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Article
Publication date: 14 June 2019

Jaswant Kaur Bajwa, Bobby Bajwa and Taras Gula

The purpose of this paper is to describe the components, structure and theoretical underpinnings of a cognitive remediation intervention that was delivered within a…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to describe the components, structure and theoretical underpinnings of a cognitive remediation intervention that was delivered within a supported education program for mental health survivors.

Design/methodology/approach

In total, 21 participants enrolled in the course Strengthening Memory, Concentration and Learning (PREP 1033 at George Brown College (GBC)) with the diagnosis of depression, anxiety, PTSD, ED and substance use disorder were included in the research. After a baseline assessment, participants completed 14 week cognitive remediation training (CRT) protocol that included six essential components that were integrated and implemented within the course structure of the supported education program at GBC. This was followed by a post-training assessment.

Findings

Analysis of the participants’ performance on CRT protocol using computerized games showed little significant progress. However, the research found a positive change in the self-esteem of the participants that was statistically significant and the findings also aligned with the social and emotional learning framework.

Research limitations/implications

One of the limitations in the research was the use of computer-assisted cognitive remediation in the form of the HappyNeuron software. The value and relevance of computer assisted needs are to be further examined. It seems that the implementation of the course that explicitly address cognitive challenges creates a supportive environment can be helpful.

Practical implications

Despite the mixed results and the few limitations associated with the CRT intervention reported in the research, the study offers reminders of the complexity of cognitive remediation and all the factors involved that need to be taken into consideration.

Social implications

This research created explicit space for addressing some of the implicit assumptions about the cognitive abilities when in post-secondary education.

Originality/value

This work is based on author’s previous work on cognitive remediation research within the supported education setting.

Details

Journal of Research in Innovative Teaching & Learning, vol. 12 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2397-7604

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Article
Publication date: 24 April 2018

Mathieu Dumont, Joanie Thériault, Catherine Briand, Alexandre Dumais and Stéphane Potvin

The purpose of this paper is to identify the psychosocial approaches that have been studied and for which positive outcomes have been reported for individuals with…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to identify the psychosocial approaches that have been studied and for which positive outcomes have been reported for individuals with schizophrenia in correctional and forensic psychiatric settings.

Design/methodology/approach

A rapid review of the literature was undertaken. A search was conducted on MEDLINE and PsycNET electronic databases. Each identified approach was analyzed to define their types and components.

Findings

In total, 24 studies pertaining to 18 different psychosocial approaches were identified. Half of the studies used a quasi-experimental design with control group. Most frequent outcomes reported were improvements in knowledge about illness and problem solving. Seven studies reported positive outcomes related to issues more specific to this population (violence, aggression, and recidivism). Approaches associated with these studies used mainly traditional cognitive behavior therapy and cognitive remediation. The focus was on neurocognition, social cognition, social skills, emotion management and problem solving.

Practical implications

This rapid review may enlighten clinical settings on psychosocial approaches for which positive outcomes have been reported with individuals with schizophrenia in correctional and forensic psychiatric settings. The picture obtained supports the idea of using integrated rehabilitation approaches that cover the aforementioned intervention focuses with this population.

Originality/value

A significant contribution of the rapid review is based on the analysis of the psychosocial approaches identified. This process offers a closer look at the nature and content of the approaches used according to the outcomes reported.

Details

Journal of Forensic Practice, vol. 20 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2050-8794

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Content available
Article
Publication date: 23 March 2021

Rajesh Kumar, Keshav J. Kumar, Vivek Benegal, Bangalore N. Roopesh and Girikematha S. Ravi

This study aims to examine the effectiveness of an integrated intervention program for alcoholism (IIPA) for improving verbal encoding and memory, visuospatial…

Abstract

Purpose

This study aims to examine the effectiveness of an integrated intervention program for alcoholism (IIPA) for improving verbal encoding and memory, visuospatial construction, visual memory and quality of life (QoL) in persons with alcohol dependence.

Design/methodology/approach

The sample comprised treatment-seeking alcohol-dependent persons (n = 50), allotted into two groups: (1) the treatment as usual (TAU) group (n = 25) and (2) the treatment group (n = 25)]. The groups were matched on age (±1 year) and education (±1 year). The TAU group received standard pharmacological treatment, psychotherapeutic sessions on relapse prevention and yoga for 18 days, while the treatment group received IIPA sessions in addition to the usual treatment. Auditory verbal learning test, complex figure test and QoL scale were administered at pre- and post-treatment along with screening measures.

Findings

The two groups were comparable on demographic variables, clinical characteristics and outcome measures at baseline. Pre- to post-treatment changes (gain scores) comparison between the treatment and TAU groups revealed a significant difference in verbal encoding, verbal and visual memory, verbal recognition, visuospatial construction and QoL.

Research limitations/implications

This study suggests that IIPA is effective for improving learning and memory in both modality (verbal and visual) and QoL in persons with alcoholism. The IIPA may help in better treatment recovery.

Practical implications

The IIPA may help in treatment for alcoholism and may enhance treatment efficacy.

Originality/value

IIPA is effective for improving learning and memory in both modalities and QoL in persons with alcohol dependence. The IIPA may help in better treatment recovery.

Details

Journal of Health Research, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0857-4421

Keywords

Content available
Article
Publication date: 6 November 2018

Pasquale Caponnetto, Marilena Maglia, Roberta Auditore, Marta Bocchieri, Antonio Caruso, Jennifer DiPiazza and Riccardo Polosa

Cognitive dysfunctions are a common clinical feature of schizophrenia and represent important indicators of outcome among patients who are affected. Therefore, a…

Abstract

Cognitive dysfunctions are a common clinical feature of schizophrenia and represent important indicators of outcome among patients who are affected. Therefore, a randomized, controlled, monocentric, single-blind trial was carried out to compare two different rehabilitation strategies adopted for the restoration and recovery of cognitive functioning of residential patients with schizophrenia. A sample of 110 residential patients were selected and, during the experimental period, a group of 55 patients was treated with sets of domain-specific exercises (SRT+CRT), whereas an equal control group was treated with sets of non-domain-specific exercises (SRT+PBO) belonging to the Cogpack® software. The effects on the scores (between T0 and T1) of the variables treatment and time and of the interaction time X treatment were analyzed: for the total BACS, the main effect of the between-factors variable treatment is statistically significant (F=201.562 P=0.000), as well as the effect of the within-factors variable “time” (F=496.68 P=0.000).The interaction of these two factors is also statistically significant (F=299.594 P=0.000). The addition of cognitive remediation therapy (CRT) to a standard treatment of metacognitive training (MCT) resulted in a significant improvement in global neurocognitive functioning and has reported positive effects with regard to the strengthening of verbal and working memory, selective and sustained attention at T1. A relevant result is the statistically significance of “time X treatment” for all the tests administered: we can assume that the domain-specific cognitive training amplifies the effects of SRT, as the primary and secondary goals of the present study were achieved.

Details

Mental Illness, vol. 10 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2036-7465

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Article
Publication date: 10 January 2018

Lucinda Charlotte Flinn, Charlotte Louise Hassett and Louise Braham

The Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale – Fourth Edition (WAIS-IV) (Wechsler, 2008) is a cognitive assessment that is often used in secure forensic settings, however it has…

Abstract

Purpose

The Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale – Fourth Edition (WAIS-IV) (Wechsler, 2008) is a cognitive assessment that is often used in secure forensic settings, however it has not been normed on this population. The purpose of this paper is to develop forensic normative data.

Design/methodology/approach

Patient files in a high secure forensic hospital were reviewed in order to obtain completed WAIS-IV (Wechsler, 2008) assessments and scores from the five indexes (verbal comprehension, perceptual reasoning, working memory, processing speed and full scale intelligence quotient (FSIQ)). This included reviewing patient files from all directorates, including male mental health, male learning disability, male personality disorder and the women’s service, yielding a sample size of n=86.

Findings

The qualitative descriptors obtained across the hospital ranged between extremely low and superior. The learning disability service scored significantly lower than the mental health and personality disorder services in verbal comprehension index, perceptual reasoning index, working memory index and FSIQ, and significantly lower than the mental health, personality disorder and women’s services in processing speed index. Mean scores from this study were significantly lower in comparison to those from the UK validation study (Wechsler, 2008).

Practical implications

The significant difference between scores from the current study and those from the UK validation study (Wechsler, 2008) highlights the need to have appropriate normative data for forensic populations. Clinicians should consider interventions that may serve to increase cognitive function, such as cognitive remediation therapy.

Originality/value

Whilst several special group studies have previously been conducted, this study is the first to develop forensic normative data for the WAIS-IV (Wechsler, 2008). Whilst the sample size was relatively small with limited female participants, the data collated will enable clinicians working in forensic establishments to interpret their assessments in light of this information.

Details

Journal of Forensic Practice, vol. 20 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2050-8794

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Article
Publication date: 7 June 2021

Suzanne Igier and Valérie Pennequin

Studies on intellectual disabilities describe difficulties at the cognitive level but little about the other factors that can impact the individual’s performance. The aim…

Abstract

Purpose

Studies on intellectual disabilities describe difficulties at the cognitive level but little about the other factors that can impact the individual’s performance. The aim of this research was thus to assess the effects of the socio-emotional context on the performance of adults with intellectual disabilities in a cognitive task. The main hypothesis was that people with intellectual disabilities will not have the cognitive ability to see the socioemotional environment as a potential resource, and that they could not use it to mobilize their cognitive resources to try and improve their performance and adopt more positive behavior.

Design/methodology/approach

A total of 32 people with moderate to severe intellectual disabilities were recruited. They performed a categorization task and were then given their results. Throughout the test, the psychologist observed the participants’ behavior and, more specifically, their emotional expressions, their pro-social behavior and their respect for social rules.

Findings

The results support the hypotheses, with better performance among participants who adopted pro-social behaviors, respected the rules and displayed positive emotional expressions. These results highlight the central role played by others in the ability of adults with intellectual disabilities to adapt to a given situation.

Research limitations/implications

This study was conducted by a psychologist, which could have biased the relationship with the participants. A complementary study is in progress to measure the effects.

Practical implications

These findings have implications for cognitive remediation tasks aimed at mobilizing the cognitive resources of adults with intellectual disabilities.

Originality/value

To the best of the authors’ knowledge, this is the only study to evaluate the role of the socio-emotional environment on the performance of adults with intellectual disabilities.

Details

Advances in Mental Health and Intellectual Disabilities, vol. 15 no. 2/3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2044-1282

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Article
Publication date: 4 October 2018

Michael Lewis

For decades, psychopathy has been thought to be untreatable. Yet, conceptualisations, and indeed its assessment, have deviated away from viewing the disorder as…

Abstract

Purpose

For decades, psychopathy has been thought to be untreatable. Yet, conceptualisations, and indeed its assessment, have deviated away from viewing the disorder as personality pathology towards a behavioural focus where the core underlying deficits in cognition and affect have been ignored. Interventions have followed suit leading to a premature discounting of the role of therapy in adjusting psychopathic traits. The paper aims to discuss these issues.

Design/methodology/approach

The review critically evaluates the conceptual and empirical evidence relevant to the treatment of psychopathy, deciphering components integral to the disorder that require intervention. Psychopathy is approached from a developmental perspective, with the review identifying several mechanisms thought to be responsible for precipitating and perpetuating its expression.

Findings

There appears some utility in targeting psychopathy from multiple angles, addressing experiences of trauma, associated schemas and the underlying cognitive-affective dysfunction noted to give rise to psychopathic traits. A new model for treatment was proposed integrating these factors to encourage the design of effective interventions that will address the origins and underlying deficits of the disorder, rather than symptomology.

Originality/value

The review encourages future research to consider the aetiology of psychopathy, with the aim of informing early intervention and containing the disorder whilst in its infancy, as well as addressing neurobiological dysfunction when most malleable.

Details

Journal of Criminological Research, Policy and Practice, vol. 4 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2056-3841

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Article
Publication date: 12 December 2016

Stephen Linacre, Jessica Green and Vishal Sharma

Carers of people with eating disorders (EDs) experience high levels of burden which can lead to clinical levels of depression and anxiety, high levels of expressed emotion…

Abstract

Purpose

Carers of people with eating disorders (EDs) experience high levels of burden which can lead to clinical levels of depression and anxiety, high levels of expressed emotion and can lead to a non-conducive environment to support recovery. The Maudsley Method skills-based workshops can empower carers to support people with ED to move towards recovery, reduce carer burden and high levels of distress. The paper aims to discuss these issues.

Design/methodology/approach

Adaptations have been made to the Maudsley Method skills based workshops to include evidence based approaches from cognitive remediation therapy; mindfulness and acceptance commitment therapy. The adapted workshops were assessed via a pilot study with ten carers of people with ED using a mixed method design. The Experience of Caregiving Inventory and SF-36 were used to assess aspects of caregiving and carer wellbeing, respectively pre and post intervention. Thematic analysis was used to evaluate carers’ views on the intervention.

Findings

Results indicated that carers reduced their level of burden particularly in their experience of stigma, dependency and loss. Furthermore, positive aspects of the relationship with the person with the ED improved. Thematic analysis was used to obtain feedback from carers of the workshops. Qualitative data identified that carers improved their self-awareness, understanding of ED and the techniques they could use, and increased their social support.

Research limitations/implications

Further research is required to compare the original workshops with this adapted intervention.

Originality/value

Although this is a pilot study, the results suggest that further evidence based interventions could be added to the Maudsley Method approach to support carers.

Details

Mental Health Review Journal, vol. 21 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1361-9322

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Article
Publication date: 21 December 2020

Ishbel McMichael, Olivia Tiley, Josephine Broyd and David Murphy

This paper aims to examine the relationship between neuropsychological functioning as assessed following admission to a high secure psychiatric care (HSPC) hospital and…

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to examine the relationship between neuropsychological functioning as assessed following admission to a high secure psychiatric care (HSPC) hospital and subsequent time spent in long-term segregation (LTS). Evidence from forensic populations suggests neuropsychological functioning difficulties can increase vulnerability to interpersonal violence. However, the impact of this relationship on restrictive interventions used in these settings is poorly understood.

Design/methodology/approach

This study quantitatively examined the neuropsychological profiles of 80 male HSPC patients as assessed during routine admission assessments, comparing data against any subsequent LTS duration during a one-year period, and a non-LTS control (n = 27).

Findings

Analysis found individuals who were willing and able to complete a routine neuropsychological admissions assessment spent significantly less time in LTS than those unable to complete the assessment. Performance within a test of novel problem solving (Key Search Test) was significantly worse in the LTS group than controls. Performance within a visual memory task (Immediate Recall section of the Rey Complex Figure Test) significantly correlated with LTS duration. Additional findings suggest the absence of self-reported planning difficulties as measured by a Dysexecutive Questionnaire (DEX) negatively correlated with LTS duration, while self-reported restlessness was positively correlated with LTS.

Practical implications

This has implications for early assessment of LTS risk and potential use of cognitive interventions to reduce the use of restrictive practices.

Originality/value

The results suggest some aspects of neuropsychological performance as assessed during admission to a HSPC hospital appear to be related to subsequent time spent in LTS.

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Article
Publication date: 4 November 2014

Mia Foxhall and Birgit Gurr

The purpose of this paper is to evaluate a weekly, group-based occupational therapy (OT) intervention in an inpatient brain injury rehabilitation unit. The evaluation aims…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to evaluate a weekly, group-based occupational therapy (OT) intervention in an inpatient brain injury rehabilitation unit. The evaluation aims to assess whether this intervention incorporates evidence-based recommendations for executive functioning and positive social interactions.

Design/methodology/approach

A literature review was carried out to identify those components deemed most effective for improvements of executive functions and group interventions. Systematic observations of the intervention were used to collect data matching the research requirements. The group intervention which was subject to the evaluation was a weekly OT activity called Life Skills Group. Participants were four brain injured patients, aged between 49 and 62 years and on average 4.5 month post injury. The group activities included the preparation, cooking and consuming of a meal.

Findings

Some elements of evidence-based procedure for executive functioning training were observed, including repeated practice and errorless learning. The group provided opportunities for social interaction and peer support/modelling. The evaluation indicated opportunities for improving executive functions within the Life Skills Group setting, for instance, the consistent use of errorless practice, repetition and meta-strategy training. Social interventions were mainly initiated by the facilitation therapists and opportunities for social skills training and positive interactions between participants were overlooked. The evaluation concludes in a set of recommendations aimed at optimising the effectiveness of future groups.

Originality/value

This paper gives an example how the use of research evidence can influence and optimise cognitive rehabilitation, social training and group interventions. Thus it is an attempt to highlight how occupational interventions and social interactions can be improved by a systematic evaluation. The evaluation provides a framework for how OT and social interventions can be planned, implemented and researched which will hopefully increase systematic outcomes studies in this field in the future.

Details

Social Care and Neurodisability, vol. 5 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2042-0919

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