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Article
Publication date: 22 November 2018

George Clerk, Jason Schaub, David Hancock and Colin Martin

The purpose of this paper is to present the findings of a study considering the application of the Mental Capacity Act and Deprivation of Liberty Safeguards (DoLS). Practitioners…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to present the findings of a study considering the application of the Mental Capacity Act and Deprivation of Liberty Safeguards (DoLS). Practitioners from a range of professions were recruited to provide their views of how to respond to a variety of scenarios. GPs, nurses, social workers, physio/occupational therapists and care assistants were recruited to participate.

Design/methodology/approach

This study used the Delphi method to elicit participant views and generate consensus of opinion. The Delphi method recommends a large sample for heterogeneous groups, and round one had 98 participants from six different professional groups.

Findings

Participants did not respond consistently to the scenarios, but disagreed most significantly when patient decisions conflicted with clinical advice, and when to conduct a capacity assessment. These responses suggest that clinical responses vary significantly between individuals (even within settings or professions), and that the application of Mental Capacity Act (MCA) is complicated and nuanced, requiring time for reflection to avoid paternalistic clinical interventions.

Originality/value

Previous studies have not used a Delphi method to consider the application of MCA/DoLS. Because of this methods focus on developing consensus, it is uniquely suited to considering this practice issue. As a result, these findings present more developed understanding of the complexity and challenges for practitioner responses to some relatively common clinical scenarios, suggesting the need for greater clarity for practitioners.

Details

The Journal of Adult Protection, vol. 20 no. 5/6
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1466-8203

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 29 January 2010

Andrew McPherson and Colin Martin

A contemporary review of the psychometric properties of the Buss‐Perry Aggression Questionnaire was undertaken to assess its suitability for an alcohol dependent population. Three…

Abstract

A contemporary review of the psychometric properties of the Buss‐Perry Aggression Questionnaire was undertaken to assess its suitability for an alcohol dependent population. Three criteria were used to try to achieve this: factor analysis; internal consistency reliability; and test‐retest reliability. Factor analysis revealed that its structure is remarkably consistent in a number of populations. Internal consistency reliability and test‐retest reliability results scores proved to be mainly above the recommended threshold. A conclusion was reached regarding these results that the Buss‐Perry Aggression Questionnaire is an effective screening tool for aggression in an alcohol dependent population.

Details

Journal of Aggression, Conflict and Peace Research, vol. 2 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1759-6599

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 22 June 2009

Iain McPhee, Tim Duffy and Colin Martin

This study explored the perspectives of low‐level drug market users on the availability, purchase and consumption of illicit drugs within the social context of drug prohibition. A…

Abstract

This study explored the perspectives of low‐level drug market users on the availability, purchase and consumption of illicit drugs within the social context of drug prohibition. A snowballing technique was used to recruit 16 participants consisting of nine males and seven females aged between 17 and 43. A semi‐structured interview process elicited their views on their use of drugs, where they obtained them, their views on the impact of the criminal justice system on their drug use and finally their views on how drug users were perceived by non‐drug users. While some negative consequences of using drugs were reported, no participant considered that their use of drugs made them an addict, a criminal or antisocial. The findings from this study suggest that current punitive drug policy, which links drug use with addiction, crime and antisocial behaviour was inconsistent with the experience of the participants.

Details

Drugs and Alcohol Today, vol. 9 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1745-9265

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 10 August 2015

Colin R. Martin

This paper aims to look at some of the evidence that supports the construct of resilience and the operationalisation of the “phenomena” of resilience within contemporary society…

400

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to look at some of the evidence that supports the construct of resilience and the operationalisation of the “phenomena” of resilience within contemporary society. The concept of resilience has become an influential and society-wide construct, embraced by the positive psychology movement and impacting on educational, health and social policy significantly and demonstrably. Importantly, the concept of resilience has a substantial historical heritage and legacy and the permeation of the construct within the collective social consciousness is rarely considered or queried, but generally accepted and embraced. Moreover, the construct of resilience within itself is invariably couched within contemporary discourse as a universal good and highly desirable attribute and further still, considered by many as a fundamental component contributing to the fabric of an individual’s character.

Design/methodology/approach

The design of this paper is a short review of selective evidence of key conceptual issues.

Findings

Resilience as a concept, is defuse, generally ill-defined and highly subjective. The concept of resilience, though popular and intrinsic to a number of aspects of public and educational policy, remains controversial, provides an explanatory account of differential outcomes which may not always be positive and, importantly, may potentially disenfranchise the individual.

Originality/value

The synthesis of the brief and selective appraisal of evidence in this area suggests that the concept of resilience, if it exists at all, is highly mercurial, ambiguous in definition and despite its omnipresence as a representation of a positive and internalised attribution to the individual, has a significant negative side which is seldom considered. Querying the concept of resilience against the overwhelming backdrop of positive belief and opinion regarding the concept may represent a social heresy, however, the balance of evidence would suggest a debate about the concept is long overdue and, moreover, the concept itself provides a useful fulcrum to consider where beliefs, attitudes and opinions about abstract concepts stop and science, evidence and fact-based reflection begin.

Details

Journal for Multicultural Education, vol. 9 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2053-535X

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 1 April 2012

Marie McCaig, Anna Waugh, Tim Duffy and Colin R. Martin

Little is known about the lived experience of the older user of assistive technology. The aim of the investigation is to gain an appreciation of the experience of assistive…

431

Abstract

Purpose

Little is known about the lived experience of the older user of assistive technology. The aim of the investigation is to gain an appreciation of the experience of assistive technology (AT) in older people.

Design/methodology/approach

Qualitative phenomenology was conducted on individual interviews undertaken using a Husserlian phenomenological approach. The participants were six individuals, >65 years who all lived in supported housing.

Findings

Six key themes emerged from interviews: being unsure; being old; being a bother; being on my own; being neighbourly and being independent.

Social implications

Reactions to assistive technology are highly individualised and salient. In order to humanise the technology it is necessary to understand the person who is using it. Further research in this area is a priority as AT evolves and matures.

Originality/value

This study offers a novel insight into a neglected but important area of concern for older people.

Details

Working with Older People, vol. 16 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1366-3666

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 9 March 2012

Iain McPhee, Tim Duffy and Colin R. Martin

Shaw et al. identified the need for alcohol counsellors to have “therapeutic commitment” when working with clients or patients with alcohol problems. Studies building on this work…

174

Abstract

Purpose

Shaw et al. identified the need for alcohol counsellors to have “therapeutic commitment” when working with clients or patients with alcohol problems. Studies building on this work have focussed on how such commitment can be increased. In addition, as helping agencies have increasingly offered support services to people with drug related problems, attention has also been given to staff “therapeutic commitment” when working with both alcohol and drug using populations. This study aims to report on the evaluation of the impact of an alcohol and drugs awareness training programme which was provided for personal advisors (PAs) for young vulnerable people based in a government funded criminal justice project in London.

Design/methodology/approach

A three‐day alcohol and drug awareness programme was provided for 38 personal advisors. Participants completed an adapted version of the alcohol and alcohol problems perception questionnaire (AAPPQ) assessment instrument, previously developed by Shaw et al., immediately before and then again three weeks after the programme ended. This self‐completion instrument is designed to measure the alcohol and drugs knowledge, attitudes and confidence of the PAs in working with service users experiencing alcohol and drug related difficulties. Components of the AAPPQ are specifically designed to assess staff in relation to their role legitimacy, role adequacy, role support, and role satisfaction. In total, 38 participants completed the AAPPQ at Time 1. However, AAPPQ data for the pre‐and post training programme were only obtained for 16. Time 1 and Time 2 responses for these 16 were entered into SPSS and analysed using five‐paired samples t‐tests.

Findings

Participants significantly improved their attitudes to working with, and having confidence in the engagement of young people with alcohol and drug problems. Positive changes were also observed in relation to participants' role legitimacy, role adequacy, role support, and role satisfaction. A positive but non‐significant change in participant motivation was identified.

Originality/value

Alcohol and drugs awareness training programmes have a demonstrable and positive impact on the confidence, perceived role, and confidence of personal advisors working with service users with addiction issues.

Details

Drugs and Alcohol Today, vol. 12 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1745-9265

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 29 November 2013

Johanna Buchcik, Joachim Westenhoefer and Colin R. Martin

Definition-problems concerning the terms “migrant” and “Health-Related Quality of Life” (HRQoL) have a negative impact on the operationalization and measurement of the…

Abstract

Purpose

Definition-problems concerning the terms “migrant” and “Health-Related Quality of Life” (HRQoL) have a negative impact on the operationalization and measurement of the multidimensional and subjective construct of HRQoL. The aims of this systematic literature review are to address the following questions: How can the instruments used within the research field “migration and HRQoL” be described or categorized? Which dimensions (psychological, physical and social) and associated sub-dimensions have been used concerning measuring HRQoL when measures are applied to migrants?

Design/methodology/approach

A systematic review was conducted. Three databases (Medline, Embase and Cinahl) were systematically searched for the investigation on HRQoL of migrants. Articles written in English, German and Polish, published since 2003 and meeting other inclusion criteria, were included in the final analysis.

Findings

In the first stage a total of 4,062 studies were identified. However, very few studies were found to focus on HRQoL among migrants. Finally, 28 studies were included in the analysis. The results confirm that the terms “migrant” and “Quality of Life” and “Health-Related Quality of Life” are neither congruently used nor defined, respectively, within these studies, which consequently impacts deleteriously on the application and measurement of the concept in these groups. The majority of the studies reported to measure HRQoL with a well-known and validated HRQoL instrument. The physical dimensions (symptoms/pain/vitality, energy/vitality/sleep and the objective/subjective health status) are predominantly represented in the reviewed literature. The psychological dimension mostly includes sub-dimensions such as psychological stress and depressive symptoms; the social dimension was predominantly considered as the sub-dimension social relationships/networking.

Originality/value

This paper highlights profound issues in the accurate assessment of HRQoL in migrants. This may have a significant impact on delivery of appropriate evidenced-based care for migrants in need of healthcare intervention.

Details

International Journal of Migration, Health and Social Care, vol. 9 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1747-9894

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 17 June 2011

Sandra van Eckert, Uta Gaidys and Colin R. Martin

Nursing staff display symptoms of psychological stress more frequently than members of other professions. The subjective experience of embitterment also takes on a greater…

Abstract

Purpose

Nursing staff display symptoms of psychological stress more frequently than members of other professions. The subjective experience of embitterment also takes on a greater significance. This paper seeks to determine if level of education has an impact on the degree of embitterment as a function of educational status.

Design/methodology/approach

A between subjects design was used with academic status as the independent variable and self‐report embitterment, using the German version of the Bern Embitterment Inventory, as the primary dependent variable. A random sample of 212 German nurses with academic and non‐academic education participated in the study.

Findings

The comparison between academic and non‐academic nursing staff revealed a statistically significant difference indicating that an academic education has a positive effect on the subjective perception of embitterment (p=0.001).

Originality/value

Considering the current situation of academic nurses within the German health care system and the everyday nursing routine, psychological stress potential of unique dimensions such as embitterment have important ramifications in terms of understanding the relationship between the mental health and academic status of nurses within this system. The findings suggest the merit and value of further implementation of academic nursing study courses in Germany.

Details

The Journal of Mental Health Training, Education and Practice, vol. 6 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1755-6228

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 7 September 2012

Iain McPhee, Colin R. Martin and Anthony Sneider

This paper aims to critically explore the consequences of how Scotland interprets the UK Misuse of Drugs Act (1971). Scotland prosecutes 24 per cent of people found in possession…

499

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to critically explore the consequences of how Scotland interprets the UK Misuse of Drugs Act (1971). Scotland prosecutes 24 per cent of people found in possession of illegal drugs for drug “dealing” compared to less than 15 per cent in England and Wales and less than 16 per cent in Northern Ireland.

Design/methodology/approach

The paper provides a narrative review in the context of the background of the economic and social costs of illegal drugs in Scotland and compares this with the UK and Northern Ireland.

Findings

The explanation for such a wide disparity in numbers of dealers between these countries proposed is that the Scottish Police force is comparatively more successful at persuading courts that small quantities of drugs rather than for personal use are in fact for onward sale or supply to others.

Practical implications

The police in Scotland have a network of specialist drug units in which officers make decisions in the absence of benchmarks against which to judge quantities of repossessed drugs. Taking this approach, a devolved Scotland's commitment to drug prohibition has resulted in some very curious differences in classifications of prosecutions compared to other countries.

Originality/value

The paper explores the consequences of how Scotland deals with the use of illegal drugs and the economic and social costs.

Details

Drugs and Alcohol Today, vol. 12 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1745-9265

Keywords

Content available
Article
Publication date: 17 June 2011

Peter Ryan

299

Abstract

Details

The Journal of Mental Health Training, Education and Practice, vol. 6 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1755-6228

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