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Article

Jengchung Victor Chen, Huyen Thi Le and Sinh Thi Thu Tran

To provide better services to customers, especially immediate responses and 24/7 availability, businesses are implementing text-based automated conversational agents, i.e…

Abstract

Purpose

To provide better services to customers, especially immediate responses and 24/7 availability, businesses are implementing text-based automated conversational agents, i.e. chatbots on their social platforms and websites. Chatbots are required to not only provide customers with necessary consultancy and guidance but also communicate friendly and socially. Based on the cognitive fit theory, this study attempts to examine the role of chatbot as a decision aid and how the match between information presentation in forms of decisional guidance and communication style and the shopping task influences consumers' perceived cognitive fit and decision performance outcomes.

Design/methodology/approach

A 2 x 2 x 2 between subject online experiment was conducted to identify which kind of decisional guidance (suggestive and informative guidance) and communication style (task-oriented vs social-oriented style) are the most appropriate for each type of shopping task (searching vs browsing task).

Findings

The findings show that when customers interact with chatbots, they will perceive higher cognitive fit if the chatbots provide them with suggestive guidance and communicate in a friendly style especially when they perform a searching task.

Originality/value

This study is the first attempt to understand the role of chatbots as a decision aid to customers using the communicative language. This study also tries to explore the cognitive fit theory in a novel way, and we propose the information presentation in forms of communicative language rather than matrices, tables and graphs.

Details

Internet Research, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1066-2243

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Article

Chi-Wen Chen

Recent years have witnessed the development of a variety of rating systems but the authors have little knowledge about their impact on users’ perceptions of information…

Abstract

Purpose

Recent years have witnessed the development of a variety of rating systems but the authors have little knowledge about their impact on users’ perceptions of information quality, cognitive decision effort, and enjoyment. The purpose of this paper is to understand the potential cognitive fit underlining the relationship between rating systems types (i.e. five-star, binary-visual, and binary-textual) and tasks (i.e. purchase-decision and browsing tasks) in the context of shopping websites.

Design/methodology/approach

A total of 191 subjects were obtained. This study conducted an experiment with a 2×3 between-subject factorial design. The first dimension is a task that has two conditions (purchasing vs browsing). The second dimension is a type of rating system that has three different types (binary-textual, binary-visual, and five-star).

Findings

The results show that the cognitive fit may occur when individuals use a five-star rating system to help them make a purchasing decision and when they use a binary-visual rating system while browsing. This fit might increase perceived information quality while decrease cognitive decision efforts, and in turn raise intention to adopt the systems. Moreover, five-star rating systems can make users feel more fun and enjoyment than binary-textual and visual rating systems, regardless of task type.

Research limitations/implications

This study focuses on three main rating systems that are popular on shopping websites. Nevertheless, few other rating systems exist in the market such as unitary or ten-star rating systems. Further studies can consider other types of rating systems and address, in addition to representation, the issue of information granularity (i.e. unitary, binary, five-star, and ten-star rating systems).

Practical implications

The results of this study could provide design principles for web designers in determining which rating systems best match the websites they are developing. If the websites or specific webpages are more utilitarian oriented (hedonic oriented), five-star rating systems (binary-visual rating systems) are more appropriate.

Originality/value

This study contributes to the rating system literature by examining the cognitive fit underlining the relationship between rating systems types and tasks. Importantly, this study extends cognitive fit theory by considering affective responses, that is, perceived enjoyment and intention to continue to use.

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Article

Hassan A.G. Ouda and Ralf Klischewski

How do cognitive aspects influence the use/non-use of accounting information by the politicians? The purpose of this paper is to conceptualize and theorize the readiness…

Abstract

Purpose

How do cognitive aspects influence the use/non-use of accounting information by the politicians? The purpose of this paper is to conceptualize and theorize the readiness to use and the actual use of accounting information in relation to the human and social agency involved.

Design/methodology/approach

Applying cognitive fit theory and social cognitive theory, the authors explain how cognition of accounting information producers and users relates to their tasks and their environment. Analyzing cognitive matching, the authors develop accounting information usefulness as a function of the cognitive match between the accounting information producers and users.

Findings

The theoretical findings posit that cognitive fit increases with the degree of matching between the cognition of accounting information producers and the cognition of accounting information users. The theory proposes that enriching and matching the various cognitive factors lead to formation of more aligned mental representations to govern the processes of accounting information production and use as a prerequisite for the accounting information usefulness.

Research limitations/implications

By theorizing human cognition, behavior and learning, the authors seek to contribute to the explanation and prediction of accounting information use. Future research needs to empirically validate and/or further develop the propositions.

Practical implications

Practically, the conceptualization can be used to align individual and collective learning on both sides and to introduce information use audit as an instrument for supporting collective learning.

Originality/value

The theory of accounting information usefulness is the first attempt in public sector accounting literature to explain the relation of production and consumption of accounting information in relation to the cognition of the actors involved.

Details

Journal of Public Budgeting, Accounting & Financial Management, vol. 31 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1096-3367

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Article

Haemi Kim, Jinyoung Im, Hailin Qu and Julie NamKoong

This study aims to investigate the conditions required for encouraging employees to engage in job crafting and examine the consequences of job crafting behavior. Job…

Abstract

Purpose

This study aims to investigate the conditions required for encouraging employees to engage in job crafting and examine the consequences of job crafting behavior. Job crafting is employees’ proactive behaviors at work associated with modifying tasks, managing social relations and changing job cognition.

Design/methodology/approach

A paper-and-pencil onsite survey was conducted by targeting frontline employees working in five-star hotels located in Seoul, South Korea. Descriptive statistics, confirmatory factor analysis and structural equation modeling were used.

Findings

Perceived organizational support triggers employees’ job crafting. Task crafting leads to relational and cognitive crafting. Relational and cognitive crafting increases employees’ fit with the organization, whereas task crafting does not. Employees’ fit with the organization is positively associated with job satisfaction.

Research limitations/implications

Employees’ job crafting has positive consequences for a company by enhancing employees’ fit with the organization, resulting in increased job satisfaction. Thus, organizations need to show how much the organization cares about employees’ values, so that employees can initiate job crafting by utilizing organizational support. However, generalizing the results should be done cautiously.

Originality/value

This study focuses on the effect of an organizational-level predictor, whereas previous job crafting literature has focused mainly on an individual level or on task-related factors. It also empirically tests the causal relationships among the three facets of job crafting and provides their distinctive influences on person-organization fit that ultimately leads to job satisfaction.

Details

International Journal of Contemporary Hospitality Management, vol. 30 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0959-6119

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Article

ChienHsing Wu, Shu-Chen Kao and Chia-Hung Shih

This paper aims to examine the role of the creation task–technology fit (CTTF) in the knowledge creation performance (KCP). The creation task features represented by…

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to examine the role of the creation task–technology fit (CTTF) in the knowledge creation performance (KCP). The creation task features represented by goal-driven, goal-free and goal-frame modes (GDM, GFM and GRM) and information and communication technology (ICT) supportive features are considered. The moderation effect of cognitive style represented by analytical and intuitive styles is explored. Contributions and implications are addressed.

Design/methodology/approach

The literature review on creation task, ICT, cognitive behavior and fit theory, and the research gap with respect to the antecedents of KCP are presented. The research arguments are then hypothesized and the research model developed to describe that the proposed role is examined empirically.

Findings

Research findings are obtained on the basis of the data analysis of 258 valid subjects from research institutes as well as manufacturing and service industries. The effect of CTTF on creation outcomes is significantly confirmed. The ICT supportive functions are unlikely significantly related to CTTF for the analysis-styled group, but the intuition-styled group shows a likely significance because of the different means of dealing with information and knowledge processing. The analysis-styled group disagrees with the significant link of the GDM with CTTF, whereas the intuition-styled group presents the significant effects of GDM, GFM and GRM on CTTF.

Originality/value

The unique features of knowledge creation differentiate it from other tasks. With respect to whether the knowledge creation task presented by goal is defined or not, and how ICT better suits the creation task features to benefit the creation outcomes are yet to be discussed. The individual cognitive style is confirmed to alternate the effect of ICT and GDM on CTTF in the proposed model. The research findings are particularly obvious because a transition gap, less covered by the literature, might exist with regard to the perception connection of knowledge creation service providers, agencies, consultants and context creators.

Details

VINE Journal of Information and Knowledge Management Systems, vol. 48 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2059-5891

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Article

Darius Pacauskas and Risto Rajala

Information technology has been recognized as one of the keys to improved productivity in organizations. Yet, existing research has not paid sufficient attention to how…

Abstract

Purpose

Information technology has been recognized as one of the keys to improved productivity in organizations. Yet, existing research has not paid sufficient attention to how information systems (ISs) influence the creative performance of individual users. The paper aims to discuss this issue.

Design/methodology/approach

This study draws on the theories of flow and cognitive load to establish a model of the predicted influences. The authors hypothesize that the information technology supports creativity by engaging individuals in a creative process and by lowering their cognitive load related to the process. To test these hypotheses, the authors employ a meta-analytical structural equation modeling approach using 24 previous studies on creativity and ISs use.

Findings

The results suggest that factors that help the user to maintain an interest in the performed task, immerse the user in a state of flow, and lower a person’s cognitive load during IS use can affect the user’s creative performance.

Research limitations/implications

The findings imply that a combination of the theories of flow and cognitive load complements the understanding of how ISs influence creativity.

Originality/value

This paper proposes an explanation on why ISs affect creativity, which can be used by scholars to position further research, and by practitioners to implement creativity support systems.

Details

Information Technology & People, vol. 30 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0959-3845

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Article

Catherine P. Killen

The purpose of this paper is to improve decision quality, and therefore project and portfolio success, by testing the influence of different visual representations of…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to improve decision quality, and therefore project and portfolio success, by testing the influence of different visual representations of interdependency data in a simulated decision experiment. A network mapping approach to visualize project interdependencies is introduced and compared with matrix and tabular displays.

Design/methodology/approach

A simulated decision task in a controlled classroom setting tested five hypotheses though a sample of 480 experiments.

Findings

The type of data representation used is associated with differing levels of decision quality, and the use of network mapping displays is aligned with the best results.

Research limitations/implications

The findings are limited as this experiment-based study presented a simplified decision scenario and involved students rather than practicing managers. The findings are best interpreted in combination with organization-based research.

Practical implications

The findings of this study suggest that visual data displays, particularly network mapping displays, can provide benefits and improve project portfolio decision quality. Managers may draw upon this study to design ways to include visual data representations in their project portfolio management decision processes.

Originality/value

This study uses experimentation to complement organization-based studies to better understand the influence of different methods of visualizing data and managing interdependencies between projects. This research provides an important contribution to meet the acknowledged need for better tools to understand and manage project interdependencies.

Details

International Journal of Managing Projects in Business, vol. 10 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1753-8378

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Book part

Anthony R. Wheeler, M. Ronald Buckley, Jonathon R.B. Halbesleben, Robyn L. Brouer and Gerald R. Ferris

Fit” as a human resources decision criterion has emerged as an active body of research in recent years, but its “elusiveness” as a scientific construct, noted more than a…

Abstract

Fit” as a human resources decision criterion has emerged as an active body of research in recent years, but its “elusiveness” as a scientific construct, noted more than a decade ago by Judge and Ferris, still remains. To best address this issue, this chapter proposes an integrative theory of multidimensional fit that encompasses five relevant (and distinct) streams of current fit research: Person-Organization Fit, Person-Vocation Fit, Person-Job Fit, Person-Preferences for Culture Fit, and Person-Team Fit. It is proposed that these five dimensions of fit relate to an individual's self-concept; moreover, an individual assesses multidimensional fit utilizing a social cognitive decision-making process called prototype matching. By assessing fit across multiple dimensions, an individual can both gain a social identity and expand the self-concept, which explains the motive to fit. Testable propositions are formulated, and implications for multidimensional fit across the employment lifecycle are discussed. Furthermore, directions for future fit research are provided.

Details

Research in Personnel and Human Resources Management
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-0-76231-215-3

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Article

Safal Batra and Neharika Vohra

This study aims to explore a crucial but less-understood antecedent of individual innovativeness – cognitive style.

Abstract

Purpose

This study aims to explore a crucial but less-understood antecedent of individual innovativeness – cognitive style.

Design/methodology/approach

Data for this study were collected using a survey questionnaire administered to 201 individuals with industry work experience. Kolb’s learning style inventory was utilized to classify individuals into different cognitive styles. One-way ANOVA and multiple linear regression were utilized to test the hypotheses.

Findings

This study reveals that individual differences in grasping and transforming experiences significantly influence their innovativeness. Individuals whose cognitive learning styles are characterized by abstract conceptualization and active experimentation are more likely to exhibit innovativeness as compared to individuals with cognitive learning styles characterized by concrete experiences and reflective observation. Consequently, convergers who combine both the favorable modes of experience grasping and transformation are most likely to be innovative.

Practical implications

Promoting individual innovativeness is crucial for successful organizational innovation. This study reveals that an understanding of the cognitive style of the employees can help managers allocate appropriate individuals to various tasks.

Originality/value

While it has been conceptually argued that cognition is an important antecedent of individual innovativeness, emphasis in this stream of research is predominantly on cognitive abilities. This study extends previous research by empirically testing the impact of cognitive style on individual innovativeness.

Details

Management Research Review, vol. 39 no. 7
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2040-8269

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Article

Hyun Hee Park and Jung Ok Jeon

Despite the importance of electronic word-of-mouth (eWOM) in e-commerce transactions on the global market, there is still limited understanding about the effect of eWOM…

Abstract

Purpose

Despite the importance of electronic word-of-mouth (eWOM) in e-commerce transactions on the global market, there is still limited understanding about the effect of eWOM sequence and its psychological mechanism in cross-cultural settings. Therefore, the purpose of this paper is to investigate the differences in brand attitude changes according to the eWOM sequence, as well as cross-culturally, based on thinking styles. Furthermore, the authors examine the moderated mediation effect of perceived cognition congruency across cultures to explain its underlying mechanism.

Design/methodology/approach

The authors use a 2 (eWOM sequence: positive/negative, negative/positive) × 2(culture: East (South Korea), West (USA)) factorial design. Perceived cognition congruency is measured as a within-group variable.

Findings

First, brand attitude changes in the West (USA) for the negative/positive presentation order are significantly larger than for the positive/negative presentation order, while, in the East (South Korea), no significant differences exist. Second, in the Westerner group (analytical thinking style), the perceived cognition congruency shows a significant difference according to the eWOM sequence, whereas in the Easterner group (holistic thinking style), the perceived cognition congruency does not show a significant difference according to the eWOM sequence.

Practical implications

As such, a strategic interpretation of the mixed eWOM presentation order across cultures is needed. In the West, interest and attention are necessary for the eWOM sequence. However, in the East, a different strategic approach, except for the presentation order of mixed eWOM, is required. The other elements of the mixed eWOM, such as attribute type or intensity of negative information, need to be considered for mixed eWOM management.

Originality/value

This study expands the existing body of knowledge on the sequence effect of mixed eWOM. Furthermore, it provides strategic direction and practical implications for mixed eWOM-driven information management, focusing on sequence in cross-cultural settings.

Details

International Marketing Review, vol. 35 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0265-1335

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