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Book part
Publication date: 10 August 2017

Deborah Sick

This chapter examines changes in smallholder agriculture in terms of processes of de-agrarianization in a rapidly changing regional economy of Costa Rica long…

Abstract

Purpose

This chapter examines changes in smallholder agriculture in terms of processes of de-agrarianization in a rapidly changing regional economy of Costa Rica long characterized by small-scale commercial coffee farming.

Methodology

The study is based on multiple periods (1990–1991, 1993, 2006, 2010–2012) of ethnographic research on household economic strategies among farming families in two districts in the canton of Pérez Zeledón, Costa Rica.

Findings

Though occupational multiplicity and non-farm-based livelihoods are on the rise, smallholder agriculture continues to play a substantial role in the livelihood strategies of both young and old and in the regional economy, not in spite of these trends, but because an expanding business sector and an increase in non-farm employment opportunities are creating a demand for agricultural produce and providing new opportunities for smallholders to diversify agricultural production, stabilize their incomes and maintain a significant presence in the regional economy. Specific historic conditions and state policies have been important factors in shaping rural economic change, livelihood strategies and smallholder agriculture in this region.

Research limitations

Sample sizes are relatively small and some data on children’s economic activities were obtained second hand from siblings and/or parents.

Implications

This research has implications for policy makers, planners and social activists interested in agrarian change.

Originality/value

This research provides an important longitudinal lens on the economic strategies of farming households, processes of de-agrarianization and the persistence of small-scale family farmers in today’s world.

Details

Anthropological Considerations of Production, Exchange, Vending and Tourism
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78743-194-2

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Article
Publication date: 19 November 2019

Thi-Nga Do, Vimal Kumar and Manh-Hoang Do

The purpose of this paper is to identify the critical parameters of the Vietnam coffee industry and develop a comprehensive structural relationship to rank them for…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to identify the critical parameters of the Vietnam coffee industry and develop a comprehensive structural relationship to rank them for effective sustainable development.

Design/methodology/approach

The team of ten experts, having experience of over eight years in the field of various coffee industries in Vietnam, was created to give scores to multiple parameters. Technique for order of preference by similarity to ideal solution (TOPSIS) technique is used to develop the model for fifteen key parameters and then to rank them.

Findings

From the data analysis and results, marketing and brand innovation, product quality, strategic planning and implementation have emerged as top three key parameters while new technology development, supply chain and logistics management, and alliance-joint venture are identified as the bottom three parameters. The findings provide a rank of parameters that help to other coffee industries to identify their key parameters. Besides, the key parameters defined as necessary inputs show the firms more active and well-prepared comprised of ten companies.

Practical implications

The key parameters of the success of any organization are essential contributions. Aiming to improve organizational performance, metrics should be identified as the source of strength to achieve high productivity, profitability and sustainable business performance.

Originality/value

The emphasis of study on key parameters will help organizations to achieve competitive advantage and high productivity for high sustainability in an organizational context.

Details

International Journal of Productivity and Performance Management, vol. 69 no. 6
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1741-0401

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Book part
Publication date: 14 December 2018

Sarah Lyon

This article examines how smallholders in Oaxaca, Mexico, experienced and responded to the recent coffee rust disaster, asking whether fair trade coffee producer…

Abstract

This article examines how smallholders in Oaxaca, Mexico, experienced and responded to the recent coffee rust disaster, asking whether fair trade coffee producer organizations helped smallholders develop coping mechanisms to offset their vulnerability. It demonstrates how Oaxacan coffee producers were especially vulnerable during the recent rust outbreak due to long-term trends including a decline in governmental support for the sector dating back to the 1990s which resulted in a decline in producer incomes and a concomitant rise in the number of aging and poorly managed coffee plots that were more susceptible to coffee rust. The ongoing price volatility within coffee commodity markets and the continued restructuring of the specialty coffee market also increases the uncertainty producers face when determining how to best respond to the rust disaster. The article details the concrete ways in which fair trade coffee producer organizations help bolster the adaptive capacity of their members, while also noting areas for improvement.

Details

Individual and Social Adaptations to Human Vulnerability
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78769-175-9

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Book part
Publication date: 1 September 2008

Peter Luetchford

Fair trade commonly focuses on the figure of the smallholding peasant producer. The effectiveness of this as a strategy lies in the widespread appeal of an economy based…

Abstract

Fair trade commonly focuses on the figure of the smallholding peasant producer. The effectiveness of this as a strategy lies in the widespread appeal of an economy based upon independent family producers trying to secure livelihoods in impersonal and exploitative global commodity markets. But the attempt by fair trade to personalise economic relationships between coffee producers and consumers diverts attention away from aspects of the political economy of production for the market. This chapter examines a rural Costa Rican coffee economy that has supplied fair trade markets since the 1980s. Documenting differences in landholdings, the range of activities farmers engage in, and the relationship between landowners and landless labourers, women, and migrant harvesters from Nicaragua reveals differentiation and tensions that are obscured in the “smallholder” model invoked by fair trade.

Details

Hidden Hands in the Market: Ethnographies of Fair Trade, Ethical Consumption, and Corporate Social Responsibility
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-84855-059-9

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Article
Publication date: 10 May 2019

Gustavo Magalhães de Oliveira, Decio Zylbersztajn and Maria Sylvia Macchione Saes

A trend toward higher quality has demanded more strategic investments in the transaction of coffee supply in Brazil. Instead of internalizing this transaction, one firm…

Abstract

Purpose

A trend toward higher quality has demanded more strategic investments in the transaction of coffee supply in Brazil. Instead of internalizing this transaction, one firm, illycaffè, has challenged the vertical integration assumption by adopting contracts to coordinate its supply. Aiming to investigate whether this firm is losing economic efficiency in terms of coordination, or whether it is being efficient due to a proper definition and allocation of property and decision rights, the purpose of this paper is to analyze the transaction attributes of illycaffè’s suppliers according to the vertical integration dilemma.

Design/methodology/approach

The research design is based on a survey of 105 coffee growers analyzed through probit regression. Using a transaction costs approach, the study empirically tests whether well-designed contracts can act as a hierarchy by following the efficient alignment hypothesis.

Findings

The results emphasize asset specificity, uncertainty and incentives as determinants for being an illycaffè supplier. In other words, these findings demonstrate that a well-designed contract can substitute a hierarchy based on transaction costs economics. It contributes by illustrating other coordination alternatives overlapping vertical integration, even in environments of high uncertainty and asset specificity, which encourages other private strategies based on allocation of property and decision rights of hybrid arrangements.

Originality/value

The study adopts a unique survey about transaction costs in the transactions of high-quality coffee supply in Brazil. The main contribution is to shed light on the cases where, how and why contracts can substitute the need for in-house production, and to guide private and public strategies using this background.

Details

British Food Journal, vol. 121 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0007-070X

Keywords

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Expert briefing
Publication date: 21 October 2016

Coffee production in East Africa increased by 9.9% between 2014-15 and 2015-16, substantially exceeding average global production growth of 0.7%. Higher investment and…

Details

DOI: 10.1108/OXAN-DB214437

ISSN: 2633-304X

Keywords

Geographic
Topical
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Article
Publication date: 4 January 2016

Jose Marcio Carvalho, Ely Laureano Paiva and Luciana Marques Vieira

High-specification food products that reach prices or expert reviews above average, results from buyer-supplier engagement in quality management. The purpose of this paper…

Abstract

Purpose

High-specification food products that reach prices or expert reviews above average, results from buyer-supplier engagement in quality management. The purpose of this paper is to identify the main attributes of the coffee industry supply chain that deals with high-specification products. Coffee may be included in this category of consumption goods that has increasing importance at consumption level around the world. Several groups of high-quality food products such as wine, coffee, spirits and cheese seem to have a very similar supply chain.

Design/methodology/approach

This study was based on multiple case studies. Three research techniques were used in the investigation: secondary data analysis, direct observations and interviews with coffee company’s managers and experts. The within-case and the cross-case analyses made it possible to find the main attributes of a high-specification product supply chain.

Findings

The cases studies pointed out differences between the two groups of coffee shops in relation to their supply chain strategies. The first group can be called Independent Coffee Shops, since they are focussed on the coffee preparation business. The second group can be called Integrated Coffee Shops, due to the fact that these organizations are responsible to manufacturing activities in addition to the coffee preparation activities. Despite this supply chain configuration difference, both groups have a similar perception about their role for the final consumer, to provide a premium experience with coffee.

Research limitations/implications

The main limitation of this research comes from the fact it was possible to interview only one person in each organization. Only the commercialization of the supply chain was analyzed, if the agricultural production was also analyzed, this paper could have broader implications.

Originality/value

The results of this research show the configuration of a supply chain that handles a high-specification product. They are set to transform the trade of a product that has a component of volatility in its quality attributes into a trade of a product that embodies all the desirable attributes preferred by a specific group of costumers. The logic of a supply chain that deals with commodities is different, since in most of the cases it will try to accommodate the variations on quality that comes from nature. This paper describes the market based strategy of 12 organizations and their supply chain configuration in order to offer a premium product.

Details

British Food Journal, vol. 118 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0007-070X

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Article
Publication date: 25 May 2012

Maria‐Alejandra Gonzalez‐Perez and Santiago Gutierrez‐Viana

The purpose of this paper is to present a cross‐country study comparing Colombia and Vietnam, two of the major coffee exporting countries in the world, in terms of their…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to present a cross‐country study comparing Colombia and Vietnam, two of the major coffee exporting countries in the world, in terms of their infrastructures, the roles of external shocks, technology adoption at different stages of production, added value, positioning in both domestic and global markets, internationalisation patterns, marketing and branding innovations, regulatory frameworks, and policy environments. This study also explores other aspects linked to production, and marketing strategies that open niche markets such as speciality coffees, and socially‐, labour‐ and environmentally‐responsible trade. Furthermore, it identifies opportunities of cooperation and competition between these two countries.

Design/methodology/approach

Using value chain analysis as primary research method, this paper identifies links and dynamics in the value chains that have been developed in the coffee industry in both countries to improve competitiveness, increase sustainability, and respond to market demands.

Findings

Using value chain analysis, it was found that Colombia and Vietnam produce different types of coffee, and that both have implemented diverse strategies in order to be more competitive in domestic and foreign markets via product differentiation. These differences make explicit room for cooperation between these two countries in an international environment where fierce competition persists.

Originality/value

Cooperation between producing countries is an under‐researched subject. These findings will be useful both for policy makers in coffee‐producing countries and agribusiness researchers.

Details

Journal of Agribusiness in Developing and Emerging Economies, vol. 2 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2044-0839

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 13 November 2017

Aniseh Bro and Daniel C. Clay

The purpose of this paper is to examine the early stages of the transition to specialty coffee in Burundi and the role of an agribusiness support program as a catalyst for…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to examine the early stages of the transition to specialty coffee in Burundi and the role of an agribusiness support program as a catalyst for this transition.

Design/methodology/approach

This study uses two years of panel data (2007 and 2012) to analyze changes in technology adoption among coffee washing stations (CWSs) and how the adoption of improved technologies affects coffee quality.

Findings

Programmatic investment in Burundi’s coffee value chain resulted in a significant shift in adoption of processing technologies by CWSs. Producers who processed at these stations saw a significant increase in the quality of their coffee and forged sustainable trade relationships with international buyers.

Research limitations/implications

Future research should investigate the incentives and barriers of producers to invest in production boosting practices.

Originality/value

This is one of the first empirical papers that analyzes Burundi’s transition from ordinary to specialty coffee and how programmatic investments in improved technologies has helped to make the change possible.

Details

Journal of Agribusiness in Developing and Emerging Economies, vol. 7 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2044-0839

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Case study
Publication date: 2 May 2016

Henry Ossa and Ana Cristina Gonzalez

Strategic Planning for family businesses.

Abstract

Subject area

Strategic Planning for family businesses.

Study level/applicability

MBA family businesses courses and/or executive education courses that focus on family businesses. The case can be used in introductory sessions related to family business strategy.

Case overview

This case tells the story of two generations of coffee plant growers at Hacienda Flandes in Colombia’s coffee region. It describes external and internal factors that affected the family business from 1970 to 2013. The case presents antecedents and consequences of environmental circumstances and family members’ decisions that drive this business from boom to decline and later on to its potential reinvention. Through an analysis of this family-owned coffee plantation across generations, students are expected to understand the importance of strategic planning in family businesses, in a changing and competitive environment. Family businesses in emerging economies are the most common type of businesses. In Latin America, most of family businesses might be younger than those in Europe and even in North America. Therefore, family businesses in these economies can be going through or will soon go through a succession. Succession success rate is low, regardless of the culture or country in which the family business develops. This case deals with the preparation (or lack of preparation) of the next generation in family businesses management and its consequences and helps students suggest alternatives and better decisions to run family businesses in an emerging economy.

Expected learning outcomes

Students will be able to know and explain the concept of a family business as a dynamic system: firm, family and individuals, each one with actions and outcomes; analyze opportunities for and threats to family businesses across generations; and formulate strategies that balance business and family demands.

Supplementary materials

The teaching note has specific reading materials to support class discussion.

Details

Emerald Emerging Markets Case Studies, vol. 6 no. 1
Type: Case Study
ISSN: 2045-0621

Keywords

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