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Article
Publication date: 4 July 2008

Colin F. McDonald, Aristide F. Massardo, Colin Rodgers and Aubrey Stone

This paper seeks to evaluate the potential of heat exchanged aeroengines for future Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV), helicopter, and aircraft propulsion, with emphasis…

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Abstract

Purpose

This paper seeks to evaluate the potential of heat exchanged aeroengines for future Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV), helicopter, and aircraft propulsion, with emphasis placed on reduced emissions, lower fuel burn, and less noise.

Design/methodology/approach

Aeroengine performance analyses were carried out covering a wide range of parameters for more complex thermodynamic cycles. This led to the identification of major component features and the establishing of preconceptual aeroengine layout concepts for various types of recuperated and ICR variants.

Findings

Novel aeroengine architectures were identified for heat exchanged turboshaft, turboprop, and turbofan variants covering a wide range of applications. While conceptual in nature, the results of the analyses and design studies generally concluded that heat exchanged engines represent a viable solution to meet demanding defence and commercial aeropropulsion needs in the 2015‐2020 timeframe, but they would require extensive development.

Research limitations/implications

As highlighted in Parts I and II, early development work was focused on the use of recuperation, but this is only practical with compressor pressure ratios up to about 10. For today's aeroengines with pressure ratios up to about 50, improvement in SFC can only be realised by incorporating intercooling and recuperation. The new aeroengine concepts presented are clearly in an embryonic stage, but these should enable gas turbine and heat exchanger specialists to advance the technology by conducting more in‐depth analytical and design studies to establish higher efficiency and “greener” gas turbine aviation propulsion systems.

Originality/value

It is recognised that meeting future environmental and economic requirements will have a profound effect on aeroengine design and operation, and near‐term efforts will be focused on improving conventional simple‐cycle engines. This paper has addressed the longer‐term potential of heat exchanged aeroengines and has discussed novel design concepts. A deployment strategy, aimed at gaining confidence with emphasis placed on assuring engine reliability, has been suggested, with the initial development and flight worthiness test of a small recuperated turboprop engine for UAVs, followed by a larger recuperated turboshaft engine for a military helicopter, and then advancement to a larger and far more complex ICR turbofan engine.

Details

Aircraft Engineering and Aerospace Technology, vol. 80 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0002-2667

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 16 May 2008

Colin F. McDonald, Aristide F. Massardo, Colin Rodgers and Aubrey Stone

To advance the design of heat exchanged gas turbine propulsion aeroengines utilising experience gained from early development testing, and based on technologies prevailing…

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Abstract

Purpose

To advance the design of heat exchanged gas turbine propulsion aeroengines utilising experience gained from early development testing, and based on technologies prevailing in the 1970‐2000 time frame.

Design/methodology/approach

With emphasis on recuperated helicopter turboshaft engines, particularly in the 1,000 hp (746 kW) class, detailed performance analyses, parametric trade‐off studies, and overall power plant layouts, based on state‐of‐the‐art turbomachinery component efficiencies and high‐temperature heat exchanger technologies, were undertaken for several engine configuration concepts.

Findings

Using optimised cycle parameters, and the selection of a light weight tubular heat exchanger concept, an attractive engine architecture was established in which the recuperator was fully integrated with the engine structure. This resulted in a reduced overall engine weight and lower specific fuel consumption, and represented a significant advancement in technology from the modified simple‐cycle engines tested in the late 1960s.

Practical implications

While heat exchanged engine technology advancements were projected, there were essentially two major factors that essentially negated the continued study and development of recuperated aeroengines, namely again as mentioned in Part I, the reduced fuel consumption was not regarded as an important economic factor in an era of low‐fuel cost, and more importantly in this time frame very significant simple‐cycle engine performance advancements were made with the use of significantly higher pressure ratios and increased turbine inlet temperatures. Simply stated, recuperated variants could not compete with such a rapidly moving target.

Originality/value

Establishing an engine design concept in which the recuperator was an integral part of the engine structure to minimise the overall power plant weight was regarded as a technical achievement. Such an approach, together with the emergence of lighter weight recuperators of assured structural integrity, would find acceptance around the year 2000 when there was renewed interest in the use of more efficient heat exchanged variants towards the future goal of establishing “greener” aeroengines, and this is discussed in Part III of this paper.

Details

Aircraft Engineering and Aerospace Technology, vol. 80 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0002-2667

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 21 March 2008

Colin F. McDonald, Aristide F. Massardo, Colin Rodgers and Aubrey Stone

Interest is currently being expressed in heat exchanged propulsion gas turbines for a variety of aeroengine applications, and in support of this, the aim of this paper is…

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Abstract

Purpose

Interest is currently being expressed in heat exchanged propulsion gas turbines for a variety of aeroengine applications, and in support of this, the aim of this paper is to evaluate the relevance of experience gained from development testing of several recuperated aeroengines in the USA in the late 1960s.

Design/methodology/approach

Technology status, including engine design features, performance, and specific weight of recuperated propulsion gas turbines based on radial and axial turbomachinery, that were development tested in the power range of about 300 to 4,000 hp (224 to 2,984 kW) is discussed in Part I.

Findings

A successful flight worthiness test was undertaken in the USA of a helicopter powered solely by a recuperated turboshaft engine and this demonstrated a specific fuel consumption reduction of over 25 percent compared with the simple‐cycle engine. However; in an era of low‐fuel cost, and uncertainty about the long‐term structural integrity of the high‐temperature heat exchanger, further development work was not undertaken.

Practical implications

The gas turbines tested were based on conventional simple‐cycle engines with essentially “bolted‐on” recuperators. Optimum approaches to minimize engine overall weight were needed in which the recuperator was integrated with the engine structure from the onset of design, and these are discussed in Part II.

Originality/value

Based on engine hardware testing, a formidable technology base was established, which although dated, could provide insight into the technical issues likely to be associated with the introduction of future heat exchanged aeroengines. These are projected to have the potential for reduced fuel burn, less emissions, and lower noise, and recuperated and intercooled turboshaft, turboprop, and turbofan variants are discussed in Part III.

Details

Aircraft Engineering and Aerospace Technology, vol. 80 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0002-2667

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 1 November 1991

Colin McDonald

The manner in which sponsorship affects image is unique, and likelyto be missed by conventional measurements of corporate and brand values.The “goodwill” effects…

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Abstract

The manner in which sponsorship affects image is unique, and likely to be missed by conventional measurements of corporate and brand values. The “goodwill” effects engendered by sponsorship are subtle and difficult for consumers to articulate. It is argued that current methods of sponsorship evaluation really measure the publicity surrounding the sponsorship and not the sponsorship as such.

Details

European Journal of Marketing, vol. 25 no. 11
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0309-0566

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 1 November 1999

Janet Hoek

Abstract

Details

International Journal of Sports Marketing and Sponsorship, vol. 1 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1464-6668

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 1 April 1995

Bernard Frank Kinman and Gerald Vinten

Tobacco has exercised the interest of the nation since Elizabethan times, and the inhalation of its smoke for pleasure has become very widespread. It was not until the…

Abstract

Tobacco has exercised the interest of the nation since Elizabethan times, and the inhalation of its smoke for pleasure has become very widespread. It was not until the mid‐twentieth century, however, that its effects upon health were suspected. It is now widely accepted that tobacco smoke is implicated in a range of dangerous diseases, although the tobacco industry sometimes argues that the link is not proven. The arguments about the conflicting needs of a large, world‐wide industry and the health and prosperity of individuals and society are complex, and often influenced by conflicting vested interests. Government's involvement in the issues is further complicated by its reliance upon large tobacco revenues. The link between advertising and increased smoking, either by existing or new smokers, is not proved by research, although there are strong indications that it exists. The behaviour of most parties involved, including the tobacco companies, indicates that they share the belief of a link. Voluntary controls upon tobacco advertising have had some effect, in that, for example, advertising in the U.K. is no longer overtly directed at children, but various anti‐smoking lobbies believe voluntary control to be ineffective. The present British government has toyed wth the possibility of statutory control, but faces stiff opposition from back‐benchers and within the cabinet; it is also probably philosophically opposed to such measures. More research is needed into the link between advertising and smoking behaviour.

Details

International Journal of Sociology and Social Policy, vol. 15 no. 4/5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0144-333X

Article
Publication date: 1 June 2002

Peter Jones, Peter Shears, David Hillier and Colin Clarke‐Hill

Briefly covers the development of the “brand” concept in marketing before looking at the experience of the service brand. Outlines the development of the fast food sector…

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Abstract

Briefly covers the development of the “brand” concept in marketing before looking at the experience of the service brand. Outlines the development of the fast food sector in the UK and discusses the make up and growth of McDonalds, KFC and Burger King in turn. Gathers customer perception about each brand by the use of discussion groups. Concludes that the ideas of focus, consistency and value were key, together with community activities.

Details

Management Research News, vol. 25 no. 6/7
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0140-9174

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 1 March 2006

Reviews the latest management developments across the globe and pinpoints practical implications from cutting‐edge research and case studies.

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Abstract

Purpose

Reviews the latest management developments across the globe and pinpoints practical implications from cutting‐edge research and case studies.

Design/methodology/approach

This briefing is prepared by an independent writer who adds their own impartial comments and places the articles in context.

Findings

Followers of popular music still marvel at Madonna's reinvention after 20 years of changing musical styles, personas and even fan bases. Every new album (if that word still has currency in musical circles) brought a new look and a new sound embracing some emerging trend not yet in the mainstream. In the process, the “material girl” has embraced spirituality, the American icon become an English country lady – well almost!

Practical implications

Provides strategic insights and practical thinking that have influenced some of the world's leading organizations.

Originality/value

The briefing saves busy executives and researchers hours of reading time by selecting only the very best, most pertinent information and presenting it in a condensed and easy‐to‐digest format.

Details

Strategic Direction, vol. 22 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0258-0543

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 1 June 1990

Linda P. Booth, R.J. Neale and Colin H. Tilston

A pilot survey was conducted at two secondary schools inNottinghamshire in order to determine lunchtime arrangements,expenditure, factors affecting food choice, the…

Abstract

A pilot survey was conducted at two secondary schools in Nottinghamshire in order to determine lunchtime arrangements, expenditure, factors affecting food choice, the popularity of other foods and eating‐out places, the satisfaction with the dining room and the reasons for not using the cafeteria. A total of 839 questionnaires completed by the children were analysed. The survey revealed a decline in the use of the cafeteria with increasing age. The amount spent at lunchtime was a significant factor in indicating whether the child had a school meal. Variety was the main factor affecting food choice. Future research will examine in greater detail the non‐cafeteria user in order to develop targeting strategies for increasing school meal uptake.

Details

British Food Journal, vol. 92 no. 6
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0007-070X

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 6 December 2019

Hsiu-Yuan (Jody) Tsao, Colin L. Campbell, Sean Sands, Carla Ferraro, Alexis Mavrommatis and Steven (Qiang) Lu

This paper aims to develop a novel and generalizable machine-learning based method of measuring established marketing constructs through passive analysis of…

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to develop a novel and generalizable machine-learning based method of measuring established marketing constructs through passive analysis of consumer-generated textual data. The authors term this method scale-directed text analysis.

Design/methodology/approach

The method first develops a dictionary of words related to specific dimensions of a construct that is used to assess textual data from any source for a specific meaning. The method explicitly recognizes both specific words and the strength of their underlying sentiment.

Findings

Results calculated using this new approach are statistically equivalent to responses to traditional marketing scale items. These results demonstrate the validity of the authors’ methodology and show its potential to complement traditional survey approaches to assessing marketing constructs.

Research limitations/implications

The method we outline relies on machine learning and thus requires either large volumes of text or a large number of cases. Results are reliable only at the aggregate level.

Practical implications

The method detail provides a means of less intrusive data collection such as through scraped social media postings. Alternatively, it also provides a means of analyzing data collected through more naturalistic methods such as open-response forms or even spoken language, both likely to increase response rates.

Originality/value

Scale-directed text analysis goes beyond traditional methods of conducting simple sentiment analysis and word frequency or percentage counts. It combines the richness of traditional textual and sentiment analysis with the theoretical structure and analytical rigor provided by traditional marketing scales, all in an automatic process.

Details

European Journal of Marketing, vol. 54 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0309-0566

Keywords

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