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Article
Publication date: 1 February 2006

Martin Graff

This paper aims to review the literature on the utility of employing the construct of cognitive style in understanding behaviour in web‐based learning environments.

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Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to review the literature on the utility of employing the construct of cognitive style in understanding behaviour in web‐based learning environments.

Design/methodology/approach

The paper initially examines whether the web architecture may be matched to an individual's cognitive style in order to facilitate learning, before progressing to assess whether different architectures influence a web users' internal representations of web‐based learning systems, as measured by concept map drawings. Other issues explored are users' web navigation and users' sense of learning community when receiving instruction via web‐based learning environments.

Findings

The studies reviewed indicate that cognitive style is a pertinent factor for consideration when assessing the success with which users engage with web‐based learning systems.

Research limitations/implications

Some of the studies reviewed here are small‐scale and caution is urged in generalising the findings.

Practical implications

In terms of the practical implications, however, it is suggested that web‐based systems should be designed with consideration to individual differences in user characteristics, as this is related to the success with which users learn, navigate and interact socially in an online environment. However, it is concluded that more research is required in order to produce general rules relating cognitive style to the use of web‐based learning systems.

Originality/value

The findings from the numerous studies on the implications of considering the function of individual differences in using web‐based learning are notable and useful in the context of web‐based instruction.

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Education + Training, vol. 48 no. 2/3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0040-0912

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Article
Publication date: 6 May 2020

Jamie Costley

This study aims to look at the relationship between extraneous cognitive load and germane cognitive load and how the use of cognitive learning strategies might moderate…

Abstract

Purpose

This study aims to look at the relationship between extraneous cognitive load and germane cognitive load and how the use of cognitive learning strategies might moderate the relationship.

Design/methodology/approach

This present study used survey data (n = 440) from randomly selected students taking large online classes in South Korea.

Findings

This research found a negative relationship between extraneous and germane loads. Furthermore, this study found that the use of cognitive strategies moderates this relationship. This shows that the use of cognitive strategies can help overcome unclear instruction and help to produce higher levels of student learning.

Originality/value

Within online learning environments, the degree to which nonessential information contributes to cognitive overload among learners becomes an important area of investigation, along with the ways in which learning strategies can mitigate some of this overload.

Details

Interactive Technology and Smart Education, vol. 17 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1741-5659

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Article
Publication date: 26 April 2011

Geoff Walton and Mark Hepworth

This paper seeks to identify the changes in cognition associated with becoming information‐literate, specifically, in relation to the evaluation of information…

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3281

Abstract

Purpose

This paper seeks to identify the changes in cognition associated with becoming information‐literate, specifically, in relation to the evaluation of information. Additionally, it puts forward a model for a teaching and learning intervention that engages the learner and leads to higher order information literacy (IL) thinking. From a theoretical perspective the research integrates ideas from the fields of IL, teaching and learning, e‐learning and information behaviour (IB).

Design/methodology/approach

Three interventions were designed to develop the information literacies of first‐year undergraduates studying Sport and Exercise at Staffordshire University, to teach and test IL. Interventions took a blended approach and combined face‐to‐face and online social network learning (OSNL) – also referred to as social media learning (SML) – and focused on one aspect of information literacy: the ability to evaluate source material. Data were captured via interviews, focus groups and from the online discussion that was analysed thematically and categorised using task, behaviour, cognitive states, affective states, cognitive states and knowledge. This helped to evaluate the efficacy of the interventions and provided data for further analysis. This paper focuses on the cognitive data and their transitions during the interventions and, in particular, among those respondents who experienced OSNL.

Findings

The changing cognitive states, associated with IL learning were modelled and made evident key cognitive states and transitions. This is represented in the paper in diagrammatic and mathematical notation. The findings indicate the complexity of the information behaviours associated with IL including the cognitive, behavioural, cognitive and affective elements. Although the cognitive transitions are the focus of this paper, an insight is also given into an IL intervention that fosters the capability to interact critically and reflectively with information. The pedagogy that underpins these changes is indicated. The intervention, which incorporated OSNL, proved the most successful.

Research limitations/implications

Undergraduate students' IB can be changed and IL developed. Additional long‐term data would have indicated whether this intervention had a lasting impact on the undergraduates.

Practical implications

IL practitioners should consider incorporating OSNL and assessment in their interventions. Incorporating discussion, reflection and peer‐to‐peer assessment is likely to lead to deeper learning when teaching IL.

Originality/value

The research adds detail to the understanding of the cognitive, behavioural, affective and cognitive states associated with IL and makes explicit how these may change, as the learner becomes information‐literate.

Details

Journal of Documentation, vol. 67 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0022-0418

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Article
Publication date: 18 May 2021

Seedwell Sithole, Ragini Datt, Paul de Lange and Meredith Tharapos

The purpose of this study is to investigate the effectiveness of diagrammatic visualisation techniques versus sentential learning contexts in an accounting subject using…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this study is to investigate the effectiveness of diagrammatic visualisation techniques versus sentential learning contexts in an accounting subject using the theoretical lens of cognitive load theory (CLT).

Design/methodology/approach

The present study used four groups of students; two groups completed a task using diagrammatic visualisation learning materials, with one of the groups undertaking their leaning activities collaboratively and another on an individual basis, whereas two comparison groups were given a sentential learning context without diagrams, with one group undertaking their leaning activities collaboratively and the other individually. In addition to performance grades, cognitive load self-report scores were also elicited from participants.

Findings

The findings of this study indicate support for diagrammatic visualisation techniques for students working collaboratively. Compared with sentential learners, the authors find significantly improved test performance for students who work collaboratively in a diagrammatic visualisation environment. Students in the visualisation environments obtained higher grades than those in the sentential group. In terms of mental effort, students in the visualisation conditions reported the lowest cognitive load.

Practical implications

The authors conclude that diagrammatic visualisation learning techniques enhance student performance outcomes, particularly for those who work collaboratively. CLT assists in the understanding of the mental processes involved in learning. Instructional designers need to consider CLT when developing diagrammatic visualisation material to enable students to obtain the best possible learning outcomes.

Originality/value

This study addresses a gap in the literature by examining the use of diagrammatic visualisation materials as an alternative to text when learning accounting. The study explores the effect of visualisation material on students’ cognitive load by analysing their mental effort. The study contributes useful findings on visualisation as a conduit to enhancing the understanding of accounting using CLT principles.

Details

Accounting Research Journal, vol. 34 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1030-9616

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Article
Publication date: 4 January 2013

Peter E. Swift and Alvin Hwang

This paper seeks to add to the research on the role of cognitive and affective trust in promoting knowledge sharing between executives and consequently establishing an…

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5553

Abstract

Purpose

This paper seeks to add to the research on the role of cognitive and affective trust in promoting knowledge sharing between executives and consequently establishing an organizational learning environment.

Design/methodology/approach

This paper examines the influence of one conceptualization of trust, one that has two sub‐constructs – affective (emotional) trust and cognitive (rational) trust – on knowledge sharing among 157 marketing and sales executives.

Findings

The results indicate that affective trust is more important than cognitive trust in sharing interpersonal knowledge, but cognitive trust is more important in creating an organizational learning environment.

Research limitations/implications

The scope of this study was limited to the marketing and sales functions in business to consumer companies. Knowledge sharing is an acute issue in this industry and the results may not be completely applicable to less competitive industries or business functions. Therefore, researchers are encouraged to test the proposed propositions further in other industries and business functions.

Practical implications

The results indicate that organizations should focus on organizational processes which promote both affective and cognitive trust. Such processes include job rotation to improve cognitive understanding and employee screening for affective trust traits.

Originality/value

To date, much of the planned organizational learning efforts have been focused on outside interventions (i.e. training seminars, meetings, etc.) that have value but are limited in their ability to generate sustained levels of trust. To increase knowledge sharing and consequent organizational learning benefits, results of this study indicate that organizations should encourage cognitive and affective trust building endeavours.

Details

The Learning Organization, vol. 20 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0969-6474

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Article
Publication date: 4 April 2016

Marcia Hagen and Sunyoung Park

– This paper aims to link recent findings in cognitive neuroscience to better understand how andragogically informed instructional practices impact cognition and learning.

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3376

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to link recent findings in cognitive neuroscience to better understand how andragogically informed instructional practices impact cognition and learning.

Design/methodology/approach

The research questions guiding the study is in what ways can the recent findings in cognitive neuroscience help to inform adult education theory, including andragogy in particular, to deepen our understanding of how andragogical instructional principles and practices can improve learning? We adopted Torraco’s (2005) integrative literature review approach of providing enough details regarding the selection of the literature and the identification and verification of emerged themes of main ideas.

Findings

The core assumptions of andragogy (self-direction, prior experience, readiness to learn and immediacy of application) have a connection to the neural networks related to memory and cognition.

Research limitations/implications

First, this study provides fundamental foundations for combining cognitive neuroscience and adult learning to illuminate how cognitive neuroscience contributes physiologically to adult learning. Second, the findings in cognitive neuroscience related to the four assumptions for andragogy help to provide scientific explanations and interpretations for adult learning theories influencing human resource development (HRD), such as self-directed learning, experiential learning and role theory.

Practical implications

First, HRD practitioners could use the integrative approach between andragogy and the cognitive neuroscience to reduce the issues of learning activities in generation differences. In addition, cognitive neuroscience research may contribute to improving teaching and instructional techniques.

Originality/value

The contributions of this study is that it provides an integrative review about why and how anagogical principles work through the lens of cognitive neuroscience. Based on the findings, we suggested a model of adaptive cognitive neuroscience-adult learning structures.

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Article
Publication date: 2 March 2012

Jeffrey G. Woods

The purpose of this paper is to develop a conceptual model that uses dialectical inquiry (DI) to create cognitive conflict in strategic decision‐makers for the purpose of…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to develop a conceptual model that uses dialectical inquiry (DI) to create cognitive conflict in strategic decision‐makers for the purpose of improving strategic decisions. Activation of the dialectical learning process using DI requires strategic decision‐makers to integrate conflicting information causing cognitive conflict. Cognitive conflict is the catalyst that stimulates the creation of new knowledge in strategic decision‐makers resulting in improved organizational performance.

Design/methodology/approach

A conceptual model is developed that explicitly links DI to the dialectical learning process of strategic decision‐makers. This model extends previous research on DI by identifying cognitive conflict as the critical component that links DI as a learning method to the process of dialectical learning in strategic decision‐making.

Findings

The major finding of the model of dialectical learning is that the model is an important resource that can be applied to create cognitive conflict in strategic decision‐makers for the purpose of expanding the strategic options of organizations.

Research limitations/implications

Empirical research on DI that focuses on the role of cognitive conflict in the dialectical learning process is lacking. It is hoped that this conceptual paper will stimulate further interest on the topic and a greater appreciation of this method of learning. Strategic decision‐makers must consider alternative ways of generating new knowledge that is crucial for organizational performance.

Practical implications

It is important that the benefits of creating cognitive conflict in the dialectical learning process are understood by strategic decision‐makers. Training for participants in a DI learning intervention is essential to help minimize any dysfunctional behaviors that could result from affective conflict.

Originality/value

This conceptual model identifies the importance of cognitive conflict in the dialectical learning process of strategic decision‐makers and the critical role of cognitive conflict rather than affective conflict in the use of this learning method.

Details

The Learning Organization, vol. 19 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0969-6474

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Article
Publication date: 1 February 1999

Eugene Sadler‐Smith

The study is an attempt to provide empirical elaboration, in the context of business and management education, for the “onion” and cognitive control models of cognitive

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2886

Abstract

The study is an attempt to provide empirical elaboration, in the context of business and management education, for the “onion” and cognitive control models of cognitive style. Using a sample of 226 business and management undergraduates the research explored the relationship between cognitive style (measured using the cognitive style index and learning preference. Using principal components analysis, three categories of learning preference were discerned (active, reflective and individual). Correlational analysis and one way analysis of variance revealed statistically significant relationships between preferences for reflective and individual methods and cognitive style. The results provide some support for the “onion” and cognitive control models; the implications for business and management education, training and development are discussed.

Details

Journal of Managerial Psychology, vol. 14 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0268-3946

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Article
Publication date: 26 August 2020

Anna Stamatelatos and Robert Brooks

This study investigates simulated business learning and performance effectiveness during a simulation task. The learning and performance outcomes of two groups of…

Abstract

Purpose

This study investigates simulated business learning and performance effectiveness during a simulation task. The learning and performance outcomes of two groups of postgraduate student participants are investigated namely: (a) participants who do not struggle with the task and (b) participants who do struggle with completing the task.

Design/methodology/approach

An experiment was conducted using a simulated business, which was manipulated into two initial commencement formats: positive initial format (PIF) and negative initial format (NIF). Individual performance on the task was measured via achievement of performance targets whilst individual learning was measured via causal cognitive maps.

Findings

Participants using PIF did not struggle with completing the task and achieved higher performance outcomes compared to participants using NIF, who struggled with completing the task. In addition, the positive association between learning and performance was significantly reduced for participants using NIF who struggled with completing the task

Research limitations/implications

This study’s findings are tentative as the sample size is small and several moderator/mediator variables, which may influence the findings (i.e. student learning style/instructor style/cognitive factors), are outside the scope of the study and thus not included.

Practical implications

Causal cognitive mapping results and students’ self-assessment of learning during simulated business debriefing, may further help instructors/students identify the differences in individual learning outcomes between those who have and have not struggled with increasing simulated business performance.

Originality/value

By using an experiment and causal cognitive mapping to measure individual learning, this study contributes further empirical evidence to the literature.

Details

Education + Training, vol. 62 no. 9
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0040-0912

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Article
Publication date: 24 May 2013

Rebecca Mugford, Shevaun Corey and Craig Bennell

The purpose of this paper is to present a theoretical framework, which describes how police training programs can be developed in order to improve learning retention and…

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2155

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to present a theoretical framework, which describes how police training programs can be developed in order to improve learning retention and the transfer of skills to the work environment.

Design/methodology/approach

A brief review is provided that describes training strategies stemming from Cognitive Load Theory (CLT), a well‐established theory of instructional design. This is followed by concrete examples of how to incorporate these strategies into police training programs.

Findings

The research reviewed in this paper consistently demonstrates that CLT‐informed training improves learning when compared to conventional training approaches and enhances the transferability of skills.

Originality/value

Rarely have well‐validated theories of instructional design, such as CLT, been applied specifically to police training. Thus, this paper is valuable to instructional designers because it provides an evidence‐based approach to training development in the policing domain.

Details

Policing: An International Journal of Police Strategies & Management, vol. 36 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1363-951X

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