Search results

1 – 10 of 66
To view the access options for this content please click here
Article

Emeka W. Dumbili, Emmanuel Ezekwe and Ogochukwu Winifred Odeigah

The purpose of this paper is to explore polydrug use and the factors that motivate the use of multiple substances among selected young adults.

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to explore polydrug use and the factors that motivate the use of multiple substances among selected young adults.

Design/methodology/approach

A total of 23 male and female participants (aged 23-29 years) who use illicit drugs and prescription pharmaceuticals for non-medical purposes were recruited through snowball sampling. Qualitative interviews were conducted, and the data were analysed thematically.

Findings

The use of drug “concoctions” and cocktails was widespread among the participants. Some used what they called Codeine Diet (codeine-based cough syrup mixed with a Coca-Cola® product or malt drink), while others took Gutter Water (a cocktail of cannabis, codeine, tramadol, vodka and juice or water). The use of Monkey Tail (a mixture of local gin, cannabis leaves, stems, roots and seeds) and petrol mixed with glue and La Casera® (carbonated soft drink) combined with Tom-Tom® (menthol-flavoured candy) was also revealed. Pleasure, better highs, the need to experience prolonged intoxication and the use of one drug to douse the effects of another substance motivated polysubstance use.

Social implications

The findings revealed that the reasons why codeine-based cough syrups are mixed with soft drinks (Codeine Diet) include avoiding social discrimination and evading law enforcement agencies. Results suggest that these drug use practices require specifically tailored public health interventions. Social stigmatization against substance users and the use of extra-legal measures by the police should be discouraged to facilitate harm reduction.

Originality/value

This study represents the first qualitative research to explore polydrug use among an understudied Nigerian population.

Details

Drugs and Alcohol Today, vol. 20 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1745-9265

Keywords

To view the access options for this content please click here
Article

Marie Claire Van Hout

The misuse of pharmaceutical opioid analgesics is identified as a global public health concern. Codeine represents an interesting quandary in terms of its regulated…

Abstract

Purpose

The misuse of pharmaceutical opioid analgesics is identified as a global public health concern. Codeine represents an interesting quandary in terms of its regulated status, with individuals varying in their metabolism of codeine, estimation of safe dosages, risk of adverse health consequences and abuse potential. Efforts to quantify and address hidden non-compliant medical codeine use, overuse and intentional misuse is compromised by availability to the public in prescribed and over the counter forms. The paper aims to discuss these issues.

Design/methodology/approach

A review of literature on codeine use, misuse and dependence, and associated innovative medical and pharmacy interventions is presented, and was conducted as part of a larger scoping review on codeine.

Findings

The review highlights the complexities associated with monitoring public health awareness of codeine's abuse potential, and customer/patients trends in non-compliant codeine use for therapeutic and recreational purposes. Aberrant codeine behaviours centre on visiting multiple doctors for prescriptions, repeated lost or stolen prescriptions, forging prescriptions and use of multiple pharmacies. Innovations to monitor misuse of codeine include national prescription databases and recent developments in real-time monitoring of dispensing activity.

Practical implications

Further development of real-time monitoring processes with process evaluation is advised.

Originality/value

This viewpoint is intended to demonstrate how efforts to quantify and address codeine use are compromised by its availability. It intends to encourage further policy and practitioner dialogue on how to monitor, support and intervene with consumers misusing codeine.

Details

Drugs and Alcohol Today, vol. 14 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1745-9265

Keywords

To view the access options for this content please click here

Abstract

Details

Traffic Safety and Human Behavior
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-0-08-045029-2

To view the access options for this content please click here

Abstract

Details

Traffic Safety and Human Behavior
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78635-222-4

To view the access options for this content please click here
Expert briefing

Known as 'a poor man's heroin', the potent and harmful homemade krokodil has reached North America, although most of its use so far is in Russia and neighbouring states.

Content available
Book part

Wilson Box

Illicit drug use amongst women in Zimbabwe is increasing. The most common drugs of choice are marijuana and new psychoactive substances like ecstasy, cough syrups with a…

Abstract

Illicit drug use amongst women in Zimbabwe is increasing. The most common drugs of choice are marijuana and new psychoactive substances like ecstasy, cough syrups with a high content of codeine, and other small intoxicating pills like mangemba (diazepam). The most affected population group are women between the ages of 20 to 40.

In a community engagement undertaken by Zimbabwe Civil Liberties and Drug Network in five of Zimbabwe’s provinces, socio, cultural and economic factors were identified as the drivers of increased engagement with the drug trade. The urge to be independent and the inter-related aspect of sex work were also identified as push factors accounting for the increase in illicit drug usage in the country. The community engagement showed most women use illicit drugs as a way of liberating themselves within a heavily patriarchal society and due to the traumas associated with sex work. Sex work in turn exposes women to opportunistic infections, rape, violence and sexual violence. Women perform different roles in the illicit drug economy. In their role as sellers of controlled drugs, women aimed to support their families, maximising the opportunities presented by life in illicit economies. Whilst advocacy groups are pressing for drug policy reform in Zimbabwe, interventions can be designed to help women extricate themselves from this quagmire through empowering them and having a drug policy that among other facets, strengthens communities.

Details

The Impact of Global Drug Policy on Women: Shifting the Needle
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-83982-885-0

To view the access options for this content please click here
Article

Becky Inkster and Akeem Sule

Many young people around the world embrace hip-hop music and culture. Since the genre’s conception in the 1970s, hip-hop music and lyrics have made regular references to…

Abstract

Purpose

Many young people around the world embrace hip-hop music and culture. Since the genre’s conception in the 1970s, hip-hop music and lyrics have made regular references to drugs. Understanding the relevance of these documented trends is important, especially as adolescence is a period of high risk for substance misuse. The purpose of this paper is to explore how and possibly why different lyrical trends in hip-hop music have emerged, risen and fallen out of popularity by examining word usage frequency of drug terminology in hip-hop lyrics spanning several decades of this genre.

Design/methodology/approach

Electronic searches were completed using an open source database known as Rap Genius Rap Stats, which contains verified annotations and text. Word frequency was plotted against time using data available from 1988 to 2015. Word frequency was defined as a percentage of the number of hip-hop songs containing a specific drug-term (per year) based on the number of hip-hop songs recorded/produced (that year). Standardized “medical/pharmaceutical” terminologies and common “street” terminologies were plotted independently for time series visualization. Drug terms were represented using the highest frequency search term. Generic “street” terms with multiple meanings were excluded.

Findings

As might be predicted, the usage of “street” terms in hip-hop lyrics was more frequently observed than the usage of “medical/pharmaceutical” terms. An exception was the term “crack”, which was included in both plots as this word could be referenced as a “street” term and as a “medical/pharmaceutical” term. The authors observed larger fluctuations in “street” term usage across time relative to only slight fluctuations of “medical/pharmaceutical” term usage across time.

Originality/value

In this study, the authors illustrate several drug terminology trends in hip-hop lyrics. The authors discuss some of the socio-political, socio-demographic and geographical implications that may have influenced these trends, such as the rise of the “street” term molly that emerged when references to molly made by hip-hop artists became increasingly popular and a more suburban demographic transpired. This preliminary work may help to enhance two-way youth-oriented communication between health care professionals and service users, possibly improving the translation of drug-related medical messages. The preliminary work may also inform future research to consider whether such lyrical trends precede or follow changes in population substance use.

Details

Journal of Public Mental Health, vol. 14 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1746-5729

Keywords

To view the access options for this content please click here
Article

Niki Kiepek, Jonathan Harris, Brenda Beagan and Marisa Buchanan

The purpose of this paper is to explore the prevalence and patterns of substance use among Canadian social workers. With legalisation of can professional regulatory bodies…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to explore the prevalence and patterns of substance use among Canadian social workers. With legalisation of can professional regulatory bodies are pressed to consider implications of substance use for their members.

Design/methodology/approach

An online survey collected data about demographics and substance use prevalence and patterns. Statistical analysis involved pairwise comparisons, binary logistic regression models and logistic regression models to explore correlations between substance use and demographic and work-related variables.

Findings

Among the respondents (n=489), findings indicate that past-year use of cannabis (24.1 per cent), cocaine (4.5 per cent), ecstasy (1.4 per cent), amphetamines (4.3 per cent), hallucinogens (2.4 per cent), opioid pain relievers (21.0 per cent) and alcohol (83.1 per cent) are higher than the general Canadian population. Years of work experience and working night shift were significant predictors of total number of substances used in the past year. Use of a substance by a person when they were a student was highly correlated with use when they were a professional.

Research limitations/implications

Prevalence of substance use among social workers was found to be higher than the Canadian population; potential due to the anonymous nature of data collection.

Originality/value

This study has implications for social conceptualisations of professionalism and for decisions regarding professional regulation. Previous literature about substance use by professionals has focussed predominantly on implications for increased surveillance, monitoring, and disciplinary action. We contend that since substance use among professionals tends to be concealed, there may be exacerbated social misconceptions about degree of risk and when it is appropriate to intervene.

Details

Drugs and Alcohol Today, vol. 19 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1745-9265

Keywords

To view the access options for this content please click here

Abstract

Details

Traffic Safety and Human Behavior
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-0-08-045029-2

To view the access options for this content please click here
Article

Shops and shopkeepers are a British tradition. More than 150 years ago, we were a nation of shopkeepers, and the picture of shops and the shopping public seemed…

Abstract

Shops and shopkeepers are a British tradition. More than 150 years ago, we were a nation of shopkeepers, and the picture of shops and the shopping public seemed unchanging. There were, of course, the early departmental stores, the co‐operative societies, the multiple shops, the chain‐stores, but the position was much as it had always been and the greatest proportion of retail trade was still in the hands of the traditional type of shopkeeper. The two Wars changed many things, but it was not until after the last War that retail trade really began to change and looking at it objectively and at the food trade particularly, it has become a revolution.

Details

British Food Journal, vol. 66 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0007-070X

1 – 10 of 66