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Article

Cristiano A.B. Castro, Felipe Zambaldi and Mateus Canniatti Ponchio

This paper aims to conceptualize two dimensions of active innovation resistance (AIR): cognitive active resistance and emotional active resistance. A scale to measure this…

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to conceptualize two dimensions of active innovation resistance (AIR): cognitive active resistance and emotional active resistance. A scale to measure this construct is proposed and tested.

Design/methodology/approach

Three studies were conducted, with sample sizes of 195, 190 and 186, to test the discriminant, convergent, nomological and criterion validity of the proposed AIRc+e scale and to analyze its explanatory and predictive power. Data were gathered using the online platform of a US-based research company.

Findings

The authors provide evidence that AIR is a two-dimension construct comprising a cognitive and an emotional dimension. AIR was modeled as a third-order construct, comprising two second-order constructs, cognitive active resistance and emotional active resistance. The impact of adding an emotion dimension to active resistance was therefore assessed, and the results indicated that the explanatory and predictive power of the AIR measure improved as expected.

Practical implications

Consumers are most likely to resist innovations launched onto the marketplace, either prior to or after evaluating them. A better understanding of the reasons behind their resistance to innovation, as well as of its mechanisms, is of great importance in decreasing an innovation’s chances of failure.

Originality/value

This study proposes that incorporating emotion into the assessment of AIR will result in a deeper understanding of adoption and rejection behavior, expanding the current knowledge of consumer behavior in innovation-related, new product adoption and decisions.

Details

Journal of Product & Brand Management, vol. 29 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1061-0421

Keywords

Abstract

Details

Journal of Product & Brand Management, vol. 29 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1061-0421

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Article

Jacques Nel and Christo Boshoff

Digital-only banks are emerging as challenger banks to the traditional-bank business model in South Africa. However, traditional-bank customers could resist the use of…

Abstract

Purpose

Digital-only banks are emerging as challenger banks to the traditional-bank business model in South Africa. However, traditional-bank customers could resist the use of digital-only banks, theoretically due to their satisfaction with the status quo. Consequently, inertia arising from bias to traditional banks based on status quo satisfaction could engender their resistance to become customers of digital-only banks. The objective of the study, therefore, is to investigate how traditional-bank customers' inertia influences digital-only bank resistance.

Design/methodology/approach

Based on a literature review, digital-only bank adoption barriers and cognitive-based initial distrusting beliefs were identified as mediators of the influence of inertia on digital-only bank resistance. To test the mediation model empirically, data was collected from 610 traditional-bank-only customers.

Findings

The five adoption barriers fully mediate the influence of inertia on cognitive-based initial distrusting beliefs. The five barriers in serial with cognitive-based initial distrusting beliefs partially mediate the influence of traditional-bank customers' inertia on digital-only bank resistance. Cognitive-based initial distrusting belief is an essential factor in the mechanism underlying the influence of traditional-bank customers' inertia on digital-only bank resistance.

Originality/value

Digital-only banks are relatively new. Research is therefore lacking in consumer behavior explaining the use of digital-only banks by traditional-bank customers in the South African context. A further novelty of the study is the empirical assessment of mechanisms that explain the influence of inertia on cognitive-based initial distrusting beliefs, and the influence of inertia on resistance behavior.

Details

International Journal of Bank Marketing, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0265-2323

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Article

Jacques Nel and Christo Boshoff

Shopping statistics indicate that online shoppers prefer purchasing products using the desktop website of the retailer, rather than using the mobile website on a mobile…

Abstract

Purpose

Shopping statistics indicate that online shoppers prefer purchasing products using the desktop website of the retailer, rather than using the mobile website on a mobile phone to purchase products (mobile website purchasing). Therefore, using status quo bias theory, this study aims to investigate mobile website purchasing resistance of those customers using only desktop website purchasing.

Design/methodology/approach

To test the conceptual model an online questionnaire was used to collect data from customers purchasing products using only the desktop website on a computer (n = 484) and not the retailer’s mobile website.

Findings

Due to cognitive dissonance, customers using only desktop purchasing trivialize mobile website purchasing perceived attractiveness while perceiving more cognitive effort in mobile website purchasing to maintain consonance with their inertia. Further, relative advantage perceptions of mobile website purchasing lead to more trivialization of mobile website purchasing attractiveness perceptions. Desktop purchasing inertia enhances resistance through alternative attractiveness and cognitive effort perceptions, respectively, and cognitive effort and alternative attractiveness perceptions in serial. Desktop purchasing habit has the strongest positive influence on desktop purchasing inertia.

Research limitations/implications

This study was conducted in a high-involvement product context. Replication in a low-involvement product context is necessary to confirm the robustness of the results.

Practical implications

Retailers can use the findings to develop strategies to lower mobile website purchasing resistance in an online-mobile concurrent channel environment.

Originality/value

The study provides novel insights into mobile website purchasing resistance in an online-mobile concurrent channel environment. Further, the study addresses the gap in research on inertia and switching costs in the adoption of concurrent channels.

Details

European Journal of Marketing, vol. 54 no. 6
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0309-0566

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Article

Malin Malmstrom

The purpose of this paper is to explore the essence that is, the nature of organizational responses to efficiently resist enforced change in institutionalized work…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to explore the essence that is, the nature of organizational responses to efficiently resist enforced change in institutionalized work practice destined to address poor organizational performance. The micro-foundations of the cognitive logic that are activated when organizations face change are hereby conceptualized.

Design/methodology/approach

Using a case study design, the study focusses on narratives of a failure to implement a regulatory enforced change in work practice at a military academy established in the 1600s. The interviews are complemented by secondary data.

Findings

The analysis reveals a cognitive framework by which the members of the organization shaped their responses. By building on micro-foundations for mobilizing resistance (i.e. the essential substance at a micro level), this study shows how the cognitive logic is activated to respond to change. To show how the cognitive logic is used to mitigate and compensate for incongruences with the regulatory logic, this study outlines a set of strategic resistance maneuvers and cognitive resistance forces that restrict regulatory influence on change in work practice. This study thus provides insights into maneuvers and resistance forces that members may activate to resist change efficiently.

Originality/value

To the author’s knowledge, this is the first study to attempt to conceptualize the essence of the cognitive logic activated to resist organizational change.

Details

Baltic Journal of Management, vol. 11 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1746-5265

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Abstract

Details

Marketing Management in Turkey
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78714-558-0

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Article

Gail F. Latta

The purpose of this paper is to clarify the role of organizational culture in governing the dynamics of resistance and facilitation of change by explicating the…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to clarify the role of organizational culture in governing the dynamics of resistance and facilitation of change by explicating the operational mechanisms underlying the Model of Organizational Change in Cultural Context (OC3 Model).

Design/methodology/approach

A conceptual definition of facilitation is introduced that parallels the psychosocial construction of resistance, while departing from traditional views that cast these constructs as polar opposites. Within the context of the OC3 Model, a multifaceted perspective on organizational change is advanced in which facilitation takes place alongside of, rather than in the absence of, resistance.

Findings

Two sources of resistance and facilitation are delineated, both stemming from the degree of cultural alignment of the content (strategic initiatives) and process (implementation strategies) elements of strategic change. The dynamic interplay of these independent sources of resistance and facilitation is explored within the context of the OC3 Model where the consequences of cultural alignment or misalignment are considered with respect to change implementation and linked to established theory and empirical evidence. Four interaction effects emerge from this analysis: augmentation, undermining, prevailing and immunity. A visual model illuminating the countervailing effects of facilitation on resistance is provided, along with illustrative examples derived from multiple ethnographic field studies.

Practical implications

Theoretical and practical implications of these interaction effects for advancing scholarship and leading organizational change are explored.

Originality/value

Articulating this theoretical extension of the OC3 Model provides a valuable corrective to extant theories of change that afford equal importance to all culturally embedded sources of resistance and fail to account for the counter balancing effects of facilitation.

Details

Journal of Organizational Change Management, vol. 28 no. 6
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0953-4814

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Article

Fayçal Boukamcha

This paper aims to clarify the effect of attitudinal ambivalence on resistance to anti-smoking persuasion through information processing styles. It was hypothesized that a…

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to clarify the effect of attitudinal ambivalence on resistance to anti-smoking persuasion through information processing styles. It was hypothesized that a high smoker’s ambivalence, induced by an anti-smoking persuasive message, triggers among smokers both a reflective and a non-reflective information processing. In turn, both the information processing styles were supposed to be predictors of the resistance to anti-smoking persuasion.

Design/methodology/approach

An experiment and a survey were conducted on a random sample of 347 smokers in this regard.

Findings

The findings indicated that smokers feel ambivalent toward anti-smoking messages in print ads and tend to process them both analytically and superficially. Also, it seems that only the analytical processing triggers resistance to anti-smoking persuasion.

Originality/value

The author reports on the importance of attitudinal ambivalence and information processing in the resistance to anti-smoking persuasion process. The paper should be of interest to readers in the areas of health communication and social marketing. This work seems to be important to the extent that few works have highlighted the causal and linear effect of a persuasive anti-smoking message on smokers’ ambivalence, information processing and resistance to persuasion. The findings in this paper seem interesting insofar, as they show the importance of the negative emotional appeal in the ambivalence, analytical information processing and resistance triggering.

Details

Journal of Indian Business Research, vol. 9 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1755-4195

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Article

Dennis G. Erwin and Andrew N. Garman

The purpose of this paper is to study recently published research to identify findings that provide research‐based guidance to organizational change agents and managers in…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to study recently published research to identify findings that provide research‐based guidance to organizational change agents and managers in addressing individual resistance to organizational change initiatives.

Design/methodology/approach

The paper examines published research appearing in peer‐reviewed journals since 1998 that focus on exploring individual resistance to organizational change.

Findings

Recent published research provides considerable practical guidance to organizational change agents and managers in understanding and dealing with resistance to change. Recent research examines the cognitive, affective, and behavioral dimensions of individual resistance and how it is influenced by: individual predispositions towards openness and resistance to change; individuals' considerations of threats and benefits of change; communication, understanding, participation, trust in management, management styles, and the nature of relationships with the change agents.

Research limitations/implications

This paper is limited to research articles involving resistance to organizational change published in peer‐reviewed journals from 1998 to 2009. Also, the paper finds that reported research used primarily self‐report questionnaires to gather data, which are quantitatively analyzed. Such a lack of diversity of research methodologies provides a limited perspective of resistance to organizational change that might have been broadened by qualitative and practice‐based methods (e.g. case studies and action research).

Practical implications

A framework is presented linking organizational change research findings to specific change practitioner recommendations. Limitations of recent research are also discussed.

Originality/value

Most studies provide an examination of a limited number of variables influencing resistance to change, and are not necessary designed to provide practical guidance to change practitioners. This paper provides a comprehensive framework of constructs and variables specifically aimed at linking research‐based findings to guidance for change practitioners.

Details

Leadership & Organization Development Journal, vol. 31 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0143-7739

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Article

Estelle Van Tonder

More research is required into the underlying reasons for passive innovation resistance. This paper aims to propose that consumers who passively resist innovation may…

Abstract

Purpose

More research is required into the underlying reasons for passive innovation resistance. This paper aims to propose that consumers who passively resist innovation may merely be conservative in nature and explore a conceptual framework that could explain and predict such behaviour.

Design/methodology/approach

Theories from the political sciences, social psychology and marketing were studied in trying to understand why some consumers are more conservative in nature and how their attitudes may affect their thoughts, feelings and actions in the marketplace.

Findings

Consumers may develop conservative attitudes, such as a need for cognitive closure, nostalgia, authoritarianism, a social dominance orientation, ethnocentrism and an anti-hedonic approach towards life to combat their fear of ambiguous situations and chaos associated with deviance from in-group values. Ultimately, these attitudes may influence consumer behaviour, such as being brand loyal, unwilling to try new options and preferring nostalgic products that would lead to lower levels of ambiguity and less disruption of the status quo. Conservative consumers may also act as authoritarian parents, prefer to purchase durable materialistic products, support locally manufactured goods and refrain from purchasing products for purely hedonic pleasure in an attempt to preserve their in-group values.

Originality/value

The proposed framework offers more insight into the nature and consequences of passive innovation resistance and may serve as a starting point for further exploration on the fundamental characteristics of conservative consumers. The research findings may also assist marketers in managing their new product innovations strategies more successfully.

Details

European Business Review, vol. 29 no. 6
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0955-534X

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