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Article
Publication date: 4 January 2021

Newton Melo, Débora Dourado and Jackeline Andrade

This paper aims to present a model of how cognitive and behavioral crafting practices relate, reconciling the two dominant and conflicting job crafting theoretical perspectives.

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to present a model of how cognitive and behavioral crafting practices relate, reconciling the two dominant and conflicting job crafting theoretical perspectives.

Design/methodology/approach

Starting by examining the role of cognition and cognitive practices in job crafting, this paper reconstitutes the theorizing path that led to the exclusion of cognitive crafting from job crafting theory, explores existing theorizing efforts to (re)integrate cognitive crafting back into job crafting and proposes a new job crafting model (re)integrating behavioral and cognitive practices.

Findings

By conceiving cognitive crafting practices as a sensemaking layer that spans across and reciprocates with all behavioral crafting practices, the proposed model specifies the role of behavior and cognition (and the mutual relations between them) in job crafting, while resuming its meaning-making orientation.

Originality/value

This paper offers novel insights on underspecified aspects of the job crafting theory, improving its heuristic value. It clarifies how meaning is assembled and enacted by people in work environments, allowing for more integrated and comprehensive explanations about how people relate to work.

Details

International Journal of Organizational Analysis, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1934-8835

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Abstract

Details

Job Crafting
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-83867-222-5

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Article
Publication date: 19 March 2018

Haemi Kim, Jinyoung Im, Hailin Qu and Julie NamKoong

This study aims to investigate the conditions required for encouraging employees to engage in job crafting and examine the consequences of job crafting behavior. Job…

Abstract

Purpose

This study aims to investigate the conditions required for encouraging employees to engage in job crafting and examine the consequences of job crafting behavior. Job crafting is employees’ proactive behaviors at work associated with modifying tasks, managing social relations and changing job cognition.

Design/methodology/approach

A paper-and-pencil onsite survey was conducted by targeting frontline employees working in five-star hotels located in Seoul, South Korea. Descriptive statistics, confirmatory factor analysis and structural equation modeling were used.

Findings

Perceived organizational support triggers employees’ job crafting. Task crafting leads to relational and cognitive crafting. Relational and cognitive crafting increases employees’ fit with the organization, whereas task crafting does not. Employees’ fit with the organization is positively associated with job satisfaction.

Research limitations/implications

Employees’ job crafting has positive consequences for a company by enhancing employees’ fit with the organization, resulting in increased job satisfaction. Thus, organizations need to show how much the organization cares about employees’ values, so that employees can initiate job crafting by utilizing organizational support. However, generalizing the results should be done cautiously.

Originality/value

This study focuses on the effect of an organizational-level predictor, whereas previous job crafting literature has focused mainly on an individual level or on task-related factors. It also empirically tests the causal relationships among the three facets of job crafting and provides their distinctive influences on person-organization fit that ultimately leads to job satisfaction.

Details

International Journal of Contemporary Hospitality Management, vol. 30 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0959-6119

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Article
Publication date: 11 April 2016

Daniela Weseler and Cornelia Niessen

– The purpose of this paper is to investigate the relation between extending and reducing job crafting behavior, cognitive crafting and task performance.

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to investigate the relation between extending and reducing job crafting behavior, cognitive crafting and task performance.

Design/methodology/approach

Hierarchical regression analyses of data from 131 employee-supervisor pairs were conducted to analyze the differential relations of five job crafting dimensions to self- and supervisor-rated task performance.

Findings

The present study shows that reduction behavior is rated as counterproductive, and extension behavior is rated as productive in terms of task performance by employees themselves. Supervisors rated task performance higher when employees extended their tasks, and lower when they reduced relationships.

Research limitations/implications

Future research should test the hypotheses in a longitudinal setting and should focus processes that moderate the differential job crafting-task performance relationships.

Originality/value

By distinguishing extending and reducing task and relational boundaries and cognitive crafting, the authors give first evidence to possible negative sides of job crafting.

Details

Journal of Managerial Psychology, vol. 31 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0268-3946

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Article
Publication date: 8 February 2021

Augustine Ebuka Arachie, Emmanuel Kalu Agbaeze, Hope Ngozi Nzewi and Emmanuela Obianuju Agbasi

The frequent turnover of academic instructors (lecturers) to other organizations and countries despite the autonomies their job offer them necessitated; this study aims to…

Abstract

Purpose

The frequent turnover of academic instructors (lecturers) to other organizations and countries despite the autonomies their job offer them necessitated; this study aims to examine the relationship between job crafting (JC) and embeddedness of lecturers to their jobs.

Design/methodology/approach

A survey research design was adopted. This study is carried out in the south-east region of Nigeria. The population of the study consisted of 8,051 academic staff of six randomly selected public universities in the region and a sample size of 367 was determined using Krejcie and Morgan (1970) formula. The primary and secondary source of data were used in data collection and were analysed using regression analysis at a 5% level of significance.

Findings

Result revealed that task crafting has a statistically significant positive relationship with employee job fit (r = 0.949, R2 = 0.900, F = 2699.473, p-value < 0.05), that relational crafting has a statistically significant positive influence on employee links (r = 0.982, R2 = 0.964, F = 8112.281, p-value < 0.05) and that there is a statistically significant positive correlation between cognitive crafting and sacrifice links (r = 0.962, R2 = 0.926, F = 3729.900, p-value < 0.05).

Practical implications

This study’s practical implication is that it will aid in making academics in Nigeria embedded in their jobs by encouraging them to craft their jobs so as to give them more meaning. In the field of research, this study helps to close the literature gap existing in JC and the role it plays in embedding academics in their jobs, hence, opening up a whole new research area with empirical data to back it up. For management, the study will help in knowing how to appropriately harness the potential of JC in making employees more engaged in their jobs.

Originality/value

Many studies have been carried out in the past in areas of JC and employee performance, non to the best knowledge of the researchers has been extended to studying JC as it relates to the embeddedness of academics to their jobs in Nigeria, this study is, therefore, a new addition to academic literature in this area.

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Article
Publication date: 17 January 2020

Xiaojun Li and Yoshiaki Takao

The purpose of this study is to examine the predictive effects of social context and its interaction effects with individual differences on job crafting behaviors…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this study is to examine the predictive effects of social context and its interaction effects with individual differences on job crafting behaviors. Specially, this paper draws on the purposeful work behavior theory to outline how the four social characteristics (social support, interdependence, interaction outside the organization and feedback from others) and the moderation effects of neuroticism predict task crafting, relational crafting and cognitive crafting.

Design/methodology/approach

The current study examined four social characteristics as antecedents of job crafting behaviors. The moderating effects of neuroticism were explored as well. By conducting a three-wave survey, the authors received a sample of 253 full-time incumbents in Japan. The data analysis used multiple regressions by using R language. Correlational and moderated regression analyses were performed to test this study’s hypotheses.

Findings

Empirical analysis of this study’s data shows some initial support for the application of the purposeful work behaviors theory to job crafting. The findings indicate that all four social characteristics promoted particular job crafting behaviors. Neuroticism was a significant moderator for the relationships between social support, interaction outside the organization, feedback from others and relative job crafting dimensions. The current study extends existing models of job crafting.

Originality/value

The current study makes significant theoretical contributions for both work design and job crafting literature. The present framework enriches our understanding of job crafting by demonstrating a picture of a moderated model between social characteristics and job crafting by uncovering the moderator – neuroticism. This study’s findings also contribute to managerial practices. Managers should build a supportive context and provide interdependence, interactions outside the organization and interpersonal performance feedback. To motivate employees with different personalities, offering different social context is necessary.

Details

International Journal of Organizational Analysis, vol. 28 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1934-8835

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Article
Publication date: 12 March 2019

Marina Romeo, Montserrat Yepes-Baldó, Miguel Ángel Piñeiro, Kristina Westerberg and Maria Nordin

The purpose of this paper is to analyze the moderation effect of over-commitment in the job crafting–well-being relationship, in the elderly care sector in Spain.

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to analyze the moderation effect of over-commitment in the job crafting–well-being relationship, in the elderly care sector in Spain.

Design/methodology/approach

A cross-sectional design was implemented and a final sample of 353 participants were assessed using the Job Crafting Questionnaire, an adaptation of the Over-commitment Scale from the Effort-Reward Imbalance Questionnaire, and the General Health Questionnaire (GHQ-12).

Findings

A positive interaction between relational and task crafting and over-commitment is observed in the prediction of well-being levels. Specifically, the effect of over-commitment in the task crafting–well-being relationship proved to be statistically significant when opposed to low, medium and high levels of over-commitment. Additionally, the effect of over-commitment in the relational crafting–well-being relationship proved to be statistically significant only when opposed to medium and high levels of over-commitment. Finally, a direct and simple effect was observed between cognitive crafting and well-being, not moderated by over-commitment.

Research limitations/implications

Implementation of non-behavioral measurements, and a non-longitudinal design are suggested. The development of behavioral measures for job crafting is encouraged, along with the implementation of longitudinal designs sensitive to changes in over-commitment. Possible over-commitment results are biased by an economically contracted environment.

Practical implications

Job crafting training, over-commitment early detection and further research on job crafting strategies’ preferences are suggested.

Originality/value

The moderating role of over-commitment in the job crafting–well-being relationship in the elderly care sector represents one of these attempts to better understand evidences of how work-related efforts modify a worker’s psychological functioning and adaptation, which is the reason why, specially in contexts of uncertainty, its study becomes relevant.

Details

Employee Relations: The International Journal, vol. 41 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0142-5455

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Article
Publication date: 18 September 2019

Fay Giæver and Lise Tevik Løvseth

The purpose of this paper is to seek a deeper understanding of presenteeism by utilising the perspective of job crafting to explore how a selected group of physicians make…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to seek a deeper understanding of presenteeism by utilising the perspective of job crafting to explore how a selected group of physicians make sense of their decision to attend work while ill and of their experience of doing so. Job crafting implies that employees not only respond to their job description, but also proactively change tasks, relationships and perceptions in order to experience work in meaningful ways.

Design/methodology/approach

A narrative methodological framework involving interviews was adopted to explore the ways in which a selected group of 20 Norwegian hospital physicians engaged in job crafting during presenteeism. The resulting data were analysed using theory-led thematic analysis utilizing the theoretical perspective of job crafting.

Findings

It was evident that physicians were indecisive and insecure when evaluating their own illness, and that, via task, relational and cognitive crafting, they trivialised, endured and showcased their illness, and engaged in presenteeism in various ways. Furthermore, physicians to some extent found themselves caught in dysfunctional circles by contributing to the creation of a work environment where presenteeism was maintained and seen as expected.

Research limitations/implications

Future research should address a wider range of contexts, and use longitudinal methods to explore the multifaceted, context-specific and evolving nature of presenteeism and job crafting in more depth. Interventions aimed at countering the negative implications of presenteeism should address the issue from both a social and a systemic point of view.

Originality/value

The findings extend the current understanding of presenteeism by demonstrating the multifaceted and evolving nature of the ways in which personal illness and presenteeism are perceived and enacted over time.

Details

Qualitative Research in Organizations and Management: An International Journal, vol. 15 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1746-5648

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Article
Publication date: 18 March 2021

Huda Masood, Len Karakowsky and Mark Podolsky

The purpose of this qualitative exploratory study was to investigate the capacity of job crafting to serve as a viable response to abusive supervision. Although…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this qualitative exploratory study was to investigate the capacity of job crafting to serve as a viable response to abusive supervision. Although considerable literature has emerged on employee reactions to abusive supervision, the role of job crafting as a coping mechanism has received relatively little attention.

Design/methodology/approach

Using qualitative exploration, we conducted semi-structured interviews to examine how individuals engage in job crafting as a means to respond to or cope with abusive supervision. Critical Incident Interview Technique (CIIT) was used to obtain in-depth details of this topic. We analyzed the interview-based data using the thematic analysis (TA) technique. We also integrated topic modeling to cluster the identified categories of job crafting behaviors within our TA. The cultural context of our findings was further analyzed using interpretive phenological analysis (IPA).

Findings

The results of our thematic analysis led to four recurring themes in the interview-data: (1) Job crafting as a viable coping response to abusive supervision; (2) The type of coping relates to the type of crafting: Approach and Avoidance; (3) The role of perceived control; (4) Emotions play a role in the type of crafting employed. Findings from our IPA generated the following super-ordinate themes. (1) Job crafting fluidity, (2) effectiveness of job crafting, (3) resilience and (4) cultural dynamics.

Research limitations/implications

This research reveals the ways in which individuals may turn to job crafting behaviors as a means to cope following instances of abusive supervision. Given the qualitative exploration of our research approach, we identify generalizability to be an issue.

Practical implications

Job crafting is a proactive phenomenon that equips employees with coping abilities in the workplace. While Wrzesniewski and Dutton (2001) suggested that job crafting behaviors tend to be hidden from management, there may be merit in organizations explicitly acknowledging the benefits of allowing employees to be active agents in their work, capable of using multiple domains of job crafting to improve their personal and professional lives (Petrou et al., 2017).

Originality/value

The current research reveals the ways in which individuals may turn to job crafting behaviors as a means to cope, following instances of abusive supervision. We further fine-grained our analysis to explicate employee job crafting behaviors in response to abusive supervision within a cross-cultural domain.

Details

Career Development International, vol. 26 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1362-0436

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 6 December 2019

Jeong Won Lee and Youjeong Song

Despite receiving much attention in recent job design literature, job crafting research has neglected motivational and multilevel perspectives, limiting the understanding…

Abstract

Purpose

Despite receiving much attention in recent job design literature, job crafting research has neglected motivational and multilevel perspectives, limiting the understanding of how to foster employee job crafting. Drawing on job crafting and self-determination theory, the purpose of this paper is to explore individual- and team-level predictors and the mechanisms involved in employees’ job change behaviors. The authors propose that employees’ intrinsic motivation and two team-level properties – team knowledge sharing and trust – have important roles to play.

Design/methodology/approach

The multilevel data were collected from 311 employees from 62 work teams in Korean companies. Hierarchical linear modeling analysis was used. A supplementary data collected from 162 individuals working in the USA were used for analysis.

Findings

The results showed that intrinsic motivation and team knowledge sharing are positively related to job crafting. In addition, intrinsic motivation mediated the relationship between team knowledge and individual job crafting. Finally, team trust was shown to play a cross-level moderating role, strengthening the positive relationship between employees’ intrinsic motivation and job crafting.

Originality/value

Applying motivational and multilevel perspectives, this paper uncovers the roles of individual motivation and team context in fostering employee job crafting. This study helps to extend the theoretical domains of job crafting and provides practical insights into how to promote employees’ job crafting.

Details

Personnel Review, vol. 49 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0048-3486

Keywords

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