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Article
Publication date: 12 October 2017

Nsubili Isaga

Focussing on the relationship between personality traits and small and medium enterprise (SME) performance in Tanzania’s furniture sector, the purpose of this paper is to…

Abstract

Purpose

Focussing on the relationship between personality traits and small and medium enterprise (SME) performance in Tanzania’s furniture sector, the purpose of this paper is to examine the effect of cognitive characteristics as a mediating variable.

Design/methodology/approach

A total of 300 SMEs in furniture sectors from four different regions in Tanzania were involved in this study. Structural equation modelling approach was used to test simultaneously the direct and the indirect effects of the characteristics of the entrepreneurs on the SMEs performance.

Findings

The findings show that personality traits have a significant influence on SMEs performance through cognitive characteristics.

Research limitations/implications

The study’s data were collected from businesses in only one industry (furniture) in Tanzania. Future research may extend the approach to other business sectors.

Practical implications

Since entrepreneurial characteristics are considered an important driver of a country’s economic development and performance, it is hoped that governments and sector associations implement suitable policies and incentives to develop an entrepreneurial culture among citizens.

Originality/value

Current knowledge about entrepreneurial characteristics and their relationship with SME performance in developing countries, especially Tanzania, is very limited. The present study suggests that cognitive characteristics are necessary mediators of the link between personality traits and SME performance.

Details

Journal of Small Business and Enterprise Development, vol. 25 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1462-6004

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Article
Publication date: 1 December 2000

C. Carl Pegels and Baik Yang

The impact of the cognitive and demographic characteristics of top management teams (TMTs) on the strategic assets acquisition performance in organizations is evaluated…

Abstract

The impact of the cognitive and demographic characteristics of top management teams (TMTs) on the strategic assets acquisition performance in organizations is evaluated. The evaluation measure is relative efficiency in converting generic inputs into valuable strategic assets using data envelopment analysis. Of the 12 TMT characteristics evaluated about three were statistically significant, and four were inconclusive. The study was performed on firms in the domestic airline industry.

Details

Management Decision, vol. 38 no. 10
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0025-1747

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Article
Publication date: 20 March 2017

Matteo Cristofaro

This paper aims to study how biases in decision-making processes could be reduced. In this vein, over the past 30 years, scholars interested in decision-making have been…

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to study how biases in decision-making processes could be reduced. In this vein, over the past 30 years, scholars interested in decision-making have been raising their interest in the development of quality control tools to mitigate the effects of cognitive distortions. However, they have often neglected the use of psychological instruments for understanding the role of decision-makers’ personality in the quality of the decision-making processes.

Design/methodology/approach

This is an intrinsic case study about an Italian complex organization (i.e. Consorzio ELIS) which tries to shed light on the identified research question. Three decision-makers responsible for the decision processes of three new business initiatives were interviewed using a recent quality control tool (i.e. checklist) and their personality types were tracked by performing MBTI® tests. The thematic analysis, approached by using NVivo software, and after six months of direct observations inside the organization, allowed an understanding of the decision processes and their distortions.

Findings

The results of this study show how initiatives with frequent quality control mechanisms and different stakeholders are more able to pass the decision phase than initiatives with no controls, few participants and little difference between personalities.

Originality/value

The results of this work show how reducing biases of decision-making processes in complex organizations can benefit from the simultaneous use of the checklist and MBTI® test. As demonstrated, when used together, they can make more effective use of and provide better results for both, as well as providing a better quality control of the decision-making processes. From that, an approach is proposed that both takes into account the two perspectives and can work together with other cognitive problem structuring methods.

Details

Management Research Review, vol. 40 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2040-8269

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Article
Publication date: 17 December 2020

Hakan Görür and Cem Oktay Güzeller

The main purpose of this study is to create a reliable and valid scale to assess the destination food image perceived by the tourists regarding the food in Turkey within…

Abstract

Purpose

The main purpose of this study is to create a reliable and valid scale to assess the destination food image perceived by the tourists regarding the food in Turkey within the cognitive and affective image component framework. In line with this purpose, both scale development and scale adaptation studies are conducted, and measurement invariance of the scale for gender is analyzed.

Design/methodology/approach

This study uses the survey model among quantitative research methods. Scale development processes are used to assess the cognitive image; the construct validity is analyzed with exploratory factor analysis (n = 328), confirmatory factor analysis (n = 425) and convergent and discriminant validity. Scale adaptation processes are followed to assess the affective image, and construct validity is tested with confirmatory factor analysis (n = 425). The reliability of both scales is investigated with Cronbach's alpha. Cochran–Mantel–Haenszel (CMH) analysis is conducted for measurement invariance for gender.

Findings

Construct validity and reliability provided the desired values in all processes. Measurement invariance results proved that the scale does not change according to genders.

Research limitations/implications

The data obtained in this study have geographical limitations, and the data represent tourists visiting Antalya, an important tourism destination in Turkey.

Practical implications

The scale will provide concrete information about the destination food image and help practitioners to test the model and develop future strategies for the destination.

Originality/value

This study presents an integrated approach to understanding the destination food image and expands theoretical and empirical evidence by creating a scale that measures both cognitive and affective image component. Scale-invariant shows that there is no item bias for analyzed gender and contributes to generalizability.

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Article
Publication date: 1 April 1986

P J. DANIELS

Selected current and recent work in the area of cognitive modelling is reviewed. Particular attention is paid to user models (that is, the model held by a system of a…

Abstract

Selected current and recent work in the area of cognitive modelling is reviewed. Particular attention is paid to user models (that is, the model held by a system of a user). The relevance of this work to information retrieval is assessed and some attempts to include user models in IR systems are discussed. Implications are drawn for future work in IR.

Details

Journal of Documentation, vol. 42 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0022-0418

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Article
Publication date: 1 September 2000

C. Carl Pegels and Baik Yang

In this paper the impact of the top management team’s (TMT) cognitive and demographic characteristics on the firm’s strategic assets management performance is evaluated…

Abstract

In this paper the impact of the top management team’s (TMT) cognitive and demographic characteristics on the firm’s strategic assets management performance is evaluated. Strategic assets are those assets as defined by the resource‐based value of the firm, also often referred to as core competencies. The performance measure used is relative efficiency in converting the firm’s strategic assets into firm performance measured by return on investment and return on sales. The technique used to measure relative efficiency is data envelopment analysis. Of the 13 TMT characteristics evaluated about half were statistically significant. The study was performed on firms in the domestic airline industry.

Details

Team Performance Management: An International Journal, vol. 6 no. 5/6
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1352-7592

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Book part
Publication date: 24 November 2010

Naresh K. Malhotra, Arun K. Jain, Ashutosh Patil, Christian Pinson and Lan Wu

This chapter addresses one aspect of the broad issue of the psychological foundations of the dimensions of multidimensional scaling (MDS) solutions. Using empirical data…

Abstract

This chapter addresses one aspect of the broad issue of the psychological foundations of the dimensions of multidimensional scaling (MDS) solutions. Using empirical data from three independent studies, it is shown that the dimensionality of MDS solutions is negatively related to individual differences in the level of cognitive differentiation and integrative complexity of individuals and positively related to the individual's ability to discriminate within dimensions. MDS dimensionality is also shown to be affected by a variety of task-related variables such as perceived task difficulty, consistency in providing similarity judgments, confidence, familiarity, and importance attached to the stimuli. The chapter concludes by raising the issue of whether MDS can be validly used to describe complex cognitive processes.

Details

Review of Marketing Research
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-0-85724-475-8

Content available
Article
Publication date: 21 May 2018

Jue Li, Minghui Yu and Hongwei Wang

On shield tunnel construction (STC) site, human error is widely recognized as essential to accident. It is necessary to explain which factors lead to human error and how…

Abstract

Purpose

On shield tunnel construction (STC) site, human error is widely recognized as essential to accident. It is necessary to explain which factors lead to human error and how these factors can influence human performance. Human reliability analysis supports such necessity through modeling the performance shaping factors (PSFs). The purpose of this paper is to establish and validate a PSF taxonomy for the STC context.

Design/methodology/approach

The approach taken in this study mainly consists of three steps. First, a description of the STC context is proposed through the analysis of the STC context. Second, the literature which stretch across the PSF methodologies, cognitive psychology and human factors of STC and other construction industries are reviewed to develop an initial set of PSFs. Finally, a final PSF set is modified and validated based on STC task analysis and STC accidents cases.

Findings

The PSF taxonomy constituted by 4 main components, 4 hierarchies and 85 PSFs is established for human behavior modeling and simulation under the STC context. Furthermore, by comparing and evaluating the performance of STC PSF and existing PSF studies, the proposed PSF taxonomy meets the requirement for qualitative and quantitative analysis.

Practical implications

The PSF taxonomy can provide a basis and support for human behavior modeling and simulation under the STC context. Integrating PSFs into a behavior simulation model provides a more realistic and integrated assessment of human error by manifesting the influence of each PSFs on the cognitive processes. The simulation results can suggest concrete points for the improvement of STC safety management.

Originality/value

This paper develops a taxonomy of PSFs that addresses the various unique influences of the STC context on human behaviors. The harsh underground working conditions and diverse resources of system information are identified as key characteristics of the STC context. Furthermore, the PSF taxonomy can be integrated into a human cognitive behavior model to predict the worker’s behavior on STC site in future work.

Details

Engineering, Construction and Architectural Management, vol. 25 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0969-9988

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Article
Publication date: 1 January 1973

PETER COLEMAN

This paper is a study of the political socialization of the young. It attempts to identify the important elements in socialization which help to account for the existence…

Abstract

This paper is a study of the political socialization of the young. It attempts to identify the important elements in socialization which help to account for the existence of the class of political sophisticates and actives known as ideologues. To a large extent, the continuity and stability of our political institutions depends upon these people, and thus it seems desirable to further our knowledge of how they are developed. Recent work on the political socialization of children has demonstrated that children differentiate themselves early in terms of their interest in or participation in politics. Thus it is maintained that a group of potential ideologues can be identified before children reach the age of 13 years. Since one of the characteristics of ideologues is independence of party, it is the development of such independence in children which is of particular interest here. This seems to be associated with upper socioeconomic status. Similarly, some children shift their attention from personalities to issues; these too form part of the cohort of potential ideologues. The main lines of political socialization seem now relatively clear. Somewhat less clear is the relationship between socialization and the development of ideologues, but reasonable hypotheses seem to be available, and await empirical test, probably in the form of a longitudinal study.

Details

Journal of Educational Administration, vol. 11 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0957-8234

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Article
Publication date: 13 July 2020

Davide Secchi

The paper aims to use part of the distributed cognition literature to study how employees cope with organizational plasticity, in an attempt to identify the characteristics

Abstract

Purpose

The paper aims to use part of the distributed cognition literature to study how employees cope with organizational plasticity, in an attempt to identify the characteristics of cognitive plasticity.

Design/methodology/approach

Evidence is collected by designing and implementing an agent-based computational simulation model (the IOP 2.0) where employees have the option to use external resources and the social environment to perform tasks. As plasticity is more effective when change and uncertainty are high, the simulation features an increase in the difficulty and number of tasks to which employees need to cope.

Findings

Cooperation and sharing of competence and ability are key to cognitive plasticity. Being able to master the use of some resources, together with other employees’ competencies, make some achieve the most efficient task performance.

Practical implications

The findings suggest that under conditions of change and plasticity, human resource management (HRM) shall attempt to develop measures to support employees' cognitive skills necessary to cope with it, for example, mostly through diagnosis, training and facilitating on-the-job dialogue.

Originality/value

This is the first study that attempts a merger between organizational cognition and plasticity, and it is the first to match its results to HRM policy recommendations.

Details

Evidence-based HRM: a Global Forum for Empirical Scholarship, vol. 9 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2049-3983

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