common method bias, a confirmatory factor analysis was conducted to test the validities and reliabilities of the variables; structural equation modeling and hierarchical regression analyses were conducted to test causal relations and the mediating effects of collective identity.

Findings

Results show that transformational leadership and procedural justice are good predictors of employee collective identity and organizational commitment. In addition to a strong impact on employee commitment, collective identity partially mediates the effects of transformational leadership and procedural justice on employee commitment.

Research limitations/implications

This study is restricted to China’s hotel supervisors; therefore, caution should be taken when applying the findings to other sectors, regions and higher levels of leaders.

Practical implications

Findings of this study offer managerial insights for hotel supervisors to exercise transformational leadership and procedural justice to improve employee collective identity, which drives organizational commitment.

Originality/value

As an important concept, studies on the role of self-identity are limited in management and the field of leadership. This study tested the role of collective identity in leadership and organizational commitment in the context of Chinese culture, highlighting its theoretical and practical implications.

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International Journal of Contemporary Hospitality Management, vol. 29 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0959-6119

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Developing Leaders for Positive Organizing
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78714-241-1

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Book part
Publication date: 9 August 2016

Minna Paunova and Yih-Teen Lee

Arguing that it is necessary to look into specific global leadership processes in specific contexts, this article focuses on collective global leadership in self-managed…

Abstract

Arguing that it is necessary to look into specific global leadership processes in specific contexts, this article focuses on collective global leadership in self-managed multicultural teams using an input-process-output model. Building on a study of nationally and culturally diverse self-managed teams, our work demonstrates that collective global leadership in these teams is critical for team performance (output). Our study also examines some of the affective or attitudinal antecedents of collective global leadership in self-managed multicultural teams (process) and their members’ goal orientations (input). Our findings suggest that a team learning orientation may greatly help multicultural teams overcome the liability of cultural diversity, create a positive intra-team environment, and enable collective global leadership. Our research also suggests that team performance orientation moderates the above effects.

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Advances in Global Leadership
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78635-138-8

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Article
Publication date: 14 May 2018

Ramazan Cansoy and Hanifi Parlar

The purpose of this paper is to examine the relationship between school principals’ instructional leadership behaviors, teacher self-efficacy, and collective teacher efficacy.

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1656

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to examine the relationship between school principals’ instructional leadership behaviors, teacher self-efficacy, and collective teacher efficacy.

Design/methodology/approach

The participants were a total of 427 teachers working in elementary, middle, and high schools located in the Cekmekoy district of Istanbul. The data were gathered through the “Effective School Leadership Scale,” the “Teacher Self-Efficacy Scale,” and the “Collective Efficacy Scale.” Arithmetic mean, Pearson product-moment correlation coefficient, and multiple linear regression analysis were used in the data analysis.

Findings

The results revealed positive and significant relationships between school leadership, teacher self-efficacy, and collective teacher efficacy. In addition, effective school leadership behaviors and teacher self-efficacy perceptions were found to be positive and significant predictors of collective teacher efficacy perceptions.

Originality/value

School principals can implement practices to enhance teachers’ competence, to make them feel more effective and competent as a group. In this sense, teachers who do not feel competent can be guided by those who have more experience in the profession. Additionally, opportunities through which they can experience success can be created for these teachers.

Details

International Journal of Educational Management, vol. 32 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0951-354X

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Article
Publication date: 15 January 2020

Marco DeSisto, Jillian Cavanagh and Timothy Bartram

The purpose of this paper is to examine the process of collective leadership in emergency management organisations. More specifically, the authors investigate the…

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1072

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to examine the process of collective leadership in emergency management organisations. More specifically, the authors investigate the conditions that enable or prevent collective leadership amongst key actors in the emergency management network in bushfire investigations. We also examine how chief investigators facilitate the conditions to effectively distribute leadership and the role of social networks within this process.

Design/methodology/approach

A qualitative case study approach was undertaken, and 18 semi-structured interviews were carried out with chief investigators, 6 at each of three agencies in Australia. A framework for understanding collective leadership (Friedrich et al., 2016) was used to examine key leadership constructs, baseline leadership and outcomes relative to bushfire investigations.

Findings

Findings demonstrate that there is no evidence of collective leadership at the network level of bushfire investigations. There is mixed evidence of collective leadership within bushfire investigation departments, with the Arson Squad being the only government agency to engage in collective leadership. The authors found evidence that government bureaucracy and mandated protocols inhibited the ability of formal leaders to distribute leadership, gauge a clear understanding of the level of skill and expertise amongst chief investigators and poor communication that inhibited knowledge of investigations.

Research limitations/implications

The study was limited to three bushfire investigative agencies. A future study will be carried out with other stakeholders, such as fire investigators and firefighters in the field.

Practical implications

For the government, emergency management agencies and other stakeholders, a key enabler of collective leadership within the emergency management network is the presence of a formal leader within a network. That leader has the authority and political ability to distribute leadership to other experts.

Social implications

The paper contributes to developing a better understanding of the efficacy and challenges associated with the application of collective leadership theory in a complex government bureaucracy. There are positive implications for the safety of firefighters, the protection of the broader community, their properties and livestock.

Originality/value

The authors address the lack of literature on effective leadership processes amongst emergency management agencies. The paper contributes to extending collective leadership theory by unpacking the processes through which leadership is distributed to team members and the role of institutions (i.e. fire investigation bureaucracy) on social networks within this integrative process. The authors provide new insights into the practice of collective leadership in complex bureaucratic organisations.

Details

Leadership & Organization Development Journal, vol. 41 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0143-7739

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Article
Publication date: 6 April 2020

Aoife De Brún and Eilish McAuliffe

Achieving integrated care is a key focus for health systems and has resulted in various structures between and within organisations. The reorganisation of the Irish health…

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1758

Abstract

Purpose

Achieving integrated care is a key focus for health systems and has resulted in various structures between and within organisations. The reorganisation of the Irish health system into hospital networks/groups aims to encourage work across hospitals to integrate care. This study evaluated if collective leadership emerged over time through increased interaction and collaboration following the organisation of hospitals into a network. A secondary aim was to elucidate the potential for collective leadership, through understanding the barriers and enablers perceived by participants.

Design/methodology/approach

This study employed social network analysis and qualitative interviews. Leaders across the hospital group were invited to participate in an online network survey and interviews (analysed using thematic analysis) at three time points over an 18-month period.

Findings

Although there was evidence that some parts of network were beginning to operate collectively, the structures observed were more typical of a hierarchical network. Disruption in the network and uncertainty regarding permanence of the organisational structure had a negative impact on the potential for collective leadership. Yet, progress was evident in terms of establishing building blocks for collective leadership and integration, including developing trust, mutual understanding and creating space for change.

Practical implications

This study contributes to the literature by reflecting on the mechanisms and initiatives perceived as enabling/inhibiting collective leadership. Based on this research, it is important to communicate a clear and consistent message about the plans for the organisations involved and be clear regarding the roles and expectations for those involved in introducing new approaches to leadership and integration. Honest collaboration, openness and certainty in communication will likely be important in order to help create the contextual conditions to enable collective and system approaches to introduce “stepping stones” to change. These conditions include developing interpersonal relationships between leaders, creating time and space for deep and shared reflection, and enhancing trust among colleagues.

Originality/value

A key strength of this study is the linking of leadership-as-networks theory with social network methods to investigate collective leadership in practice. This study contributes to the literature by reflecting on the mechanisms and initiatives perceived as enabling/inhibiting collective leadership.

Details

Journal of Health Organization and Management, vol. 34 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1477-7266

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Article
Publication date: 1 January 2012

Türker Kurt, Ibrahim Duyar and Temel Çalik

Failure to identify any significant relationships between principal leadership and student achievement has proved concerns about the assumed value and legitimacy of…

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2096

Abstract

Purpose

Failure to identify any significant relationships between principal leadership and student achievement has proved concerns about the assumed value and legitimacy of principal leadership. The purpose of this paper is to contribute to the current literature by empirically testing the relationships between the principal leadership and the teacher self‐efficacy, a construct which has a proven impact on student achievement. The role of collective efficacy on the relationship between transformational leadership of principals and self‐efficacy of teachers was a special focus for the study.

Design/methodology/approach

A causal comparative research design was employed to study the direct, indirect, and mediating relationships among principal leadership, teacher self‐efficacy, and collective efficacy in schools. The participants included a cluster‐random sample of 813 primary school teachers. Data gathering instruments composed of a combination of the Multifactor Leadership Questionnaire, the Collective Teacher Efficacy Scale and the Teacher's Sense of Efficacy Scale. A structural equation modelling with path analysis was employed to test the research models and hypotheses.

Findings

Findings of the study demonstrated that collective efficacy and transformation leadership jointly shape teachers' self‐efficacy. There was a significant relationship between principals' transformational leadership and teachers' self‐efficacy beliefs. This relationship was mediated and magnified by collective efficacy in schools.

Research limitations/implications

The study has the common limitations of the self‐reported perceptions of participants.

Originality/value

The study enlightened the little‐known causal relationship mechanisms through which transformational leadership practices of principals and collective efficacy of schools affect the self‐efficacy beliefs of teachers. The findings are in line with the socio‐cognitive theory which assumes the presence of reciprocal relationships among leadership, organization, and person domains in shaping organizational behaviors of teachers. The study also parallels with the emerging literature about the mediating effects of collective efficacy on the relationship between principal transformational leadership and teacher self‐efficacy.

Details

Journal of Management Development, vol. 31 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0262-1711

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Article
Publication date: 3 August 2015

Maria J Mendez, Jon P. Howell and James W. Bishop

A theoretical analysis evidences the existence of multiple patterns of collective leadership and serves as foundation for the proposal of a two-dimensional model of…

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1316

Abstract

Purpose

A theoretical analysis evidences the existence of multiple patterns of collective leadership and serves as foundation for the proposal of a two-dimensional model of collective leadership, which evaluates leadership sharedness (the extent to which leadership roles are shared by group members), and leadership distribution (the extent to which different leadership roles are permanently assigned to group members). The relationship between these dimensions and committee effectiveness is further tested.

Design/methodology/approach

A social networks methodology is used with a sample of 28 committees. Two complementary network properties (centralization and density) are used to operationalize leadership sharedness and a new measure is developed to operationalize leadership distribution. Stepwise regressions test the relation between collective leadership dimensions and performance.

Findings

The model proposed advances the understanding of collective leadership’s internal dynamics and facilitates empirical comparisons of the effectiveness of various forms of collective leadership. The highest committee performance was found in groups where members contribute equally to charismatic and supportive leadership but only when these equal contributions were high. In collective directive and participative leadership, however, equality of contribution was associated to higher performance independently on the strength of members’ contributions. No relationship was found between the distribution of leadership roles among group members and committee performance.

Research limitations/implications

A small sample size may have reduced hypothesis testing power. The intraclass corrections (ICC(2)) were lower than recommended. Finally, results cannot be extrapolated beyond committees, which have very unique characteristics due to their low typical interaction.

Practical implications

Organizations can improve committee performance by ensuring high and equal participation of members in their group’s leadership through training and selection. Enhancing participation of all members in leadership requires special attention to women and members of minorities, that are typically attributed less leadership influence and whose commitment to the group may be hurt by lack of involvement.

Originality/value

The two-dimensional model proposed goes beyond previously published models in exploring several aspects of collective leadership internal dynamics by advancing the understanding how different aspects of collective leadership patterns affect group performance.

Details

Leadership & Organization Development Journal, vol. 36 no. 6
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0143-7739

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