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Article
Publication date: 6 November 2018

Yanzhong Wang, Yuan Li, Yang Liu and Wei Zhang

To gain in-depth understandings of engaging characteristics, the purpose of this paper is to improve the model of wet clutches to predict the transmitted torque during the…

Abstract

Purpose

To gain in-depth understandings of engaging characteristics, the purpose of this paper is to improve the model of wet clutches to predict the transmitted torque during the engagement process.

Design/methodology/approach

The model of wet clutch during the engagement process took main factors into account, such as the centrifugal effect of lubricant, permeability of friction material, slippage factor of lubricant on contact surface and roughness of contact surface. Reynolds’ equation was derived to describe the hydrodynamic lubrication characteristics of lubricant film between the friction plate and the separated plate, and an elastic-plastic model of the rough surfaces contact based on the finite element analysis was used to indicate the loading force and friction torque of the contact surface.

Findings

The dynamic characteristics of wet clutch engagement time, relative speed, hydrodynamic lubrication of lubricating oil, rough surface contact load capacity and transfer torque can be obtained by the wet clutch engagement model. And the influence of the groove shape and depth on the engaging characteristics is also analyzed.

Originality/value

The mathematical model of the wet clutch during the engagement process can be used to predict the engaging characteristics of the wet clutch which could be useful to the design of the wet clutch.

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Article
Publication date: 11 July 2019

Biao Ma, Liang Yu, Man Chen, He Yan Li and Liang Jie Zheng

This paper aims to investigate the thermal characteristics of the clutch hydraulic system under various oil flow conditions. Increasing the oil flow is one of the most…

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to investigate the thermal characteristics of the clutch hydraulic system under various oil flow conditions. Increasing the oil flow is one of the most important approaches to reduce the clutch temperature. However, the effect of the oil flow on the clutch temperature remains to be explored.

Design/methodology/approach

The thermal resistance network model and the lumped parameter method are used to study the thermal characteristics of the clutch hydraulic system. The predicted temperature variations of the clutch and the oil are compared with experimental data.

Findings

Results demonstrate that the larger the friction power is, the higher the temperatures of the clutch and the oil are. However, the temperature growth rates of the clutch and oil present different trends: the former decreases gradually and the latter increases constantly. Additionally, increasing the oil flow within a certain range gives rise to the decrease of clutch temperature and the increase of oil temperature; nevertheless, their variation trends are gradually weakening. When the oil flow is large enough, it brings a slight effect on the clutch temperature rise.

Originality/value

This paper extends the knowledge into the oil flow supply of the clutch hydraulic system. The conclusions can provide a theoretical guidance for the oil management of the transmission system. Additionally, the thermal resistance network model is also effective and efficient for other hydraulic equipment to predict the temperature variation.

Details

Industrial Lubrication and Tribology, vol. 71 no. 6
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0036-8792

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 1 September 2021

Ling Li, Fazhan Tao and Zhumu Fu

The flexible mode transitions, multiple power sources and system uncertainty lead to challenges for mode transition control of four-wheel-drive hybrid powertrain…

Abstract

Purpose

The flexible mode transitions, multiple power sources and system uncertainty lead to challenges for mode transition control of four-wheel-drive hybrid powertrain. Therefore, the purpose of this paper is to improve dynamic performance and fuel economy in mode transition process for four-wheel-drive hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs), overcoming the influence of system uncertainty.

Design/methodology/approach

First, operation modes and transitions are analyzed and then dynamic models during mode transition process are established. Second, a robust mode transition controller based on radial basis function neural network (RBFNN) is proposed. RBFNN is designed as an uncertainty estimator to approximate lumped model uncertainty due to modeling error. Based on this estimator, a sliding mode controller (SMC) is proposed in clutch slipping phase to achieve clutch speed synchronization, despite disturbance of engine torque error, engine resistant torque and clutch torque. Finally, simulations are carried out on MATLAB/Cruise co-platform.

Findings

Compared with routine control and SMC, the proposed robust controller can achieve better performance in clutch slipping time, engine torque error, vehicle jerk and slipping work either in nominal system or perturbed system.

Originality/value

The mode transition control of four-wheel-drive HEVs is investigated, and a robust controller based on RBFNN estimation is proposed. Compared results show that the proposed controller can improve dynamic performance and fuel economy effectively in spite of the existence of uncertainty.

Details

COMPEL - The international journal for computation and mathematics in electrical and electronic engineering , vol. 40 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0332-1649

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Article
Publication date: 11 January 2011

Shiqi Li, Yang Liu and Ming Xie

The purpose of this paper is to present the design and implementation of a new manipulator with six joints driven by a single DC motor.

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to present the design and implementation of a new manipulator with six joints driven by a single DC motor.

Design/methodology/approach

The manipulator consists of several modules, each of which has the twisting and pivoting degrees of freedom. Two clutches and one brake are mounted to control each joint. A clutch model based on PWM control is built to compute the average velocity of each clutch. Two parameters are involved in the model: PWM frequency and duty ratio. PWM frequency is limited by the natural frequencies of structure with all postures. The theoretical duty ratio should be adjusted according to the clutch model. Two experiments – line tracking and arc tracking – are carried out to verify the effectiveness of the control system.

Findings

The study has designed a manipulator with six joints driven by a single DC motor which powers all the modules through a main shaft and several clutches. In the manipulator, all the modules are supplied with a constant speed input and provide a bi‐directional variable output. Experimental results show the clutch model built for the manipulator can be applied to the joint control of all multi‐joint manipulators.

Originality/value

The paper describes a dexterous and light‐weight manipulator driven by a single motor and designed with bi‐directional joints.

Details

Industrial Robot: An International Journal, vol. 38 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0143-991X

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Article
Publication date: 16 October 2018

Oday Ibraheem Abdullah, Josef Schlattmann, Hussein Jobair, Nasser Eddine Beliardouh and Hakan Kaleli

The purpose of this paper is to present an approach to compute accurately the distributions of the frictional heat generated, contact pressure and thermal stresses at any…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to present an approach to compute accurately the distributions of the frictional heat generated, contact pressure and thermal stresses at any instant during the sliding period (heating phase) of the single-disc friction clutch system works in the dry condition and the complex interaction among them.

Design/methodology/approach

Numerical work was achieved using the developed elastic and thermal finite element models (axisymmetric models) to simulate the engagement of the single-disc friction clutch system.

Findings

The change of distribution of contact pressure during the sliding period (heating phase) affects significantly the magnitude and distribution of the produced thermal stress. The high local heat generated appeared in the contacting surfaces because of the non-uniformity of the distribution of contact pressure during the heating phase (sliding time) and this will dramatically increase the thermal stresses.

Originality/value

Sequentially coupled thermal-mechanical approach was developed to investigate the thermal stresses problem in automotive clutches under dry conditions. This approach is considered a promising approach to investigate the effect of material, sliding time, torque function, etc., on the thermal stresses of different types of friction clutch.

Details

Industrial Lubrication and Tribology, vol. 72 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0036-8792

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Article
Publication date: 10 August 2018

Peng-hui Wu, Xiaojun Zhou, Chenlong Yang, Haoliang Lv, Tianhao Lin and Xuelei Wu

The purpose of this paper is to reduce the drag loss and study the effects of operating conditions and groove parameters such as flow rate and temperature of automatic…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to reduce the drag loss and study the effects of operating conditions and groove parameters such as flow rate and temperature of automatic transmission fluid, clearance between plates, groove depth and groove ratio on the drag torque of a wet clutch for vehicles, parametric analysis of the drag torque model of wet multi-plate friction clutch with groove consideration.

Design/methodology/approach

Both experimental and numerical research was carried out in this work. Parametric groove models, full film lubrication flow model and pressure distribution model are established to investigate the effects of the grooves on drag torque of a wet clutch. Multigrid method is used to simplify the solution.

Findings

In this paper, a drag torque model of a wet multi-plate friction clutch based on the basic theory of viscous fluid dynamics is examined through experimental and numerical methods that take grooves into account, and the change trend of drag torque with operating conditions and groove parameters is analyzed.

Originality/value

Multigrid method is used to solve the governing equations, which simplifies the solution process because of the restrictions and interpolation operations between the adjacent layers of coarser and fine grids. These works provide insight into the effect regularity of operating conditions and groove parameters on drag torque of a wet multi-plate friction clutch. Furthermore, variable test conditions and sufficient experimental data are the main functions in the experimental research.

Details

Industrial Lubrication and Tribology, vol. 70 no. 7
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0036-8792

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 1 June 2005

S.M. Sapuan

To present the findings of the research on the use of concurrent engineering in the development of polymeric based composite automotive clutch pedal. It covers the use of…

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Abstract

Purpose

To present the findings of the research on the use of concurrent engineering in the development of polymeric based composite automotive clutch pedal. It covers the use of various IT such as expert system, FEA, CAD, mould flow and rapid prototyping in order to carry out various activities such as material selection, total design, design analysis and mould flow analysis.

Design/methodology/approach

The work started with the conceptual design of an automotive composite clutch pedal. Various design guides related to composite materials were followed. The final concept of the composite clutch pedal is developed using Pro/Engineer solid modelling package. Design analysis was carried out using LUSAS to study the optimum pedal lever cross section and the optimum rib patterns in pedal lever. Mould flow analysis was investigated to predict the behaviour of materials inside the injection moulding machine and the results are compared with experimental values. Rapid prototyping models were developed based on two techniques namely 3D printer and stereolithography and they are compared in terms of quality, time and cost.

Findings

In this study, the integrated IT tools enable the designer to design and manufacture automotive an composite clutch pedal at higher quality and faster time compared to a metal counterpart. By adopting composite design guides, weight saving from implementing composite materials in the clutch pedal is achievable. It is found that an expert system for material selection enables designer to select the suitable composite material for the clutch pedal by considering various parameters such as strength, modulus, density, manufacturing and economic constraints. Rapid prototyping models enable the designer to communicate effectively their design to other parties early in the design process. Mould flow analysis is carried out to predict the behaviour of material inside the mould and to design the optimum moulding parameters such as fill time, fill temperature and gate location.

Originality/value

In this study, the originality lies in the integration of various IT tools in the development of composite clutch pedal. The designer is exposed to various design and manufacturing issues from the implementation of such approach early in the design process.

Details

Assembly Automation, vol. 25 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0144-5154

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 12 March 2018

Tengjiao Lin, Zi-ran Tan, Ze-yin He, Hong Cao and He-sheng Lv

This paper aims to introduce the moment of inertia of the driving and driven end of the clutch into the analysis of the transient temperature field of a friction plate and…

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to introduce the moment of inertia of the driving and driven end of the clutch into the analysis of the transient temperature field of a friction plate and studied the influencing factors on that, especially to a marine gearbox.

Design/methodology/approach

A three-dimensional transient heat transfer analysis model of a wet clutch friction plate used in a marine gearbox is developed, and the transient characteristics of the temperature field during engagement are analyzed with taking account of the influence factors such as the sliding friction coefficient, engaging revolving speed, moment of inertia and applied engagement pressure.

Findings

The paper found out that the hot spot appears on the surface of the friction plate, taking account of the effect of radial slots and spiral groove. To avoid damage to the friction plate as a result of overheating, the appropriate sliding friction coefficient, lower engaging revolving speed and reasonable selection of applied engagement pressure curve can ensure a favorable heating situation of the friction plate. The reasonable structural design for the clutch with a bigger moment of inertia of driving end and smaller moment of inertia of driven end can reduce the engaging time effectively and decrease the peak temperature of the friction plate.

Originality/value

This paper fulfils a method to study the transient temperature field of a wet clutch friction plate, especially used in a marine gearbox.

Details

Industrial Lubrication and Tribology, vol. 70 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0036-8792

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 4 September 2017

Fangwei Xie, Diancheng Wu, Yaowen Tong, Bing Zhang and Jie Zhu

The purpose of this paper is to study the influence of structural parameters of oil groove (such as central angle number, depth and so on) on pressure, flow, load capacity…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to study the influence of structural parameters of oil groove (such as central angle number, depth and so on) on pressure, flow, load capacity and transmitted torque between friction pairs of hydro-viscous clutch.

Design/methodology/approach

According to the working process of friction pairs of hydro-viscous clutch, mathematical models of hydrodynamic load capacity and torque transmitted by the oil film were built based on viscosity-temperature property. Then analytical solutions of pressure, flow, load capacity and transmitted torque were obtained; effects of central angle of oil groove zone and friction contact zone, oil film thickness, number of oil grooves on pressure, flow, load capacity and torque were studied theoretically.

Findings

The research found that the central angle of oil groove zone, number of oil grooves and oil groove depth have similar effects on flow, which means that with the increase of central angle, number or depth of oil grooves, the flow also increases; pressure in friction contact zone and oil groove zone drops along radial direction, whereas its value in oil groove zone is higher. With the increase of the central angle of oil groove zone, pressure in friction contact zone and friction contact zone rises, and the load capacity increases, whereas the transmitted torque drops. Number of oil grooves has little effect on load capacity. When the oil film thickness increases, its flow increases accordingly, whereas the pressure, load capacity and transmitted torque drops. Meanwhile, the transmitted torque decreases with the increase of number of oil grooves, whereas the oil groove depth nearly has no effects on transmitted torque.

Originality/value

In this paper, mathematical models of hydrodynamic load capacity and torque transmitted by oil film were built based on viscosity-temperature property in the working process of hydro-viscous clutch, and their analytical solutions were obtained; effects of structural parameters of oil groove on transmission characteristics of hydro-viscous clutch based on viscosity-temperature property were revealed. The research results are of great value to the theory development of hydro-viscous drive technology, the design of high-power hydro-viscous clutch and relative control strategy.

Details

Industrial Lubrication and Tribology, vol. 69 no. 5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0036-8792

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 6 August 2019

Liang Yu, Biao Ma, Man Chen, He Yan Li and Jikai Liu

This paper aims to study and compare the friction stability of wet paper-based clutches with regard to the radial grooves (RG) and waffle grooves (WG).

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to study and compare the friction stability of wet paper-based clutches with regard to the radial grooves (RG) and waffle grooves (WG).

Design/methodology/approach

This paper presents an experimental study of a wet clutch concerning the effect of groove patterns on the friction torque and surface temperature. The friction stabilities of RG and WG are investigated with the applied pressure, rotating speed and automatic transmission fluid (ATF) temperature taken into consideration.

Findings

The friction torque and surface temperature of WG are larger than those of RG under the same operating condition. The friction torque difference between RG and WG grows with the increase of applied pressure and narrows with the increase of ATF temperature. Additionally, their temperature difference expands via increasing the rotating speed and ATF temperature or reducing the applied pressure; in this way, not only the variable coefficient difference between RG and WG can be narrowed, but also the friction stability of the clutch can be improved dramatically.

Originality/value

This paper explains the thermodynamic differences between RG and WG; moreover, it is verified experimentally that WG has a better friction stability than RG.

Details

Industrial Lubrication and Tribology, vol. 72 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0036-8792

Keywords

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