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Article
Publication date: 9 July 2020

Xuemei Liu, Zhiwei Zhu, Zheng Liu and Chunyan Fu

This study, based on construal level theory, aims to examine the influential mechanism of leader empowerment behaviour on employee creativity. Specifically, it examines…

Abstract

Purpose

This study, based on construal level theory, aims to examine the influential mechanism of leader empowerment behaviour on employee creativity. Specifically, it examines the mediating role of cognitive flexibility between leader empowerment behaviour and employee creativity, along with the moderating effect of consideration of future consequences (CFC) on this linkage.

Design/methodology/approach

A two time-point survey study (n = 214) was conducted to collect information from leaders and employees in terms of mutual evaluation in several Chinese industries. To effectively avoid common source bias, this survey was conducted through pairing leaders and employees. During the survey, the supervisors and subordinates were double-blinded. Correlation analysis and hierarchical regression analysis were used to test the research hypotheses.

Findings

Firstly, leader empowerment behaviour can significantly predict employee creativity. Second, cognitive flexibility plays a partial mediating role in the linkage between leader empowerment behaviour and employee creativity. Thirdly, CFC moderates the relationship between leadership empowerment behaviour and cognitive flexibility. The mediating role of cognitive flexibility underlies the overall moderating effect of CFC on the relationship between leader empowerment behaviour and employee creativity.

Research limitations/implications

We used construal level theory to explain the influence of the mechanism of leader empowerment behaviour on employee creativity. In this manner, this study bridges the gap between theory and practice, as well as enriching the research on leader empowerment behaviour and employee creativity, especially in the Chinese context. Moreover, our study has several practical managerial implications, based on the importance of employee creativity. It inspires the implementation of leader empowerment behaviour, cultivation of employee creativity and introduction of several procedures.

Originality/value

This paper discusses the influential mechanism of leader empowerment behaviour on employee creativity from a new perspective and explains the process of encouraging employee creativity through information-processing methods. It mainly highlights the application of construal level theory to discuss employee creativity and develops a new research frame for employee creativity. Leaders can raise employee creativity through leader empowerment behaviour.

Details

Management Decision, vol. 58 no. 12
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0025-1747

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Article
Publication date: 11 May 2020

Rosa Angela Fabio, Sonia Esposito, Cristina Carrozza, Gaetana Pino and Tindara Caprì

Various studies have examined the role of executive functions in autism, but there is a lack of research in the current literature on cognitive flexibility in autism…

Abstract

Purpose

Various studies have examined the role of executive functions in autism, but there is a lack of research in the current literature on cognitive flexibility in autism spectrum disorders (ASD). The purpose of this study is to investigate whether cognitive flexibility deficits could be related to facial emotion recognition deficits in ASD.

Design/methodology/approach

In total, 20 children with ASD and 20 typically developing children, matched for intelligence quotient and gender, were examined both in facial emotion recognition tasks and in cognitive flexibility tasks through the dimensional change card sorting task.

Findings

Despite cognitive flexibility not being a core deficit in ASD, impaired cognitive flexibility is evident in the present research. Results show that cognitive flexibility is related to facial emotion recognition and support the hypothesis of an executive specific deficit in children with autism.

Research limitations/implications

One of the limit is the use of just one cognitive test to measure cognitive flexibility and facial recognition. This could be important to be taken into account in the new research. By increasing the number of common variables assessing cognitive flexibility, this will allow for a better comparison between studies to characterize impairment in cognitive flexibility in ASD.

Practical implications

Investigating impairment in cognitive flexibility may help to plan training intervention based on the induction of flexibility.

Social implications

If the authors implement cognitive flexibility people with ASD can have also an effect on their social behavior and overcome the typical and repetitive behaviors that are the hallmark of ASD.

Originality/value

The originality is to relate cognitive flexibility deficits to facial emotion.

Details

Advances in Autism, vol. 6 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2056-3868

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Article
Publication date: 1 November 2004

Ian A. Combe and Gordon E. Greenley

Different forms of strategic flexibility allow for reactive adaptation to different changing environments and the proactive driving of change. It is therefore becoming…

Abstract

Different forms of strategic flexibility allow for reactive adaptation to different changing environments and the proactive driving of change. It is therefore becoming increasingly important for decision makers to not only possess marketing capabilities, but also the capabilities for strategic flexibility in its various forms. However, our knowledge of the relationships between decision makers' different ways of thinking and their capabilities for strategic flexibility is limited. This limitation is constraining research and understanding. In this article we develop a theoretical cognitive content framework that postulates relationships between different ways of thinking about strategy and different information‐processing demands. We then outline how the contrasting beliefs of decision makers may influence their capabilities to generate different hybrid forms of strategic flexibility at the cognitive level. Theoretically, the framework is embedded in resource‐based theory, personal construct theory and schema theory. The implications for research and theory are discussed.

Details

European Journal of Marketing, vol. 38 no. 11/12
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0309-0566

Keywords

Content available
Article
Publication date: 3 July 2017

Cardy Moten, Quinn Kennedy, Jonathan Alt and Peter Nesbitt

Current Army doctrine stresses a need for military leaders to have the capability to make flexible and adaptive decisions based on a future unknown environment, location…

Abstract

Purpose

Current Army doctrine stresses a need for military leaders to have the capability to make flexible and adaptive decisions based on a future unknown environment, location and enemy. To assess a military decision maker’s ability in this context, this paper aims to modify the Wisconsin Card Sorting Test which assesses cognitive flexibility, into a military relevant map task. Thirty-four military officers from all service branches completed the map task.

Design/methodology/approach

The purpose of this study was to modify a current psychological task that measures cognitive flexibility into a military relevant task that includes the challenge of overcoming experiential bias, and understand underlying causes of individual variability in the decision-making and cognitive flexibility behavior of active duty military officers on this task.

Findings

Results indicated that non-perseverative errors were a strong predictor of cognitive flexibility performance on the map task. Decomposition of non-perseverative error into efficient errors and random errors revealed that participants who did not complete the map task changed their sorting strategy too soon within a series, resulting in a high quantity of random errors.

Originality/value

This study serves as the first step in customizing cognitive psychological tests for a military purpose and understanding why some military participants show poor cognitive flexibility.

Details

Journal of Defense Analytics and Logistics, vol. 1 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2399-6439

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Article
Publication date: 10 August 2015

Agnieszka Wojtczuk-Turek and Dariusz Turek

The purpose of this paper is to describe and explain the manner in which HR system’s flexibility, in combination with employees’ individual flexibility (IF) and their…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to describe and explain the manner in which HR system’s flexibility, in combination with employees’ individual flexibility (IF) and their positive character traits, such as: optimism, hope, resistance or self-efficacy (which comprise psychological capital (PsychCap)), allow to predict employees’ readiness to display innovative behaviors in the workplace.

Design/methodology/approach

A quantitative research methodology was adopted which resulted in the development of a both self-administered online survey instrument (n=166) and employees students in the postgraduate program at the Warsaw School of Economics (n=70). Using a national database of service companies, a random sample of 700 e-mail addresses was generated and respondents were invited to participate in the online survey. This resulted in the completion of 166 online surveys, representing a response rate of 26 percent. The second group of respondents consisted of 70 employees from different organizations in Poland.

Findings

On the basis of the analyses it was shown that HR flexibility (HRF) and IF are a generally weak predictor of innovative behaviors. However, in a situation when PsychCap is set to be a mediator, these variables allow to predict innovative work behavior.

Originality/value

Research on the relation of HRF to innovative behaviors has not been sufficiently clarified so far. The achieved results shed new light on the relations of these two variables and indicate that HRF does not translate directly into behaviors of the personnel. However, it should be noted that the relationship of these variables are of indirect nature.

Details

European Journal of Innovation Management, vol. 18 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1460-1060

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Book part
Publication date: 25 July 2008

Anne E. Herman and Lisa L. Scherer

Many organizational problems are poorly defined, emotionally laden, and ambiguous. These types of problems rarely have one right answer and the criteria for evaluating the…

Abstract

Many organizational problems are poorly defined, emotionally laden, and ambiguous. These types of problems rarely have one right answer and the criteria for evaluating the appropriateness of solutions is likely to be context dependent. Further, although cognitive skills are important to effective problem solving, the nature of these problems may also require emotional skills as well. This chapter presents a study which set out to determine whether emotional intelligence as an ability contributes above and beyond cognitive intelligence to the quantity, flexibility, and quality of solutions generated to ill-structured problems. Although support was not found for the notion that emotional intelligence explains the indices of solution generation beyond that of cognitive intelligence, the findings did show that emotional intelligence was a significant predictor of one of the solution metrics, namely the average resolving power of solutions across the two problems. The findings demonstrate that emotional intelligence and cognitive intelligence are separate constructs and suggest that caution be used in proposing the pervasive effects of emotional intelligence. In particular, the results of this study suggest that emotional intelligence may not equally influence all activities, highlighting the need to investigate which steps of the problem-solving process it does indeed impact.

Details

Emotions, Ethics and Decision-Making
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-84663-941-8

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Article
Publication date: 14 October 2013

Brian George Nagy and K. Michele Kacmar

The purpose of this study is to test the effects of cognitive legitimacy and the assets of newness in the new venture context. The authors wish to provide evidence related…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this study is to test the effects of cognitive legitimacy and the assets of newness in the new venture context. The authors wish to provide evidence related to how best to market and manage some of the assets and liabilities of newness.

Design/methodology/approach

236 customers of three recently opened retailing businesses were surveyed to investigate the relationships among organizational energy, organizational flexibility, cognitive legitimacy, and customer satisfaction. A mediation model including all four variables is developed and tested in the paper.

Findings

Evidence is presented suggesting cognitive legitimacy plays a significant mediating role in both the positive relationship between organizational energy and customer satisfaction, and the positive relationship between organizational flexibility and customer satisfaction.

Research limitations/implications

The paper offers thoughts regarding the theoretical implications of the study, as well as future research opportunities related to future marketing and entrepreneurship studies.

Practical implications

Entrepreneurs are informed how to further market and manage the characteristics that mark their new ventures.

Originality/value

The study is the first to link the assets of newness, cognitive legitimacy, and customer satisfaction. Given the importance of customer perceptions in the new venture context, the manuscript offers insight into how to possibly increase customer satisfaction by managing the perceptions of customers related to newness.

Details

Journal of Research in Marketing and Entrepreneurship, vol. 15 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1471-5201

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Article
Publication date: 29 June 2020

Tilottama G. Chowdhury and Feisal Murshed

This paper proposes that categorization flexibility, operationalized as the cognitive capacity that cross-categorizes products in multiple situational categories across…

Abstract

Purpose

This paper proposes that categorization flexibility, operationalized as the cognitive capacity that cross-categorizes products in multiple situational categories across multiple domains, might favorably influence a consumer’s evaluation of unconventional options.

Design/methodology/approach

Experimental research design is used to test the theory. An exploratory study first establishes the effect of categorization flexibility in a non-food domain. Study 1 documents the moderating role of decision domain, showing that the effect works only under low- (vs high-) consequence domain. Studies 2A and 2B further refine the notion by showing that individuals can be primed in a relatively higher categorization flexibility frame of mind. Study 3 demonstrates the interactive effect of categorization flexibility and adventure priming in a high-consequence domain. Study 4 integrates the interactive effects of decisions with low- vs high-consequence, adventure priming and categorization flexibility within a single decision domain of high consequence.

Findings

Consumers with higher- (vs lower-) categorization flexibility tend to opt for unconventional choices when the decision domain entails low consequences, whereas such a result does not hold under decision domain of high consequences. The categorization flexibility effects in case of low-consequence decision domain holds true even when consumers are primed to be categorization flexible. Furthermore, with additional adventure priming, consumers show an increased preference for unconventional options even under a decision domain with high consequence.

Research limitations/implications

This study could not examine real purchase behavior as results are based on cross-sectional, behavioral intention data. In addition, it did not examine the underlying reason for presence of cross-domain categorization flexibility index.

Practical implications

The results suggest that stimuli may be tailored to consumers in ways that increase the salience and the perceived attractiveness of unconventional choices. Further, data reinforce the notion of cross-categorical interrelations among different domains, which could be leveraged by marketers.

Originality/value

This study represents the first documentation of the potential ways by which unconventional product choice might be a function of individuals’ categorization flexibility level across different types of decision domains. The findings yield implications that are novel to both categorization and consumer decision-making literature.

Details

European Journal of Marketing, vol. 54 no. 8
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0309-0566

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 1 May 2001

Matthew H. Roy

Global competition and its resultant product proliferation have left a multitude of organizations scrambling to deal with their oft‐chaotic environment. Many organizations…

Abstract

Global competition and its resultant product proliferation have left a multitude of organizations scrambling to deal with their oft‐chaotic environment. Many organizations have responded to the changing nature of international business by developing new cooperative forms (joint ventures, self‐managed work teams, virtual corporations, etc.). The success of these relatively new organizational forms depends on clear communication between co‐workers. However, business practitioners and theoreticians have insufficiently researched the question “How do we group people to improve communication and performance?” This study seeks to fill that void by analyzing therelationship between individual cognitive flexibility, cooperative context, and communication competence. Results show that groups comprising individuals with similar cognitive processes outperform diverse thinking groups. Additionally, collaborative exercises appear to be an important precursor to the establishment of perceptions of communication competence. Recommendations for managers include front loading activities with collaborative exercises and evaluating cognitive flexibility prior to assigning individuals to groups.

Details

Management Decision, vol. 39 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0025-1747

Keywords

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Book part
Publication date: 2 April 2008

J. Henri Burgers, Frans A.J. Van Den Bosch and Henk W. Volberda

In this conceptual paper we investigate how corporate venturing influences an organization's competences. The impact of various types of corporate ventures on the…

Abstract

In this conceptual paper we investigate how corporate venturing influences an organization's competences. The impact of various types of corporate ventures on the portfolio of strategic options of a firm's competence modes (Sanchez, 2004a; Sanchez & Heene, 2002) will be assessed by distinguishing two fundamentally different dimensions of corporate venturing: technology and product (Block & MacMillan, 1993). We argue that the level of product and factor market dynamism mediates the effect of corporate venturing on a firm's competence modes. Corporate ventures that significantly increase the level of product or factor market dynamics will increase the flexibility in all five competence modes. These ventures have a direct effect on the lower-order competence modes and an indirect, lagged effect on higher-order competence modes through feedback loops. The developed framework and the propositions contribute to managing the ability of a firm to change its coordination, resource, and operating flexibility in order to sustain value creation.

Details

Competence Building and Leveraging in Interorganizational Relations
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-84950-521-5

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