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Article
Publication date: 8 November 2019

Janika Bachmann

The purpose of this paper is to examine how labour market changes impact the change in the aggregated household consumption, which is a topic that is under-researched in Japan.

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to examine how labour market changes impact the change in the aggregated household consumption, which is a topic that is under-researched in Japan.

Design/methodology/approach

The author uses a three-step approach. The first step is a descriptive overview of the trends for cohort, age and year. The second step is to test the variation attributable to age-period-cohort interactions using APC analysis. The third step is to check if identifiable linear trend exists between the consumption changes and the labour market changes.

Findings

The analysis shows that major labour market changes per se do not contribute to household consumption adjustment. Meanwhile, the labour market conditions at the time of joining the labour force may be more important in shaping consumption during working life period than labour market changes during employment.

Research limitations/implications

The cohorts are created based on birth years, which is a limitation imposed by the data availability rather than characteristics of the population group. The main reason behind the limited data points is the survey being conducted every five years and 2014 being the most recent year for which the data are available.

Originality/value

Research about cohort consumption in Japan is limited to the consumption composition changes or to the growing population of unmarried singles. This analysis will examine how labour market changes impact the change in the aggregated household consumption, which is a topic that is under-researched in Japan. In the analysis, the author uses the Python APC model and Python statsmodel OLS regression, providing the notebooks with code and full results in Appendices.

Details

Review of Behavioral Finance, vol. 12 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1940-5979

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Article
Publication date: 17 May 2021

Antti Kähäri

This study investigates how the consumption of sugar products and non-alcoholic beverages has changed across birth cohorts. In addition, this study examines how the…

Abstract

Purpose

This study investigates how the consumption of sugar products and non-alcoholic beverages has changed across birth cohorts. In addition, this study examines how the socio-economic gaps in the consumption of said products have evolved across birth cohorts.

Design/methodology/approach

The research data are drawn from the Finnish household expenditure surveys covering the period 1985–2016 (n = 44,286). An age-period-cohort methodology is utilised through the age-period-cohort-trended lag model. The model assumes that the linear long-term component of change is caused by generations replacing one-another, and that the age effect is similar across cohorts.

Findings

Sugar products and non-alcoholic beverages occupied a larger portion of more recent birth cohorts' food baskets. Cohort differences were larger in beverage consumption. Lower income was associated with a higher food expenditure share of sugar products in several cohorts. A higher education level was linked to a higher food expenditure share of sugar products in more cohorts than a lower education level. In cohorts born before the 1950s, non-alcoholic beverages occupied a larger portion of the food baskets of the high socio-economic status groups. This gap reversed over time, leading to larger food expenditure shares of non-alcoholic beverages in low socio-economic status groups.

Originality/value

This study assessed how the consumption of sugar products and non-alcoholic beverages has changed across birth cohorts. In addition, this study assessed how socio-economic differences in the consumption of said products have changed. The results highlight that sugar products and non-alcoholic beverages occupy larger portions of more recent birth cohorts’ food baskets. The results also highlight a reversal of socioeconomic differences in non-alcoholic beverage consumption.

Details

British Food Journal, vol. 123 no. 13
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0007-070X

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Article
Publication date: 16 March 2012

Jacqueline K. Eastman and Jun Liu

This paper aims to compare the levels of status consumption for Baby Boomers, Generation X, and Generation Y (Millennials).

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to compare the levels of status consumption for Baby Boomers, Generation X, and Generation Y (Millennials).

Design/methodology/approach

With an email sample of 220 adult consumers living in the southeast USA, this study measures status consumption, generational cohort, and demographics.

Findings

The study finds significant differences in the level of status consumption by generational cohort. The average level of status consumption was highest for Generation Y, followed by Generation X and then Baby Boomers. In looking at the significance of these differences between individual cohorts, there was a significant difference between Generation Y and Baby Boomers. This suggests that while there are differences in the level of status consumption by generation, this difference is only significant between Generation Y and Baby Boomers. This paper then examines if this relationship between generational cohort and status consumption is impacted by demographic variables, such as gender, income, and education. The results illustrate that, holding generation constant, there is no significant relationship between gender, income, or education with status consumption. There is also no significant interaction between generational cohort and the demographic variables of gender, income, and education. This suggests that the relationship between generational cohort and status consumption is due only to generation and is not being impacted by other demographic variables.

Research limitations/implications

Limitations of the study include that it was a convenience sample of predominately white, educated, and younger adult respondents. Additional research is needed to specifically examine ethnic group differences and cohorts prior to the Baby Boomers.

Practical implications

For luxury marketers they need to consider generational cohort, rather than other demographic variables, when segmenting their market.

Originality/value

This paper addresses a gap in the literature by examining if there are differences in the motivation to consume for status based on generational cohort, focusing on the cohorts of Baby Boomers, Generation X, and Generation Y. Additionally, this paper proposes that generational cohort is a better means to segment the status consumer than other demographic variables.

Details

Journal of Consumer Marketing, vol. 29 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0736-3761

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Article
Publication date: 7 January 2019

GholamReza Keshavarz Haddad, Nader Habibi and Sajad Rafiee

The purpose of this paper is to examine cigarette consumption behavior of younger cohorts in the urban and rural areas of Iran. The authors use Iran’s annual Household…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to examine cigarette consumption behavior of younger cohorts in the urban and rural areas of Iran. The authors use Iran’s annual Household Income and Expenditures Surveys (HIES) database over 2007–2013 for the statistical analysis. In order to control for a large number of households with zero expenditure on cigarette consumption, the authors have used the double-hurdle modeling approach for counting the outcomes of interest. The authors have also limited the sample to cases in which the head of household is between the ages of 21 and 45 and all children are younger than 18.

Design/methodology/approach

In this study, the authors have conducted a multivariate econometric analysis to identify the impact of age and birth year cohort on the demand for cigarettes among Iranian households. The authors have used the HIES data for multiple years in the analysis. The ideal data set for the analysis is a panel data that include information on cigarette consumption of various age cohorts over a long period of time. Since no suitable panel data are available, the authors have constructed a multi-year cohort data by extracting cohort data from the annual HIES data set. Due to the unique properties of cigarette consumption, the authors have used the double-hurdle econometric model with appropriate diagnostics.

Findings

After controlling for price and demographic factors, which affect the demand for cigarettes, the authors find that the younger cohorts in rural areas, who smoke, tend to consume fewer cigarettes than the older ones; however, the opposite is true among urban households. The probability of being a non-smoker is larger for younger cohorts in both rural and urban areas. Among smokers, the authors observe an inverse U-shape relation between age and quantity of cigarettes consumed per day. The trend is positive up to age 45, but diminishes for older smokers because of health concerns.

Originality/value

In comparison to previous studies of tobacco consumption in Iran, the authors have used a more comprehensive household income and expenditure survey data set with a large number of observations. Furthermore, the authors have applied an econometric method (the double-hurdle model), which is suitable for the analysis of the determinants of demand for cigarettes when a subset of households report no cigarette consumption.

Details

Journal of Economic Studies, vol. 46 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0144-3585

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Article
Publication date: 7 June 2011

Joanna Fountain and Charles Lamb

The primary aim of this research is to identify the wine consumption behaviour of Generation Y in New Zealand to explore whether differences exist in the wine behaviour of…

Abstract

Purpose

The primary aim of this research is to identify the wine consumption behaviour of Generation Y in New Zealand to explore whether differences exist in the wine behaviour of Gen Y in comparison to Generation X and to seek possible explanations for these differences, in terms of cohort, age and period.

Design/methodology/approach

A quantitative survey was conducted with a random sample of residents of Christchurch, New Zealand in 1998 and again in 2008. Three forms of analysis were undertaken: time lag (comparing Gen Y, aged 18‐29 in 2008 with Gen X, aged 20‐29 in 1998), cross‐sectional (comparing Gen Y in 2008 with Gen X, aged 30‐39 in 2008) and longitudinal (comparing Gen X in 1998 and 2008).

Findings

In relation of wine consumption, there is no difference in the proportion of Gen X and Gen Y in New Zealand consuming wine as young adults, which is remarkably similar to the proportion of wine drinkers in the population as a whole. In terms of the evidence reported elsewhere that Generation Y are consuming more wine, and at a younger age, than their Gen X counterparts, this research supports this contention; New Zealand Gen Y are drinking wine more frequently, and in more everyday contexts than their older counterparts were at a similar age, although they are less likely to consume wine on special occasions.

Research limitations/implications

The research focuses on a relatively small sample within a specific urban New Zealand setting and further application to the country as a whole may be useful. Qualitative research, perhaps using a recall methodology to explore previous consumption behaviour, would help to provide more explanation for the findings.

Originality/value

This is the first research project to explore the wine behaviour of Gen Y in a New Zealand context. This research has used a random and representative sample and has been able to analyse cross‐sectional, longitudinal and time‐lag data for Gen Y and Gen X; an approach that has not previously been used in generational research on wine consumption behaviour and which provides insights not available using one method alone.

Details

International Journal of Wine Business Research, vol. 23 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1751-1062

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Book part
Publication date: 6 November 2013

John L. Stanton, James Wiley and Peter Charette

There is always a significant amount of speculation as to how the American diet changes over time. Some of speculation is based on what’s good for people, and others base…

Abstract

There is always a significant amount of speculation as to how the American diet changes over time. Some of speculation is based on what’s good for people, and others base their speculation on various supply and demand issues and the impact of world social changes. However one approach to forecasting the demand for various food products in the American diet is to extrapolate how America’s eating habits would change based on two different scenarios. The first scenario is an cohort model. In this scenario individuals continue their eating habits as they get older. The second scenario is the aging model, with which it is assumed that as people age they adopt the eating habits of the group that they’re moving into.

In this chapter we will evaluate these two scenario-based extrapolation models for projecting food consumption. Data comes from the National Health and Nutrition Examination survey (NHANES), which is conducted regularly by the National Center for Health Statistics (NCHS). It measures levels of consumption with a level accuracy usually not associated with traditional business data services. The specific food items consumed in a 24-hour period are collected for over 30,000 people along with an extensive list of biometric, anthropometric, social, and clinical variables.

The models we evaluate assume that new consumers will enter the market based on projected population growth rates and that consumers “exit” the market based on projected death rates. This chapter applies the models to a subset of the total food variables in the database. Food groups that are pertinent to current issues were selected, such as beef, carbonated soft drinks, and snack foods.

The models forecast food consumption of the by 5 year increments from age 1 to age 85+ an aging cohort model extrapolate how eating habits could be expected to changeover this time interval. The implications of this exercise are essential to the forecasting and management of food processors. The extrapolations may provide guidance for potential changes in capital investment or entry into other markets.

Details

Applications of Management Science
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78190-956-0

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Article
Publication date: 23 August 2021

Bowen Zhang, Frank J. Mulhern, Yingying Wu, Margaret Xu, Wenqi Wang and Liang Gao

Recognizing the differences between generations Y and Z, this exploratory study uses generational cohort theory as a framework to examine the brand perception of…

Abstract

Purpose

Recognizing the differences between generations Y and Z, this exploratory study uses generational cohort theory as a framework to examine the brand perception of McDonald's, an international brand which has grown up with consumers for over 30 years in China. The paper aims to discuss this issue.

Design/methodology/approach

Measures of brand perception was built based on Aaker's brand personality model. A total 1,103 valid questionnaires were collected through an online survey platform. Factor analysis is the primary method to analysis the data.

Findings

The findings of this study reveal a favourable brand perception of McDonald's among young Chinese consumers which is consistent with Aaker's brand personality model and support the use of generational cohort theory as a market segmentation tool for brand perception. The differences between the two generational cohorts are not shown to be significant.

Originality/value

The most important contribution of this study is the evaluation of the personality of a major brand in China for Gen Z, a topic with very little existing research. Also, this research suggests future in-depth research into generational cohort theory in a Chinese context by recognizing homogeneity and heterogeneity exist simultaneously between generational cohorts.

Details

Asia Pacific Journal of Marketing and Logistics, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1355-5855

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Article
Publication date: 31 August 2017

Aideen Young and Anthea Tinker

The purpose of this paper is to consider the likely needs and priorities of the 1960s baby boomers in later life (defined as those born in this country between 1960 and…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to consider the likely needs and priorities of the 1960s baby boomers in later life (defined as those born in this country between 1960 and 1969 inclusive), based on their characteristics outlined in the accompanying paper.

Design/methodology/approach

A non-systematic search of academic and grey literature plus key policy and statistical data from sources including the Office for National Statistics to identify studies and data relevant to people born in the 1960s in the UK.

Findings

The 1960s baby boomers are characterised by high levels of education and technological proficiency and a youthful self-image. They have longer working lives and display greater levels of consumption than previous cohorts. These attributes will likely make this a highly demanding group of older people. Maintaining their health and function is important to this group so there is a scope for products that enable active and healthy ageing. Relatively high levels of childlessness may give rise to innovative housing solutions. At the same time, products that help the baby boomers stay independent at home will help alleviate pressure on social care.

Originality/value

There has been little examination of the needs of the 1960s baby boomers in the UK. Given that they stand on the brink of later life, it is timely to consider their likely needs as older people. In view of the size of this cohort, this group’s requirements in later life provide a significant opportunity for businesses to fill the current gaps in the market. Moreover, in the context of increasing neoliberalism, innovations that reduce the dependence of this large cohort on the state and facilitate self-reliance will benefit individuals and society.

Details

Working with Older People, vol. 21 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1366-3666

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Article
Publication date: 19 August 2019

Sheetal Jain

Although India is home to the world’s largest millennial population, so far, hardly any studies exist that explain the key drivers leading to the luxury goods consumption

Abstract

Purpose

Although India is home to the world’s largest millennial population, so far, hardly any studies exist that explain the key drivers leading to the luxury goods consumption among this generational cohort. Therefore, the purpose of this paper is twofold: first, to develop and empirically test the conceptual framework designed to measure the relationship between luxury value perceptions and purchase intentions among the young Indian luxury consumers, and, second, to examine the moderating effect of gender in the relationship between luxury value perceptions and purchase intentions.

Design/methodology/approach

A purposive sampling technique was employed to collect the data from young luxury fashion consumers. Statistical tests including confirmatory factor analysis, multi-group analysis and structural equation modeling were applied for data analysis.

Findings

The findings show that the conspicuous value is the most significant determinant of luxury purchase intention followed by the experiential value, susceptibility to normative influence and utilitarian value. The uniqueness value was found to have weak relationship with purchase intention. Furthermore, results revealed that the relationship between the luxury values and the luxury buying intentions does not vary significantly between male and female.

Originality/value

This is one of the first studies that provides meaningful insights to the academicians and marketing practitioners about why millennials buy luxury fashion brands in emerging markets like India.

Details

Journal of Fashion Marketing and Management: An International Journal, vol. 23 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1361-2026

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Article
Publication date: 29 September 2020

Pallavi Chaturvedi, Kushagra Kulshreshtha and Vikas Tripathi

The purpose of this study is to investigate the influence of environmental concern, perceived value, personal norms and willingness to pay on generation Z’s purchase…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this study is to investigate the influence of environmental concern, perceived value, personal norms and willingness to pay on generation Z’s purchase intention for recycled clothing.

Design/methodology/approach

The data were collected from five Indian universities. A total of 497 usable responses were analyzed. Confirmatory factor analysis was used for examining the validity and reliability of the scales. Further, the structural equation modeling was used to assess the relationship among the constructs.

Findings

Findings suggested that willingness to pay, environmental concern, perceived value and personal norms influence generation Z’s purchase intention for recycled clothing. Willingness to pay, environmental concern and perceived value were major predictors of purchase intention for recycled clothing.

Practical implications

This study holds much importance to the marketers of recycled clothing as it provides useful insights for formulating the appropriate promotional strategies. The study also contributes to the consumer behavior literature by addressing the existing research gap.

Originality/value

Most of the studies existing in this area have focused on the manufacturing side only except few which explored the consumption side of recycled clothing. Hence, the current study is an attempt to fill this research gap.

Details

Young Consumers, vol. 21 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1747-3616

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