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Article
Publication date: 13 April 2015

Sara Jonsson

– The purpose of this paper is to investigate entrepreneurs’ network evolution in the start-up phase.

1788

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to investigate entrepreneurs’ network evolution in the start-up phase.

Design/methodology/approach

Based on the case studies of six fashion start-up firms, this study uses a three-dimensional perspective on social capital (structural, relational, cognitive) to investigate entrepreneurs’ network evolution (i.e. initiation of new relationships) in the start-up phase so as to acquire resources and support for firms’ goals. The study focuses particularly on the understudied cognitive dimension of social capital. The fashion industry provides a relevant research setting because it is characterised by changes in demand, which generate opportunities for entrepreneurship.

Findings

The findings show that the display of cognitive attributes is important for the creation of structural social capital (the establishment of new relationships). The findings also indicate that relationships initiated based on the cognitive dimension have a high probability of developing into embedded relationships, thereby becoming high in the relational dimension and providing access to private information containing referrals to other actors. Thus, these relationships also promote the continued development of the structural dimension.

Originality/value

The findings imply that the entrepreneurs’ sets of cognitive attributes constitute an important asset in the creation of social capital. They also point to the importance of signalling these values to potential resource holders. Relationships initiated through the display of cognitive attributes can provide resources without requiring immediate economic remuneration.

Details

International Journal of Entrepreneurial Behavior & Research, vol. 21 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1355-2554

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 6 September 2022

Luciana Brandão Ferreira, Janaina de Moura Engracia Giraldi, Vish Maheshwari and Jorge Henrique Caldeira de Oliveira

This paper aims to verify the brand image effects of holding a sport mega-event by investigating the host city's influence on the country's branding, as a tourist destination.

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to verify the brand image effects of holding a sport mega-event by investigating the host city's influence on the country's branding, as a tourist destination.

Design/methodology/approach

This research considered the Rio 2016 Olympic Games and uses quantitative methods: exploratory factor analysis and regression. Data were collected by structured questionnaires with a sample of (n = 274) international respondents with high international travel experience.

Findings

Rio de Janeiro's 2016 host city image positively predicted Brazil's tourist destination image. Both cognitive and affective image dimensions of Rio as a host city predicted Brazil's destination image, but the cognitive image dimensions demonstrated more impact.

Practical implications

Even in a mega-event context, city marketing strategies should be planned and executed with a focus on the country's destination image.

Originality/value

The study contributes by focusing on presenting the importance of the host city image dimensions to the host country destination image in a sports mega-event context. The study investigated a new approach, the impacts of affective and cognitive dimensions in the overall destination image considering two connected destinations and the hosting of a sport mega-event, a condition not found in the literature thus far.

Details

International Journal of Event and Festival Management, vol. 13 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1758-2954

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 10 January 2020

Rahma Oussi and Wafi Chtourou

This study aims to investigate the theoretical limitations of the social network theory applied on employee creativity.

Abstract

Purpose

This study aims to investigate the theoretical limitations of the social network theory applied on employee creativity.

Design/methodology/approach

By combining the social network theory and componential model of creativity, this study studies the possible impact of social capital through its three dimensions (structural, relational and cognitive dimension) on individual creativity, to explore then the moderating effect of cognitive style as individual characteristic on the structural dimension of social capital such weak ties and employee creativity.

Findings

The results show that, on a sample of 95 employees belonging to four companies in the IT sector, predictions based on the social network theory are only weakly verified. Indeed, the relational and cognitive dimensions of social capital do not have a significant impact on individual creativity.

Originality/value

Based on Kim et al.’s (2016) call for future research, this study extends the assumptions of the social network theory announcing that social capital through its structural dimension may have an identical impact on individual creativity in all circumstances.

Details

Competitiveness Review: An International Business Journal , vol. 30 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1059-5422

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 20 February 2020

Luciana Brandão Ferreira and Janaina de Moura Engracia Giraldi

This paper aimed to verify the most important factors (cognitive and affective dimensions) perceived in Rio de Janeiro’s image as the host city of the 2016 Olympic Games…

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aimed to verify the most important factors (cognitive and affective dimensions) perceived in Rio de Janeiro’s image as the host city of the 2016 Olympic Games and to identify the factors that predict better the overall city image and its affective image dimension in this particular context of a sports mega-event.

Design/methodology/approach

This paper employs exploratory factor analysis to define intervening factors in each dimension of Rio de Janeiro’s image. By parting from the initial diagnostic analysis, multiple regression analysis was applied to measure how the intervening factors predicted the overall image of the host city, as well as to whether its cognitive dimension was able to predict the affective dimension. Data collection was conducted by applying structured questionnaires with a sample of international respondents (n = 274).

Findings

Rio’s image as a sports mega-event host city presented two intervening factors for each dimension. For image composition, the most important cognitive factor diagnosed was “Services and Attractions.” For the affective dimension, the most important factor diagnosed was “Positive Feelings.” The investigation concluded that the cognitive dimension was capable of predicting the affective dimension, as “Positive Feelings” was the factor that better predicted Rio’s overall image as the host city of the 2016 Olympic Games, while the “Services and Attractions” factor was not significant in predicting the host city’s image.

Research limitations/implications

The main focus of the investigation was the host city’s international image as presented by primary sources. The sample for investigation was therefore composed exclusively of foreign students, nonresidents in Brazil, who did not participate in said events. Although this approach provides a partial diagnostic of the host cityvs image, for an overall and accurate image diagnostic it is also relevant to investigate the national residents’ point of view, which is beyond the scope of this investigation.

Practical implications

The findings suggest that destination marketers would obtain better results investing in the affective dimension, employing actions that stimulate positive feelings about the host city, especially when relating to sports mega-event. Investment in general infrastructure is also presented as a relevant factor.

Social implications

The host city’s image can guide policies to improve local capacity to attract investments and new events that contribute to change in urban areas, as well as to reinforce positive aspects of that image. Investment in general infrastructure, again, is presented as a crucial issue.

Originality/value

The value and originality of the presented investigation lie in a lack of specific studies on Rio’s image as a travel destination, despite its being the most important touristic city in Brazil and the host for the 2016 Olympic Games. A separate analysis of individual image dimensions and the examination of intervening cognitive factors in the affective dimension are also not common in a sports mega-event context.

Details

Journal of Hospitality and Tourism Insights, vol. 3 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2514-9792

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 25 September 2019

Mohammadali Zolfagharian, Roberto Saldivar and Jerome D. Williams

The purpose of this paper is to examine the cognitive and affective dimensions of COO and the owned-by/made-in cue combinations in first-generation immigrant markets.

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to examine the cognitive and affective dimensions of COO and the owned-by/made-in cue combinations in first-generation immigrant markets.

Design/methodology/approach

The cognitive and affective dimensions were manipulated in a scenario-based experiment administered on 261 Mexican Americans in three product categories.

Findings

The cognitive and affective dimensions each have a distinct impact. When the two dimensions combine, the effect is stronger within the specialty product category, followed by the shopping product category, and, to a lesser extent, in the convenience product category.

Research limitations/implications

The cognitive dimension was represented by the country’s degree of political, economic and technological development, whereas the affective dimension was traced by examining immigrants who identify with the emotional and symbolic meanings associated with countries involved in the country of origin (COO) message.

Practical implications

Managers should pursue emerging COO research whose concepts and designs are congruent with today’s global consumer culture. The authors find support for the stand-alone effects of made-in and owned-by COO cues, as well as the effects of the cognitive and affective dimensions of COO. When COO messages combine both made-in and owned-by cues, the cognitive and affective dimensions may work synergistically, depending on the product category.

Originality/value

This study adds to the nascent literature that recognizes the multiplicity of consumer identities, and bridges the gulf between the conventional COO research and the increasingly multicultural nature of the marketplace.

Details

International Marketing Review, vol. 37 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0265-1335

Keywords

Book part
Publication date: 26 November 2018

Jörg Hruby, Rodrigo Jorge de Melo, Eyden Samunderu and Jonathan Hartel

Global Mindset (GM) is a multifaceted construct that has received broad interest among practitioners and academics. It is a fragmented construct at this point in time, due…

Abstract

Global Mindset (GM) is a multifaceted construct that has received broad interest among practitioners and academics. It is a fragmented construct at this point in time, due to definitional overlap with other constructs such as global leadership and cultural intelligence. This overlap has created complexity for research that attempts to understand GM in isolation. Lack of clear boundaries in defining and conceptualizing this construct challenges researchers who are attempting to capture fully what constitutes GM. Our work seeks to better understand and explain what underlines the individual GM construct and how does this impact the development of global competencies in individual managers.

We systematically review and analyze the individual GM literature thematically to provide an overview of the extant research from a broad array of scholarly sources dating from 1994 to 2017. Our work offers a thematic analysis that provides a visual guide to GM by tracking the corpus of individual-level GM studies. We categorize the research according to its theoretical groundings and basic concepts and proceed review how GM has been operationalized at the individual level and measured. Next, we integrate major dimensions in the GM research and propose a framework to enhance understanding of the phenomenon. Finally, we discuss the implications of our review for the development of GM for practitioners, coaches and trainers.

Details

Advances in Global Leadership
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78754-297-6

Keywords

Content available
Article
Publication date: 22 January 2021

Jana Bowden and Abas Mirzaei

Brands are investing heavily in content marketing within digital communication channels, yet there is limited understanding of the effectiveness of this content on…

6503

Abstract

Purpose

Brands are investing heavily in content marketing within digital communication channels, yet there is limited understanding of the effectiveness of this content on consumer engagement. This paper aims to examine how consumer engagement with branded content is created through consumer-initiated online brand communities (OBCs) and brand-initiated digital content marketing (DCM) communications. Self-brand connections are examined as an important antecedent to the cognitive, affective, behavioural and social dimensions of consumer engagement and the subsequent impact of engagement on loyalty is explored across these two channels.

Design/methodology/approach

A survey approach was used with two consumer samples for one focal retail brand, namely, a consumer-initiated OBC (Facebook) and email subscribers of the retail brand’s DCM communications. A multi-group analysis of structural invariance procedure was used to comparatively examine the formation of engagement for consumers within the OBC and DCM channels.

Findings

This study demonstrates the different ways in which engagement forms across different digital communication channels. Self-brand connection (SBC) was found to strongly drive behavioural, cognitive, affective and social engagement. The cognitive, affective and behavioural engagement was found to mediate the self-brand connection and consumer loyalty relationship. Overall, this relationship was most strongly and significantly mediated by affective and cognitive engagement within the OBC channel when compared to the DCM channel.

Research limitations/implications

The findings of this study should be interpreted with several limitations in mind. First, the research was conducted within the confines of one OBC, within one social networking site platform characterised by self-selected membership based on a passion and immersion with the brand. This means that consumers within the OBC were highly connected to one another and the retail brand and highly socialised in-group norms and mores. This type and intensity of connection may not be the case for all forms of OBCs. Second, this study was limited to one retail brand, from one brand category. Future research should examine OBCs across a range of utilitarian and hedonic brands to comprehensively contextualise the dimensions of engagement. Third, the data for this study was cross-sectional. The use of netnographic analysis and qualitative interviews across a range of OBCs would support the triangulation of the findings of this research, especially with regard to the narrative that consumers’ express when discussing how their SBC manifests through the dimensions of engagement. Fourth, this study explored a single antecedent of engagement, namely, self-brand connections. Future research may consider how SBC operates in conjunction with other complementary factors to enhance consumers’ affective, cognitive, social and behavioural engagement such as brand awareness, satisfaction and participation/interactivity. In addition, future research could examine an expanded array of engagement outcomes such as purchase intention, the share of wallet and reputation. Finally, future research should examine the operationalisation and validation of the dimensions of engagement using multiple competing scales to assess the suitability of these engagement scales across multiple brand categories and contexts.

Practical implications

Given the increasing investment in branding within social media and the fragmentation of brand communications across multiple communications platforms, the management of effective brand communications remains a significant challenge. This study found that the relationship between self-brand connections, affective, social, behavioural and cognitive engagement and loyalty was context-specific and moderated by a digital communication channel (OBC vs DCM email marketing), thus providing insights as to the effectiveness of OBCs and DCMs as two tools for enhancing consumer loyalty.

Originality/value

This study makes a novel contribution to the engagement literature by examining the antecedent role of self-brand connections in predicting consumers’ engagement; the moderating role of digital communication platforms (OBC vs DCM) on the formation of cognitive, affective, behavioural and social engagement; and the mediating effect of these dimensions on loyalty.

Article
Publication date: 20 May 2020

S.M. Deepa

This study aims to examine the relationship between four dimensions of organizational justice (distributive, procedural, interpersonal and informational) and the three…

Abstract

Purpose

This study aims to examine the relationship between four dimensions of organizational justice (distributive, procedural, interpersonal and informational) and the three facets of job engagement (physical, cognitive and emotional).

Design/methodology/approach

A cross-sectional approach was used to survey a sample of 281 professionals in information technology who resided in the southern part of India and varied on experience, age and gender. Data was analyzed by employing the partial least squares structural equation modeling (PLS-SEM) approach.

Findings

The result emphasizes the individual role of each justice dimension on three job engagement facets, which suggests that all four dimensions of organizational justice have positive effects on physical, cognitive and emotional job engagement.

Originality/value

The current study contributes to the literature by examining all three job engagement dimensions and provides evidence that distributive, procedural, interpersonal and informational justices are significant predictors of physical, cognitive and emotional job engagement.

Details

International Journal of Organization Theory & Behavior, vol. 23 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1093-4537

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 27 November 2018

Naeem Gul Gilal, Jing Zhang and Faheem Gul Gilal

In the modern era, the significance of product design has increased because customers’ priorities in the evaluation of products have changed from product price to product…

1201

Abstract

Purpose

In the modern era, the significance of product design has increased because customers’ priorities in the evaluation of products have changed from product price to product design. Companies consider product design to be one of the most important sources of competitive advantage and standards for evaluating their performance. Therefore, the purpose of this study is to develop and validate a new scale to measure product design along with its dimensions.

Design/methodology/approach

An extensive literature review and consumer interviews and surveys were conducted to generate an initial item pool. Exploratory factor analysis was used to reduce the initial item pool, and confirmatory factor analysis was performed for measurement validation. A total of four separate studies were conducted for the conceptualization and operationalization of a product design scale.

Findings

Using data from three samples, the authors develop and validate a new scale to measure product design along affective, cognitive, ergonomic and reflective dimensions. Furthermore, the results provide strong evidence of the reliability, discriminant validity, measurement invariance and nomological validity of the four product design dimensions. Finally, the effects of these product design dimensions on harmonious and obsessive brand passion were assessed. The results show that the affective and reflective dimensions appear to be prominent for capturing the obsessive brand passion, whereas the cognitive and ergonomic dimensions are capable of increasing harmonious brand passion.

Originality/value

This is the first study that develops and validates the measurement of product design as a four-dimensional construct that can be transferred to a scale and applied across a wide range of product categories.

Details

Journal of Product & Brand Management, vol. 27 no. 6
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1061-0421

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 30 September 2022

Theodore P. Stank, Anne E. Dohmen, Lance W. Saunders, Jason R.W. Merrick and Thomas J. Goldsby

The purpose of this research is to extend existing knowledge of supply chain agility by identifying the interrelationships among key elements of agility that may impact…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this research is to extend existing knowledge of supply chain agility by identifying the interrelationships among key elements of agility that may impact customer performance improvement when conditions of demand and supply vary from the core assumptions used to design supply chain networks.

Design/methodology/approach

The research employs the principles of middle range theorizing (Merton, 1968) to incorporate observations from field interviews and data collected from executives, managers, and analysts from six global manufacturing firms across a range of industries to form research propositions about the nature of relationships among cognitive agility dimensions, antecedent impediments to cognitive agility, and the relationships between cognitive and physical agility to improve performance that can later be subjected to deductive testing.

Findings

The supply chain designs used by the participating firms to deliver value for core products were not sufficiently agile to meet desired customer performance levels when certain supply or demand conditions varied significantly from the norm. In collaboration with partner firms, the findings suggest that improving cognitive abilities to see, think and act by deploying information-based tactical initiatives in planning, inventory positioning, and supplier lead time performance monitoring enable improved physical agility that enable a firm to respond to changes swiftly and flexibly in the demand and supply environment. Importantly, the findings also suggest that the dimensions of cognitive agility are correlated and are formative elements of the latent construct of cognitive agility, which is antecedent to physical agility.

Research limitations/implications

These findings are limited in scope to the six companies that participated in this research. Future explorations should generalize to a broader population of firms and conditions. The results do provide evidence of the relationships between the dimensions of agility that are both a contribution and should guide future research on the subject.

Practical implications

From a managerial standpoint, the research findings provide insight into how firms might manage agility to improve performance when demand and supply conditions vary from those for which the core supply chain was originally designed. The findings suggest that improving the ability to capture, process, and disseminate information, i.e. cognitive agility dimensions of alertness, accessibility, and decisiveness, facilitates improved information-based initiatives in planning, inventory positioning, and supplier lead time performance monitoring, which in turn enables improved physical initiatives to swiftly and flexibly respond to changes in the demand and supply environment. Such improvements ultimately result in heightened customer service and inventory performance.

Originality/value

Previous research is mute regarding the interrelationships among the identified dimensions of supply chain agility, specifically those considered to be “cognitive” elements and those that involve physical actions. The finding suggesting that the dimensions of cognitive agility are correlated and are formative elements of the latent construct of cognitive agility provides an important theoretical insight that contributes to enhanced understanding of the nature of supply chain agility to foster future quantitative explorations to better understand the phenomena.

Details

International Journal of Physical Distribution & Logistics Management, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0960-0035

Keywords

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