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Article

Meng Qi and Steven John Armstrong

This paper aims to investigate the influence of cognitive style diversity on intra-group relationship conflict and individual-level organizational citizenship behaviors…

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to investigate the influence of cognitive style diversity on intra-group relationship conflict and individual-level organizational citizenship behaviors (OCBs). The role of leader-member exchange as a moderating variable is also examined.

Design/methodology/approach

The authors used hierarchical linear modeling and hierarchical regression analysis to analyze results from a sample of 344 members from 83 teams nested within 126 departments in six manufacturing organizations in the People’s Republic of China.

Findings

Results yielded general support for our hypothesized relationships between cognitive style diversity and intra-group relationship conflict. Leader-member exchange was also found to moderate the relationship between these two variables. Contrary to expectations, there were no relationships between these variables and individual-level organizational citizenship behaviors.

Originality/value

This research addresses calls from the team diversity and conflict literature to address the understudied area of deep-level cognitive diversity. Second, this study addresses previous calls for more team-level and mixed-level theory and methodology to inform OCB research. Third, this is the first study of group-level cognitive style diversity and the moderating influence of leader-member-exchange and provides valuable insights into ways of mitigating some of the negative effects of cognitive diversity on teams.

Details

International Journal of Conflict Management, vol. 30 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1044-4068

Keywords

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Article

Sandor Lowik, Jeroen Kraaijenbrink and Aard J. Groen

The paper aims to understand how individuals differ in individual absorptive capacity – their ability to recognize, assimilate, transform and exploit external knowledge…

Abstract

Purpose

The paper aims to understand how individuals differ in individual absorptive capacity – their ability to recognize, assimilate, transform and exploit external knowledge. These individual absorptive capacities are a key knowledge management building block for an organization’s open innovation practices. The study examines individual antecedents – human capital, social capital and cognition – and innovation outcomes of individual absorptive capacity.

Design/methodology/approach

This is a quantitative study of 147 employees in a single medium-sized Dutch industrial firm. Based on a survey and structural equation modeling, the antecedents’ prior knowledge diversity, network diversity and cognitive style are examined in relation to individual absorptive capacity. Further, the mediating effects of individual absorptive capacity on its antecedents and innovation outcome are investigated.

Findings

The main findings are that prior knowledge diversity, external network diversity and a bisociative cognitive style explain differences in individual absorptive capacity. A bisociative cognitive style appears to be the most important factor. Also, this study finds that individual absorptive capacity mediates between its antecedents and individual innovation performance and is therefore a relevant factor to capture value from external knowledge sources.

Research limitations/implications

The study extends open innovation theory by exploring individual-level factors that explain the ability to capture value from external knowledge. It suggests that differences in open innovation practices are explained by heterogeneity at the individual level. Further, it explains how individuals’ potentials for open innovation are mediated by their absorptive capacities. These insights enable future researchers to further examine individual-level factors in knowledge management practices and to explore cross-level individual-organizational interactions for open innovation.

Practical implications

This paper highlights that individuals’ engagements in open innovation practices are explained not only by individuals’ motivations but also by their abilities to absorb external knowledge. Further, it helps managers to design knowledge management practices to promote employees’ absorptive capacities, to improve open innovation processes.

Originality/value

This study investigates the neglected individual-level factors of open innovation practices from a micro-foundational and knowledge management perspective. To our best knowledge, this is the first study to examine individual-level antecedents and outcomes of individual absorptive capacity.

Details

Journal of Knowledge Management, vol. 21 no. 6
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1367-3270

Keywords

Content available
Article

Sabina Bogilović, Guido Bortoluzzi, Matej Černe, Khatereh Ghasemzadeh and Jana Žnidaršič

The purpose of this paper is to extend current discussion on the drivers of innovative work behavior (IWB) by exploring how individual perceived diversities (visible…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to extend current discussion on the drivers of innovative work behavior (IWB) by exploring how individual perceived diversities (visible dissimilarity and cognitive group diversity) and climates (team/clan and innovative/entrepreneurial) impact IWB.

Design/methodology/approach

Data had been collected from a cross-national study of working professionals (n = 584) from five different cultural contexts.

Findings

Findings of this study indicated that cognitive group diversity mediated the negative relationship between visible dissimilarity and IWB. Further, both innovative/entrepreneurial and team/clan climates moderated the relationship between visible dissimilarity and cognitive group diversity. Such a moderation effect reduced the negative effect that visible dissimilarity had on IWB.

Research limitations/implications

A cross-sectional single-source data set.

Practical implications

From a managerial perspective, climates (team/clan and innovative/entrepreneurial) are central for IWB in the diverse (visible and cognitive) working environment. Thus, organizations should pay attention to create a climate (team/clan or/and innovative/entrepreneurial) that reduces the negative impact of perceived diversity in the working environment while supporting IWB.

Originality/value

This study is the first of its kind that is based on social categorization theory, empirically examining how different types of diversity (visible dissimilarity and cognitive group diversity) simultaneously reduce individuals’ IWB. Furthermore, this paper provides insights that climates (team/clan and innovative/entrepreneurial) are crucial for IWB in the diverse working environment.

Details

European Journal of Innovation Management, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1460-1060

Keywords

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Book part

C. Shawn Burke, Kathleen P. Hess and Eduardo Salas

Adaptive capacity has commonly been defined as the “general ability of institutions, systems, and individuals to adjust to potential damage, to take advantage of…

Abstract

Adaptive capacity has commonly been defined as the “general ability of institutions, systems, and individuals to adjust to potential damage, to take advantage of opportunities, or to cope with the consequences” (http://www.greenfacts.org). Adaptive capacity is herein described as the ability to facilitate the process of adaptive team performance and the resulting outcome of team adaptation (see Stagl, Burke, Salas, & Pierce, this volume). More specifically, although often spoken of with regard to environmental and global changes, it is spoken of here with regard to the ability of individuals (and correspondingly teams) to recognize and understand contextual changes, dynamically revise and implement plans accordingly, and learn from each implementation so as to be better prepared in the future.

Details

Understanding Adaptability: A Prerequisite for Effective Performance within Complex Environments
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-84950-371-6

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Article

Surajit Saha and R.R.K. Sharma

Extensive research has been done to measure the effect of personality and cognitive styles on creativity. However, an in-depth study is required to identify the impact of…

Abstract

Purpose

Extensive research has been done to measure the effect of personality and cognitive styles on creativity. However, an in-depth study is required to identify the impact of cognitive style and creativity on organizational problem-solving. The objective of this paper is to look into this lacuna and study the effect of cognitive style and creativity of leaders on their organizational problem-solving.

Design/methodology/approach

The study uses a survey-based design. Data have been collected from 90 middle and senior-level managers from a diverse range of industries. The authors assessed their proposed hypotheses by conducting statistical analysis using SPSS and SmartPLS.

Findings

The results of the study reveal that leaders, who've scored high on intuition feeling (NF) cognitive style and proactive creativity, are suitable for solving open type of organizational problems. On the other hand, NF type of leaders with “contributory creativity” are ideal for solving closed type of organizational problems. Further, leaders scoring high on intuition thinking (NT) and proactive creativity are suitable for solving open types of organizational problems. Interestingly, the combination of NT with expected creativity is not suitable for closed type of organizational problems. On the other hand, a leader scoring high on sensing thinking (ST) cognitive style is more prone to perform contributory creativity.

Practical implications

The study would help the human resource (HR) planning processes of an organization. It would assist HR professionals while recruiting, selecting or deploying employees for creative works within an organization. Therefore, the paper would be useful for HR managers, personnel, management development specialists, consultants and HR academicians.

Originality/value

The relationship among cognitive style, creativity and problem type has not been adequately explored in extant literature on leadership and organizational development. This study would thereby enrich the literature.

Details

Benchmarking: An International Journal, vol. 27 no. 8
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1463-5771

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Article

Luu Trong Tuan

When effectively synergized, uniqueness from employee diversity can be conducive to original ideas and solutions in the tourism services. The purpose of this study is to…

Abstract

Purpose

When effectively synergized, uniqueness from employee diversity can be conducive to original ideas and solutions in the tourism services. The purpose of this study is to unfold how and when diversity-oriented human resource (HR) practices impact creativity among employees working in tour companies.

Design/methodology/approach

Participants in this research project comprised employees and their direct managers working in tour companies in Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam.

Findings

The results provided evidence for the positive influence of diversity-oriented HR practices on employee creativity through the mediation channel of knowledge sharing. Diversity climate fortified the effects of diversity-oriented HR practices on knowledge sharing among employees. Besides, the findings lent support for the moderating role of group diversity regarding age, expertise, openness and extroversion in the current research model.

Originality/value

This study advances both diversity management and organizational research streams and marks the convergence between them.

Details

International Journal of Contemporary Hospitality Management, vol. 32 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0959-6119

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Article

Radoslaw Nowak

The purpose of this paper is to investigate the effects of the process of strategic planning on cohesiveness and performance in cognitively diverse units.

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to investigate the effects of the process of strategic planning on cohesiveness and performance in cognitively diverse units.

Design/methodology/approach

This study uses structural equation modeling (SEM) to analyze an original dataset collected from employees working in healthcare organizations in the United Sates.

Findings

This study finds the negative effects of cognitive differences among employees on a unit's cohesiveness and performance and the positive moderating effects of the process of strategic planning on such relationships. Consequently, revealing the cohesiveness enhancing function of the process of strategic planning.

Originality/value

The study contributes to past research by revealing that business organizations could use the process of strategic planning to enhance their internal cohesiveness, in turn improving their business performance. This study explains that when the process of planning clearly defines an organization's mission, goals and implementation plans, employees working in highly diverse units will be more likely to better understand, accept and in turn also support their organization as a whole and its critical strategic goals. This should increase internal cohesiveness and lead leading to better performance.

Details

Business Process Management Journal, vol. 27 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1463-7154

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Article

David A. Booth and Richard P.J. Freeman

This research study aims to illustrate the mapping of each consumer’s mental processes in a market-relevant context. This paper shows how such maps deliver operational…

Abstract

Purpose

This research study aims to illustrate the mapping of each consumer’s mental processes in a market-relevant context. This paper shows how such maps deliver operational insights that cannot be gained by physical methods such as brain imaging.

Design/methodology/approach

A marketed conceptual attribute and a sensed material characteristic of a popular product were varied across presentations in a common use. The relative acceptability of each proposition was rated together with analytical descriptors. The mental interaction that determined each consumer’s preferences was calculated from the individual’s performance at discriminating each viewed sample from a personal norm. These personal cognitive characteristics were aggregated into maps of demand in the market for subpanels who bought these for the senses or for the attribute.

Findings

Each of 18 hypothesized mental processes dominated acceptance in at least a few individuals among both sensory and conceptual purchasers. Consumers using their own descriptive vocabulary processed the factors in appeal of the product more centrally. The sensory and conceptual factors tested were most often processed separately, but a minority of consumers treated them as identical. The personal ideal points used in the integration of information showed that consumers wished for extremes of the marketed concept that are technologically challenging or even impossible. None of this evidence could be obtained from brain imaging, casting in question its usefulness in marketing.

Research limitations/implications

Panel mapping of multiple discriminations from a personal norm fills three major gaps in consumer marketing research. First, preference scores are related to major influences on choices and their cognitive interactions in the mind. Second, the calculations are completed on the individual’s data and the cognitive parameters of each consumer’s behavior are aggregated – never the raw scores. Third, discrimination scaling puts marketed symbolic attributes and sensed material characteristics on the same footing, hence measuring their causal interactions for the first time.

Practical implications

Neuromarketing is an unworkable proposition because brain imaging does not distinguish qualitative differences in behavior. Preference tests are operationally effective when designed and analyzed to relate behavioral scores to major influences from market concepts and sensory qualities in interaction. The particular interactions measured in the reported study relate to the major market for healthy eating.

Originality/value

This is the first study to measure mental interactions among determinants of preference, as well as including both a marketed concept and a sensed characteristic. Such an approach could be of great value to consumer marketing, both defensively and creatively.

Details

Journal of Consumer Marketing, vol. 31 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0736-3761

Keywords

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Article

Graeme Coetzer

The purpose of this paper is to conduct an empirical examination of the mediating influence of time management (TM) on relationship between adult attention deficit (AAD…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to conduct an empirical examination of the mediating influence of time management (TM) on relationship between adult attention deficit (AAD) and role stress (RS).

Design/methodology/approach

In total, 117 actively employed business graduate students completed a self-report measure of RS and identified two close associates, one of which completed an observer version of the Brown Attention Deficit Scale while the other complete an observer version of a TM measure. Product moment correlations were used to test the hypotheses that AAD, TM and RS were associated. The Sobel test of mediation was used to test the hypothesis that TM mediated the relationship between AAD and RS.

Findings

AAD, TM and RS are associated with each other and TM partially mediates the relationship between AAD and RS.

Research limitations/implications

Research study is limited by a measure of AAD that may not fully represent all the key symptom clusters and an indirect workplace sample. Further investigation of AAD symptoms, including potentially positive manifestations like entre/intrapreneurial cognition and behavior, is required to stabilize the content, structure and measurement of the construct.

Practical implications

Organizations wishing to ensure timely completion of tasks and limit disruptive RS need to be aware of the influence of AAD. The provision of TM training, productivity management tools and an organized work space free of distractions is suggested for disordered employees. Various forms of organizational coaching including a peer coaching system may help disordered employees better manage both their time and their role. The effective design and management of teams represents a significant opportunity for effectively distributing the potential benefits of the disorder while managing deficits like poor TM and increased RS. Organizational development interventions that focus on TM and role (re)negotiation are suggested. Employee assistance programs that raise awareness and provide access to assessment are an important part of multimodal management of the disorder.

Social implications

Increasing social, economic and legal pressures to provide reasonable accommodation for functional but disordered employees and take appropriate advantage of employee diversity underscores the general social value of this research.

Originality/value

This research study is the first empirical examination of the mediating influence of TM on the relationship between AAD and RS. The results are of value to researchers, organizational development specialists, human resource management specialists, managers and employees who are seeking effective multimodal management of the disorder in the workplace.

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Abstract

Details

International Journal of Conflict Management, vol. 30 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1044-4068

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