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Abstract

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The Emerald Review of Industrial and Organizational Psychology
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78743-786-9

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Article

Nicholas Martin, John Capman, Anthony Boyce, Kyle Morgan, Manuel Francisco Gonzalez and Seymour Adler

Cognitive ability tests demonstrate strong relationships with job performance, but have several limitations; notably, subgroup differences based on race/ethnicity. As an…

Abstract

Purpose

Cognitive ability tests demonstrate strong relationships with job performance, but have several limitations; notably, subgroup differences based on race/ethnicity. As an alternative, the purpose of this paper is to develop a working memory assessment for personnel selection contexts.

Design/methodology/approach

The authors describe the development of Global Adaptive Memory Evaluation (G.A.M.E.) – a working memory assessment – along with three studies focused on refining and validating G.A.M.E., including examining test-taker reactions, reliability, subgroup differences, construct and criterion-related validity, and measurement equivalence across computer and mobile devices.

Findings

Evidence suggests that G.A.M.E. is a reliable and valid tool for employee selection. G.A.M.E. exhibited convergent validity with other cognitive assessments, predicted job performance, yielded smaller subgroup differences than traditional cognitive ability tests, was engaging for test-takers, and upheld equivalent measurement across computers and mobile devices.

Research limitations/implications

Additional research is needed on the use of working memory assessments as an alternative to traditional cognitive ability testing, including its advantages and disadvantages, relative to other constructs and methods.

Practical implications

The findings illustrate working memory’s potential as an alternative to traditional cognitive ability assessments and highlight the need for cognitive ability tests that rely on modern theories of intelligence and leverage burgeoning mobile technology.

Originality/value

This paper highlights an alternative to traditional cognitive ability tests, namely, working memory assessments, and demonstrates how to design reliable, valid, engaging and mobile-compatible versions.

Details

Journal of Managerial Psychology, vol. 35 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0268-3946

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Article

Grazia Catalano, Jonathan Mason, Claire Elise Brolan, Siobhan Loughnan and David Harley

This literature review identifies instruments for diagnostic assessment of cognitive impairment in prison populations. The purpose of this paper is to promote procedures…

Abstract

Purpose

This literature review identifies instruments for diagnostic assessment of cognitive impairment in prison populations. The purpose of this paper is to promote procedures for early screening and identification of cognitive impairment using instruments appropriate to prisons.

Design/methodology/approach

A targeted literature review identified studies on screening and diagnostic assessment of adults in jails, prisons, police watch-houses (custody suites), rehabilitation facilities and forensic settings or community settings for offenders. Discriminant validity, suitability, reliability and feasibility of instruments in correctional and forensic settings are presented.

Findings

From 135 peer-reviewed articles relating to diagnostic assessment of cognitive impairment, 15 instruments were considered appropriate for use in prison settings.

Research limitations/implications

Selection of instruments for prison use considers suitability of the instrument(s) and clinical workforce capability. Cultural and gender validity of the instrument, its feasibility for use in the prison environment and cost and time to administer are also important. Using appropriate tools as part of a staged and targeted process in the screening and diagnosis of cognitive impairment is demonstrated by two case vignettes presented in this paper. As this was a desk review, the authors did not evaluate the instruments.

Originality/value

Identification of instruments that are suitable for diagnosis of cognitive impairment in forensic populations informs the rehabilitation of offenders with cognitive impairment in prison and upon release to probation and parole.

Details

Journal of Intellectual Disabilities and Offending Behaviour, vol. 11 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2050-8824

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Article

Dawn Reeve, Charlotte Gayson and Talal Stephan

The purpose of this paper is to increase awareness and compliance of The National Institute for Health and Care Excellence (NICE) Guidance regarding cognitive impairment…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to increase awareness and compliance of The National Institute for Health and Care Excellence (NICE) Guidance regarding cognitive impairment in multiple sclerosis (MS).

Design/methodology/approach

Assessments were offered routinely to consecutive inpatients with MS and to 20 per cent of outpatients. Once consent was gained, a cognitive assessment and subjective measure of cognition was completed with the patient, as well as a disability scale completed by the Medical Consultant. Individually targeted cognitive rehabilitation advice was provided using a bespoke advice leaflet. Afterwards, those who completed the assessment were asked to provide feedback on their experience.

Findings

The percentage that were classed as below average cognitively and the pattern of impairment was comparable to previous findings. Memory was rated the most affected by the largest number of MS individuals and a strong relationship was found between objective and subjective measures of attention. The average functional disability level was rated at 6.99. Evaluations for the service provided were positive; over half of the sample was unaware of NICE Guidance on this issue but 100 per cent would recommend this service and provided optimistic quotes.

Practical implications

This evaluation has enabled greater numbers to receive the recommended services and provided a useful baseline assessment of cognitive impairment and of patient attitudes towards this service. Resulting from this process, a new service framework has been proposed and presented at a local level. The advice leaflet developed for this process has been well received by patients and colleagues resulting in its submission to become an official NHS leaflet.

Originality/value

Developed clinical governance of NHS services to patients with MS in offering improved assessment and management of cognitive problems. This is in contrast to the national trend showing little improvement of MS care and the lack of NICE implementation by the MS Trust and Royal College of Physicians audit. Furthermore, the bespoke advice leaflet developed for patients and carers of MS demonstrates originality of information provided.

Details

Social Care and Neurodisability, vol. 5 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2042-0919

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Article

Dave Dagnan, Karen Mellor and Claire Jefferson

There is increasing use of cognitive therapy with people with learning disabilities. This paper gives a detailed description of a clinically useful assessment approach…

Abstract

There is increasing use of cognitive therapy with people with learning disabilities. This paper gives a detailed description of a clinically useful assessment approach that gives the therapist information that can be used to identify the appropriate approach to therapy.

Details

Advances in Mental Health and Learning Disabilities, vol. 3 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1753-0180

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Book part

Jean L. Dyer

Each of the four objectives can be applied within the military training environment. Military training often requires that soldiers achieve specific levels of performance…

Abstract

Each of the four objectives can be applied within the military training environment. Military training often requires that soldiers achieve specific levels of performance or proficiency in each phase of training. For example, training courses impose entrance and graduation criteria, and awards are given for excellence in military performance. Frequently, training devices, training media, and training evaluators or observers also directly support the need to diagnose performance strengths and weaknesses. Training measures may be used as indices of performance, and to indicate the need for additional or remedial training.

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The Science and Simulation of Human Performance
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-84950-296-2

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Article

Lucinda Charlotte Flinn, Charlotte Louise Hassett and Louise Braham

The Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale – Fourth Edition (WAIS-IV) (Wechsler, 2008) is a cognitive assessment that is often used in secure forensic settings, however it has…

Abstract

Purpose

The Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale – Fourth Edition (WAIS-IV) (Wechsler, 2008) is a cognitive assessment that is often used in secure forensic settings, however it has not been normed on this population. The purpose of this paper is to develop forensic normative data.

Design/methodology/approach

Patient files in a high secure forensic hospital were reviewed in order to obtain completed WAIS-IV (Wechsler, 2008) assessments and scores from the five indexes (verbal comprehension, perceptual reasoning, working memory, processing speed and full scale intelligence quotient (FSIQ)). This included reviewing patient files from all directorates, including male mental health, male learning disability, male personality disorder and the women’s service, yielding a sample size of n=86.

Findings

The qualitative descriptors obtained across the hospital ranged between extremely low and superior. The learning disability service scored significantly lower than the mental health and personality disorder services in verbal comprehension index, perceptual reasoning index, working memory index and FSIQ, and significantly lower than the mental health, personality disorder and women’s services in processing speed index. Mean scores from this study were significantly lower in comparison to those from the UK validation study (Wechsler, 2008).

Practical implications

The significant difference between scores from the current study and those from the UK validation study (Wechsler, 2008) highlights the need to have appropriate normative data for forensic populations. Clinicians should consider interventions that may serve to increase cognitive function, such as cognitive remediation therapy.

Originality/value

Whilst several special group studies have previously been conducted, this study is the first to develop forensic normative data for the WAIS-IV (Wechsler, 2008). Whilst the sample size was relatively small with limited female participants, the data collated will enable clinicians working in forensic establishments to interpret their assessments in light of this information.

Details

Journal of Forensic Practice, vol. 20 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2050-8794

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Article

Johann Chevalère, Virginie Laurier, Maite Tauber, Anna-Malika Camblats, Denise Thuilleaux and Virginie Postal

When a comprehensive neuropsychological assessment cannot be carried out, a quick and discriminant tool of good psychometric properties can be useful to practitioners. The…

Abstract

Purpose

When a comprehensive neuropsychological assessment cannot be carried out, a quick and discriminant tool of good psychometric properties can be useful to practitioners. The purpose of this paper is to examine the use of the Montreal Cognitive Assessment (MoCA) in patients with Prader–Willi syndrome (PWS) and to test its reliability for cognitive assessment in a population with intellectual disabilities.

Design/methodology/approach

Thirty-seven adults with PWS took the MoCA. Reliability of the battery was tested using Cronbach’s alphas. The performance of PWS adults in each subtest was then compared to that of a normative population of healthy adults.

Findings

The MoCA was found to be unreliable in PWS. The subtests analyses indicated that the PWS sample underperformed the normative population of healthy adults on most subtests of the MoCA. A sub-sample aged between 17and 29 years showed normal performance on Naming and Memory, and a sub-sample aged from 30 to 39 years showed similar performance on Language, Memory and Orientation relative to age-matched normative healthy adults.

Research limitations/implications

Results showed that the current version of the MoCA, if taken as a whole test for cognitive assessment, does not present with adequate psychometric properties, which the authors interpret as reflecting the heterogeneity in PWS cognitive profiles. If used in PWS, the MoCA may however be useful in examining cognitive functions separately using subtest-based comparisons to normative data.

Originality/value

This research contributes to a better assessment of cognitive profile in PWS and people with learning disabilities by arguing that the use of psychometric tests should depend more on the specificity of the population under evaluation.

Details

Advances in Mental Health and Intellectual Disabilities, vol. 14 no. 6
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2044-1282

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Article

Erastus Karanja and Laurell C. Malone

This study aims to investigate how to improve the project management (PM) curriculum by evaluating the nature and alignment of learning outcomes in the PM course syllabi…

Abstract

Purpose

This study aims to investigate how to improve the project management (PM) curriculum by evaluating the nature and alignment of learning outcomes in the PM course syllabi with Bloom’s Taxonomy framework.

Design/methodology/approach

The research methodology for this study is an integrative approach that uses document analysis and content analysis. The data set was selected based on a purposeful sampling method and came from PM course syllabi for classes that were taught during the 2016–2018 academic years.

Findings

Results revealed that most of the reviewed PM course syllabi contained learning outcomes although they were written and assessed at the lower levels of Bloom’s Taxonomy and knowledge dimensions. The study calls for the academy and industry to partner in improving the PM curriculum to lower the PM talent deficit and increase project success rates.

Research limitations/implications

The absence of PM learning outcomes or the presence of poorly written PM learning outcomes in a course implies that the academy should provide professional development programs to help professors learn how to formulate and write specific, measurable, achievable, relevant and timely learning outcomes. The professors should also ensure that the learning outcomes use a type of cognitive taxonomy that is aligned with the appropriate assessments to measure, monitor and guarantee assurance of learning.

Practical implications

Academy and industry partners can work collaboratively to provide students with opportunities that expose them to real-world experiential projects, internships and job opportunities while concurrently giving them hands-on practical applications of learned PM knowledge and skills. The society will be well served when the academy is able to produce well-qualified PM personnel capable of successfully carrying out PM activities and lowering the project’s failure rates.

Social implications

The society will be well served when the academy is able to produce well-qualified PM personnel capable of successfully carrying out PM activities and lowering the project’s failure rates.

Originality/value

To the researchers’ knowledge, this is the first study to specifically investigate the presence and nature of PM learning outcomes in course syllabi. By evaluating the alignment between PM learning outcomes and Bloom’s Taxonomy action verbs and cognitive processes, the study provides some exemplars of well-written and measurable learning outcomes that professors can use to inform their PM curriculum through course design or redesign.

Details

Journal of International Education in Business, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2046-469X

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Book part

Jack A Naglieri

The chapter begins by presenting a case study of a 4th grade student, who has been referred by his teacher for an evaluation. However before this case can be completely…

Abstract

The chapter begins by presenting a case study of a 4th grade student, who has been referred by his teacher for an evaluation. However before this case can be completely understood, it is necessary to understand the limitations associated with the general intelligence approach of assessment. The chapter provides an overview of these limitations and suggests using a processing-based approach instead of a general intelligence approach. The second section outlines the Planning, Attention, Simultaneous, and Successive (PASS) theory and approach toward assessment, which is supported by neuropsychological research. The final section returns to the case study and demonstrates how the information gathered using the PASS theory and Cognitive Assessment System (CAS) can be used to guide interventions for various learning disabilities.

Details

Advances in Learning and Behavioral Disabilities
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-0-76231-029-6

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