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The concept of co‐operation amongst competitors has been considered for some time in the marketing literature generally, and in the small firm marketing literature…
The concept of co‐operation amongst competitors has been considered for some time in the marketing literature generally, and in the small firm marketing literature specifically. However, despite the recognition that small firms do co‐operate, there has been comparatively little attention paid to the ways in which such co‐operation takes place. Co‐operation amongst small firms tends to be only conceptualised as a group of competitors banding together to create a market presence and compete against larger, more established firms. Based on a series of in‐depth interviews with owner‐managers of small firms in a wide array of industry sectors, this paper examines the relationships that small firm owner‐managers maintain with their competitors. Specifically it reports that cooperation between competitors takes place at various levels with so‐called joint venture arrangements such as that described above, representing just one type of co‐operative behaviour. It further highlights the circumstances where co‐operation is likely to occur and how this co‐operation is manifest by examining the motivations for co‐operation and expected and actual outcomes. It also discusses the factors which may preclude cooperation between small firms and their competitors. Such factors include the nature of the industry sector, the level of competition in the market, the size of the competing firms, the age of the small firm, the existence of an association that represents the industry, the perceived level of professionalism within the industry and trust amongst firms.
This chapter explores socio-political networks and cross-sectoral co-operation in the context of solving environmental problems in an emerging economy: Russia. The aim is…
This chapter explores socio-political networks and cross-sectoral co-operation in the context of solving environmental problems in an emerging economy: Russia. The aim is to shed light on key success factors of cross-border co-operation involving public, business and third-sector actors. The case study on protecting the Baltic Sea analyses a Western–Russian partnership between a Finnish non-governmental organisation and a Russian water utility and its embeddedness in business and socio-political networks. We conclude that key factors of success in this case were the successful timing of the NGO's initiative, the historic platform of Finnish-Russian co-operation in the area of clean water, and the gradual building of the actors’ social networks and legitimacy. The chapter contributes to the embryonic area of CSR studies in the emerging market context and extends the legitimation, trust-building and commitment model (Hadjikhani, Lee, & Ghauri, 2008) to the context of CSR in contemporary Russia.
The aim of this chapter is to investigate the different business co-operation mechanisms within two different Portuguese industries, with particular regards to the nature…
The aim of this chapter is to investigate the different business co-operation mechanisms within two different Portuguese industries, with particular regards to the nature of the industry and to the places in which these industries are embedded.
This chapter uses qualitative data to explore the mechanisms associated to forms of business co-operation in enterprising places.
Manufacturing industries require a particular location of activities and, in many cases, these firms cluster in local productive systems. In such cases, co-operation mechanisms assume particular forms. Production is a critical business activity in traditional manufacturing industries, while its relative importance is smaller for other industries.
The findings obtained in this research do not allow generality of the results. However, it provides an in-depth explanation of the mechanisms of business co-operation taking place in enterprising places and elsewhere.
Originality/value of the chapter
This chapter compares two contrasting Portuguese industries, allowing to suggest that some of the business co-operation mechanisms are particular of certain business contexts. It contrasts a manufacturing, traditional and geographically concentrated industry (furniture) with a service-based, modern and geographically dispersed industry (events organisation). In addition, it allows to gain insights on the evolution of business co-operation as it uses data collected from two different generations of entrepreneurs within the furniture industry.
The manufacturer depends on channel members for the performance of marketing functions. Therefore, the channel participants need to co‐operate with one another while…
The manufacturer depends on channel members for the performance of marketing functions. Therefore, the channel participants need to co‐operate with one another while simultaneously pursuing independent as well as systemic goals. Examines how co‐operation among distribution channel members can be fostered through the use of participative, supportive and directive leadership styles foster channel member co‐operation and assesses the relationship between co‐operation and channel member performance. Develops a conceptual model and empirically tests the linkages among the variables on data drawn from a survey of key informants in a sample of automobile dealerships. Shows that participative, supportive and directive leadership styles are directly related to channel member co‐operation, which, in turn, is positively associated with channel member performance.
Resource sharing is an important element in the national planning of library and information services to meet the needs of information, education and culture of the whole community at all levels. An overview of resource sharing practices is presented, with particular reference to the British scene. It is also argued that, with the approach of the Single Market in 1992, resource sharing should now be considered on a European scale. In conclusion, some problems associated with the practice of resource sharing are considered.
This paper focuses on the main discussion points of the 4th International Police Executive Symposium in Vienna, 1997. The symposium’s theme was international police…
This paper focuses on the main discussion points of the 4th International Police Executive Symposium in Vienna, 1997. The symposium’s theme was international police co‐operation and particular attention was paid to current co‐operation projects, plans for the future and the lessons that can be drawn from their experiences. The results of a questionnaire covering the issues raised by the symposium are examined in light of the discussions which ensued in Vienna. It was found that the subject of international police co‐operation has strong support and that the views expressed by the participants are very widely held. The results of the questionnaire, although reflecting the views of the symposium, suggested that there are a significant number of people who have little or no knowledge of international police co‐operation.
The purpose of this paper is to demonstrate that co-operation is a vital behavioral skill that should be developed in educational systems, particularly business and…
The purpose of this paper is to demonstrate that co-operation is a vital behavioral skill that should be developed in educational systems, particularly business and management programs, because it is an intangible factor that boosts productive output.
The paper explains why co-operation is an important intangible factor for organizations and the larger economy. It recommends the development of educational designs to remediate the pedagogical lack of focus on the cooperative disposition.
Co-operation is contingent on trust – an indispensable factor to engage in distant relations, accept rule of law across nations, and confer in intermediaries the authority to arbitrate unresolved differences between organizations. In other words, without co-operation, people within organizations commit themselves to parochial concerns, inhibiting efforts to combine resources toward a collective goal. The lack of a cooperative attitude is not destiny – it can be forged through careful educational designs and organizational strategy.
There is little empirical data available to measure co-operation in a diverse environment and co-operation is an intangible concept that is difficult to pin to specific organizational habits. The concepts developed here based on broad social science data would do will to be tested in an empirical framework at the micro level.
Low co-operation arises in an environment which does not foster trust. Management might inadvertently reward low organizational capacity by not evaluating co-operation and monitoring narcissism. Recruiters need to adapt recruitment strategies that pinpoint individuals capable of managing the specific co-operation needs of situational organizations, especially in diverse situations. A successful managerial education program will target training that optimizes thoughtful and sustainable co-operation.
Co-operation is a factor of sustainability for development but also for the modern organization. It is both a moral and methodological disposition that fosters collective action positively, while inhibiting in-group interests.
Formal management training to instill a thoughtful sense of co-operation would complement the current emphasis on teamwork and leadership. Without the moral and methodological goal of being co-operative for the greater good, organizations waste human resources and fail to reap benefits from collective productions.
School/public library co‐operation has been a significant topic in the discussion of networking libraries and co‐operative ventures to improve the information services in the community. Different authors and researchers have elaborated different perspectives on interlibrary co‐operation. This paper is an attempt to survey these perspectives in order to provide insights into trends and critical issues regarding co‐operative activities between school and public libraries. The discussion defines the nature of co‐operation as well as the functions of the agencies involved in co‐operative activities. It then elaborates the need for such endeavours in order to evaluate the significance and contribution of interlibrary co‐operation in the community. The paper also addresses the agreed‐upon principles on which co‐operation has been based. The criteria for successful co‐operation are elaborated to identify factors that could be conducive to co‐operative endeavours. The discussion also includes a review of available research studies in order to identify research findings and trends in the area. Some co‐operative activities are highlighted to provide a picture of the status and extent of co‐operation. An analysis is also provided of combined school and public library systems and multiple library systems to assess the success of these programs. Finally, emerging trends in school/public library co‐operation are identified to predict the future of co‐operative activities, research studies are evaluated and some new areas for future research are suggested.
Co‐operation and competition characterise the inter‐firm relationships in strategic alliances. This article proposes a paradox approach to studying co‐operation and…
Co‐operation and competition characterise the inter‐firm relationships in strategic alliances. This article proposes a paradox approach to studying co‐operation and competition. It explains the paradox perspective and provides an analytic framework for the paradox of co‐operation and competition. In the light of the paradoxical nature, it advocates a multi‐paradigm approach to co‐operative and competitive strategies, which combines strategic positioning, the resource‐based view and game theory. The article suggests that the multi‐paradigms can not only encompass the contradictions of the paradox from the different perspectives, but also emulate the individual ones and provide a holistic picture. The multi‐paradigm approach therefore establishes a better methodology basis than fragmented orthodox theories in exploring the contradictory, interactive and dynamic nature.
Co‐operation is a defining characteristic of ongoing buyer‐seller relationships, yet selfishness lies at the heart of Darwinian models of evolution. Discussion of…
Co‐operation is a defining characteristic of ongoing buyer‐seller relationships, yet selfishness lies at the heart of Darwinian models of evolution. Discussion of relationship marketing has paid insufficient attention to the analysis of reasons why individuals incur short‐term costs in order to gain an uncertain benefit from co‐operation in the future. This paper contributes to the development of theories of relationship marketing by exploring Darwinian game‐theoretic models as a basis for buyer‐seller relationships. Indiscriminate altruism by partners may at first seem to be co‐operative behaviour, but simulations have suggested that the long‐term effect may be to reduce co‐operation.