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International Perspectives on Democratization and Peace
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-80043-068-6

Book part
Publication date: 13 March 2019

Gabriel Nelson

Colombia has one of the highest levels of inequality in landholding in the world. This inequality has persisted in spite of numerous state-led land reform efforts, which…

Abstract

Colombia has one of the highest levels of inequality in landholding in the world. This inequality has persisted in spite of numerous state-led land reform efforts, which leads to the question: why has it been so difficult to reverse unequal land distribution in Colombia? To answer this question, the chapter examines the role of the state, non-state armed groups, land inequality, land reform efforts, and a history of violence to reveal the relationship between land, inequality and violence in Colombia. This chapter explores the nature of this relationship to understand Colombia’s enduring inequality and to inform theoretical approaches to statehood and power. Rather than reducing state capacity to common Weberian binary constructions of state and statelessness, I explore how state capacity takes on different forms in different regions of Colombia – analyzing how various actors shape land inequality and violence across the territory. Using a comprehensive longitudinal panel data set of displaced persons, I use a negative binomial regression model to demonstrate how land reform, land inequality, and a history of violence have directly affected current displacement of citizens. I argue that several constellations of powerful social actors have at various points converged to control land, through non-state armed groups, to exert a local form of logistical control outside the scope of the federal state, deeply affecting the dynamics violence across different territories. These groups have subsequently engaged in a land grabbing process that has resulted in a reverse form of land reform – leading to persisting inequality in Colombia.

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The Politics of Land
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78756-428-2

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Book part
Publication date: 13 December 2021

Colleen Alena O'Brien

This study examines the cost-effectiveness of reintegrating ex-combatants from armed groups in Colombia. After an ethnographic exploration of the challenges of…

Abstract

This study examines the cost-effectiveness of reintegrating ex-combatants from armed groups in Colombia. After an ethnographic exploration of the challenges of reintegration that ex-combatants face, I evaluate the cost-effectiveness of the reintegration program operated by the Agency for Reincorporation and Normalization (Agencia para la Reincorporación y la Normalización, ARN), the government agency that handles the reintegration of ex-combatants from all armed groups in Colombia. I analyze the agency's approaches (past, current, and proposed) toward reintegrating ex-combatants from various armed groups, comparing the financial costs against outcomes. The ARN has been successful at achieving two of its primary goals: minimizing recidivism and maximizing employment of ex-combatants. Only 10% of ARN program participants rejoin criminal groups and 93% find employment across both the formal and informal sectors (informal employment is widespread in Colombia and Latin America). The ARN has been unsuccessful at providing adequate security for ex-combatants. Approximately 6% of ex-combatants enrolled in the ARN program have been murdered since 2001: approximately 3,000 program participants have been assassinated. Next, I evaluate the cost-effectiveness of both the ARN's overall program and its outcome across different regions and demographics of the participant population. Finally, I suggest ways that other countries facing the challenge of reintegrating populations of ex-combatants can learn from the Colombian experience, as well as ways that Colombia can improve its own reintegration cost-effectiveness.

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Infrastructure, Morality, Food and Clothing, and New Developments in Latin America
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-80117-434-3

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Book part
Publication date: 27 January 2022

Manuela Gomez-Valencia, Camila Vargas and Maria Alejandra Gonzalez-Perez

This chapter reviews Colombia's unique environmental and social features and Colombia's realities in the third decade of the twenty-first century. It is crucial to…

Abstract

This chapter reviews Colombia's unique environmental and social features and Colombia's realities in the third decade of the twenty-first century. It is crucial to understand the country's recent past and to take its structural and historic struggles into account when building sustainable futures.

This chapter also reports the findings of a primary data research study using futures scenario methodologies. The study participants represent different stakeholders' visions of four alternative futures regarding the climate crisis and massive biodiversity loss and social and economic crises.

This chapter's empirical study identifies Colombia's constraints to building a future that is just, inclusive and centred on nature. In addition, we describe in detail the structural changes needed for Colombia to achieve the best possible future scenario (socioeconomic prosperity and resilience to climate change). Finally, this chapter offers conclusions and recommendations.

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Regenerative and Sustainable Futures for Latin America and the Caribbean
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-80117-864-8

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Book part
Publication date: 30 May 2019

John Macías-Prada, Mario Vargas-Sáenz, Manuel Vázquez-Zacarías, and Alfonso López-Lira

This chapter presents an overview of social entrepreneurship and social innovation in Colombia and explores its implications in the Pacific Alliance. It is organized into…

Abstract

This chapter presents an overview of social entrepreneurship and social innovation in Colombia and explores its implications in the Pacific Alliance. It is organized into five sections that provide an overview of the fields of social entrepreneurship and social innovation with the aim of sharing experiences that have occurred in the country with the international academic community. It offers a description of the social and economic context of Colombia and then presents the situations that currently serve as the basis of social entrepreneurship and social innovation. It also discusses the main actors that are active in this context. In particular, the chapter emphasizes the experience of the city of Medellín, which is thought to provide an auspicious scenario for the establishment of a business ecosystem based on social entrepreneurship and social innovation. The learnings of Colombia can serve as a relevant example for the countries of the Pacific Alliance that are currently building their social business ecosystems.

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Regional Integration in Latin America
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78973-159-0

Keywords

Book part
Publication date: 11 July 2007

Oliver Villar

For Colombia, cocaine is a product that is sold for profit in the United States. Mainstream political economy, let alone the other social sciences, has little to say about…

Abstract

For Colombia, cocaine is a product that is sold for profit in the United States. Mainstream political economy, let alone the other social sciences, has little to say about the process of extraction of surplus value in the production and distribution of cocaine, in other words, how cocaine is exploited for profit. The paper argues that the conventional framework, which locates profits generated from the cocaine trade in an economic model of crime shields a much deeper reality than simply ‘money laundering’ as a ‘legal problem.’ The central argument is that the cocaine trade in general, and the cocaine economy in particular, are a vital aspect of U.S. imperialism in the Colombian economic system. The paper tackles a critical problem: the place of cocaine in the re-colonization of Colombia – defined as ‘narcocolonialism’ – and the implications of the cocaine trade generally for U.S. imperialism in this context. The paper evaluates selected literature on the Colombian cocaine trade and offers an alternative framework underpinned by a political economy analysis drawn from Marx and Lenin showing that cocaine functions as an ‘imperial commodity’ – a commodity for which there exists a lucrative market and profit-making opportunity. It is also a means of capital accumulation by what could be termed, Colombia's comprador ‘narcobourgeoisie;’ dependent on U.S. imperialism. It is hoped that by analyzing cocaine with a Marxist interpretation and political economy approach, then future developments in understanding drugs in Colombia's complex political economy may be anticipated.

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Transitions in Latin America and in Poland and Syria
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-84950-469-0

Book part
Publication date: 12 January 2021

Maria Victoria Whittingham

Uncertainty is one of the principal features of public administration in Colombia. Therefore, presenting a clear and consistent analysis is difficult. This uncertainty…

Abstract

Uncertainty is one of the principal features of public administration in Colombia. Therefore, presenting a clear and consistent analysis is difficult. This uncertainty exists alongside interesting efforts to modernize institutions. Among the challenges faced by public administration in Colombia, we find corruption, illegal bands of drug traffickers, and the lack of trust between critical actors involved in governance. The aim of this chapter is to share an analysis that illustrates the difficulties and contradictions faced by those working in the public sector.

Colombia is a legal social state organized in the form of a unitary republic, decentralized, with the autonomy of its territorial units, democratic, participatory, and pluralistic, based on respect of human dignity, on the work and solidarity of the individuals who belong to it, and the predominance of the general interest” (National Constitution, 1st Article).

Colombia is a legal social state organized in the form of a unitary republic, decentralized, with the autonomy of its territorial units, democratic, participatory, and pluralistic, based on respect of human dignity, on the work and solidarity of the individuals who belong to it, and the predominance of the general interest” (National Constitution, 1st Article).

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The Emerald Handbook of Public Administration in Latin America
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-83982-677-1

Book part
Publication date: 7 September 2020

César Augusto Oliveros-Ocampo, Rosa María Chávez and Myrna Leticia Bravo

Tourism is sensitive to many factors related to security, such as terrorism and armed conflict. This scenario can be considered for Colombia and its National Natural…

Abstract

Tourism is sensitive to many factors related to security, such as terrorism and armed conflict. This scenario can be considered for Colombia and its National Natural Parks. The signing of the peace agreement with the revolutionary armed forces (FARC-EP) of Colombia that would end the armed conflict in 2016 offers economic possibilities for the country where tourism represents an important option, especially in natural areas where the government has regained control. This has had an impact on the sustained growth of tourism demand. The objective of this study is to determine the sensitivity of the tourism market in Colombia and natural parks and its relationship with the evolutionary dynamics of tourism, in a context of armed conflict. Variables related to visitors and the armed conflict were associated by autoregressive vectors, Pearson correlation test and Granger causality. A correlation of −0.5474 was found for the accumulated period from 1995 to 2018. It was also determined that the number of victims of the armed conflict is the Granger cause of the number of visitors to natural parks. The study concludes that the sensitivity of tourism in natural parks in Colombia is a consequence of State policy for the partial termination of the internal armed conflict.

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Tourism, Terrorism and Security
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-83867-905-7

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 6 September 2011

Don P. Clark

This paper proposes to use changes in intra‐industry specialization indicators over the period 1996‐2008 to assess the potential for factor adjustment pressures that may…

Abstract

Purpose

This paper proposes to use changes in intra‐industry specialization indicators over the period 1996‐2008 to assess the potential for factor adjustment pressures that may arise in the USA if the proposed USA‐Colombia Trade Promotion Agreement (TPA) is implemented. Results show that there is considerable scope for intra‐industry specialization between Colombia and the USA. The TPA should result in a larger increase in US exports to Colombia than US imports from Colombia, because Colombian exporters face much lower tariffs in the USA market than do US exporters in the Colombian market. Given the tariff asymmetry, scope for intra‐industry specialization, the relatively large size of the US market, and the small number of US industries that are likely to encounter factor adjustment pressures, the USA should ratify the agreement immediately.

Design/methodology/approach

Changes in intra‐industry specialization indicators are used to identify US industries that may face factor adjustment pressures as a result of the proposed USA‐Colombia TPA.

Findings

There is considerable scope for intra‐industry specialization between Colombia and the USA. Few US industries will be candidates for factor adjustment pressures.

Practical applications

The USA should ratify the TPA.

Originality/value

A new methodology is used to assess potential factor adjustment pressures associated with a TPA.

Details

Journal of Economic Studies, vol. 38 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0144-3585

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 10 July 2017

Mbaye Fall Diallo and Jose Ribamar Siqueira Jr

Brand experience is a key factor that helps elucidate why consumers choose a given brand among others. The purpose this paper is to investigate how previous experience…

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Abstract

Purpose

Brand experience is a key factor that helps elucidate why consumers choose a given brand among others. The purpose this paper is to investigate how previous experience with store brands affects store brand purchase intention in two emerging markets and whether the cultural context moderates the relationships between store brand positive or negative cues and store brand purchase intention.

Design/methodology/approach

A store-intercept survey undertaken in the Latin American context generated 769 usable responses from consumers of two metropolitan cities (Brasilia and Bogota), respectively, in Brazil and Colombia. The questionnaires were collected in four well-established retail chains by professional investigators. Structural equation modelling was used to test a series of proposed hypotheses.

Findings

Overall, this paper reveals that consumers in Latin America do care about brand experience when shopping. More specifically, the results indicate that previous positive experience with store brands has a positive effect on consumer purchase intention in both countries investigated. In Brazil, store brand price perceptions mediate rather strongly the relationship between previous experience with store brands and purchase intention. In contrast, this effect is weak in Colombia. Store brand perceived risk has significant mediation effects in Brazil, but no mediation effects in Colombia. The authors also underline heterogeneous moderation effects of the cultural context, suggesting that common perceptions of Latin America as a culturally homogeneous region are stereotypical.

Research limitations/implications

Respondents were consumers of only two Latin American emerging countries (Brazil and Colombia) and shoppers of two retail chains in each country. Caution should therefore be exercised when generalising the results to other emerging markets.

Practical implications

The paper offers recommendations on how to standardise/adapt brand experience management in different Latin American markets. Overall, retailers should go beyond the transaction itself and establish true differentiation using different store brand ranges. However, due to differences in cultural contexts, marketing communication should adopt different approaches to each country: emphasise the price advantages of store brands in Brazil, but focus on other factors such as quality in Colombia. Because they are culturally bound, risk perceptions towards store brands should also be managed carefully. It would be possible to target premium consumer segments with standard store brands in Colombia while a more sophisticated approach is necessary in Brazil (e.g. co-branding or launching more premium store brands).

Originality/value

By employing three theoretical frameworks (learning theory, cue utilisation theory and culture theory), this research investigates the effect of previous experience with store brands on purchase intention in two emerging countries that are geographically close but culturally different. It highlights direct and indirect processes of brand experience and underlines significant structural path differences between the two Latin American countries investigated in terms of consumption behaviour towards store brands.

Details

International Marketing Review, vol. 34 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0265-1335

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