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Article

Céline Abecassis‐Moedas

New product design is an established field in the literature. It is either analysed inside the firm; or when using a value chain perspective it is limited to the…

Abstract

Purpose

New product design is an established field in the literature. It is either analysed inside the firm; or when using a value chain perspective it is limited to the interactions between manufacturers and suppliers (in producer‐driven commodity chains). The current research adopts a downstream perspective, analysing the relationships between manufacturers and retailers in relation to the new product design process. Seeks to conduct research in the clothing industry; that has the specificity of being a buyer‐driven commodity chain where fashion makes design a key dimension for the success of a product.

Design/methodology/approach

The research was empirical in nature, involving 50 semi‐structured face‐to‐face interviews in France, the USA and the UK at all points along the clothing value chain.

Findings

In the clothing industry, the strategy of integrating design and retail has resulted in a more flexible design process and therefore, in an increased product performance. This strategy has been developed by both retailers and designers. The strategy of integrating design and retail has resulted in a change of boundaries in the clothing value chain.

Research limitations/implications

Results are currently limited to the clothing sectors, and they are yet to be generalised to other buyer‐driven commodity chains.

Practical implications

Managers in clothing retail firms or in clothing design firms, wanting to increase product performance, should implement the strategy of integrating design and retail.

Originality/value

The paper opens a new field of research, namely: the focus on new product design with a value chain perspective that concentrates on downstream in the chain.

Details

International Journal of Operations & Production Management, vol. 26 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0144-3577

Keywords

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Article

Rudrajeet Pal

The purpose of this paper is to identify the major reverse logistics design aspects in used clothing value chains, and those enabling and challenging manifestation of value

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to identify the major reverse logistics design aspects in used clothing value chains, and those enabling and challenging manifestation of value creation.

Design/methodology/approach

This research is based on an exploratory study of 12 established organizations in Swedish used clothing networks. Data were gathered through semi-structured interviews, secondary sources, and subsequent field visits.

Findings

Empirical insights on how various design aspects influence value creation in used clothing value chains are provided. Crucial among these are strategic and consistent collection, presence of multi-channel sales, and communication of post-retail concepts for manifesting value by bolstering consumer satisfaction, environmental motivation, and corporate image. Inter-organizational collaboration in reverse logistics processes and workplace training, further renders higher economic, environmental and information values.

Research limitations/implications

The paper proposes a holistic framework of design aspects in reverse value chains, and extends existing knowledge on how these aspects manifest value creation. By doing so, a nuanced view of the design aspects is offered by highlighting how they can differentially, either enable, or challenge value creation. In this connection, seven supporting propositions are developed for in-depth future research.

Practical implications

The paper includes implications for the devising strategic solutions for higher value creation, by understanding of the key enablers and challenges, for many actors in the used clothing networks.

Originality/value

The role of various design aspects in reverse value chains for manifesting multifaceted stakeholder value creation is explicitly defined in the paper.

Details

The International Journal of Logistics Management, vol. 28 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0957-4093

Keywords

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Article

Erik Sandberg, Rudrajeet Pal and Jukka Hemilä

The purpose of this paper is to explore the processes of value creation and appropriation among companies in a reverse clothing supply chain.

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to explore the processes of value creation and appropriation among companies in a reverse clothing supply chain.

Design/methodology/approach

This research is based on an inductive case study approach at fashion retailers, charity organisations, commercial recyclers, and specialised sorting companies involved in take-back schemes for used clothes in the reverse clothing supply chain.

Findings

Value creation and appropriation processes are illustrated for different members of the reverse clothing supply chain. Results of different types of value and value co-creation explain the relatively high degree of collaboration among members in the “beginning” of the reverse supply chain. Here, collaboration outmanoeuvres the traditional value appropriation mechanism of price negotiation.

Research limitations/implications

This research does not cover all tiers in this global industry, and practices among different regions may hamper the generalisability of the findings presented.

Practical implications

This research allows a comprehensive picture of the members in the reverse clothing supply chain and outlines some of the major processes involved, decisive for value creation, and appropriation.

Originality/value

The research draws upon the value concept and combines processes of value creation and appropriation in one, single empirical study. By doing that, the research disseminates the reverse clothing supply chain in a new way and facilitates improved understanding of the structure and rationales for members taking part in it.

Details

The International Journal of Logistics Management, vol. 29 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0957-4093

Keywords

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Article

Manoj Kumar Paras, Antonela Curteza and Geetika Varshneya

Undesired changes in the environment and reduction of natural resources have necessitated the need for environmental protection and resource conservation. Textile and…

Abstract

Purpose

Undesired changes in the environment and reduction of natural resources have necessitated the need for environmental protection and resource conservation. Textile and clothing industry is the second largest (after food) industry. Therefore, there is a need to protect the environment by reducing the use of natural resources. The purpose of this paper is to explore and identify the best reverse value chain alternatives for the clothing industry.

Design/methodology/approach

An exploratory study is undertaken at six organizations working in the area of used clothes. The data were collected with the help of semi-structured interviews and a questionnaire, for the analytical hierarchy process analysis. The information from other sources such documents, websites, and reports was also gathered to strengthen the findings.

Findings

There are different reverse value chain methods to minimize the use of natural resources such as direct reuse, upcycling and downcycling. Incineration and landfill can be considered as the last options. The selection of best reverse value chain method is a multi-criteria value decision-making problem, as this involves complex decision parameters.

Practical implications

The industry practitioners can use the above model and results to make end-of-life decisions.

Originality/value

This paper develops a model on the basis of the analytic hierarchy process to determine the best method to close the loop of the clothing value chain. On the basis of the result and analysis, upcycling emerged to be the best alternative to close the loop of the clothing industry.

Details

Journal of Fashion Marketing and Management: An International Journal, vol. 23 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1361-2026

Keywords

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Article

Manoj Kumar Paras, Daniel Ekwall and Rudrajeet Pal

This paper aims to propose a framework for evaluating the performance of reverse value chain activities in the clothing industry operating at base of the pyramid…

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to propose a framework for evaluating the performance of reverse value chain activities in the clothing industry operating at base of the pyramid. Specifically, the research explores firm and supply chain factors influencing clothing reverse value chain activities with a focus on developing economies.

Design/methodology/approach

The study adopted an explorative technique using direct observations and semi-structured interviews to collect information from eight companies and two traders. Internal resources and value chain capabilities were examined using theoretical underpinnings of resource-based view, transaction cost economics and base of the pyramid.

Findings

The paper identified multiple benefits of offshoring reverse value chain activities to the developing countries (at the base of the pyramid). Low operation cost, skilled manpower, business knowledge and location are found to be internal success factors. While favourable government legislation and domestic recycling markets are important external factors contributing to the success. Developing economies such as India contribute to firm performance by integrating, transforming, acquiring and co-creating the resources at base of the pyramid. Further, it was found that to achieve higher assets specificity, a few companies have opened their own shops in African countries, while others have opened sourcing branches in Canada or the USA to ensure good quality of raw materials. Collaboration and coordination among different value chain partners minimise cost and increases profitability. Innovation in the process such as clothes mutilation for recycling has created new business opportunities.

Research limitations/implications

Information was collected from only eight organisations and two traders from India. Future scholars may extend the research to generalise the findings by documenting similar phenomena.

Practical implications

The proposed framework can serve a basis for the practitioners to evaluate firm performance, and the insights can be used to achieve sustainability by engaging producers, employees, consumers and community using base of the pyramid approach.

Originality/value

The study provides unique insights into the prevalent export and re-exports phenomena of used clothing. The resource-based view, transaction cost economics and base of the pyramid strategy underpinned together to develop a framework for understanding reverse value chain activities of clothing.

Details

Journal of Global Operations and Strategic Sourcing, vol. 12 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2398-5364

Keywords

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Article

Rudrajeet Pal

The global textile-fashion industry is resource inefficient thus requiring higher product-service systems (PSS) intervention. Further, insight of how PSS extends corporate…

Abstract

Purpose

The global textile-fashion industry is resource inefficient thus requiring higher product-service systems (PSS) intervention. Further, insight of how PSS extends corporate responsibility is rather limited; knowledge of which may contribute towards increased PSS viability. The purpose of this paper is to explore how companies operating with used-clothing PSS extend their responsibilities through servitization.

Design/methodology/approach

An exploratory study of seven companies operating with various used-clothing PSS is conducted through semi-structured interviews and supplementary document studies.

Findings

Six dominant ways through which servitization drives responsibility in used-clothing PSS are identified. These are through: value-adding services, product leverage, collaborative partnership, information transparency, awareness and platform-enabled networking. Two trade-offs exist in terms of their focus on physical process or digitalization, and developed by honing core competency or collaborative partnership. Further three differentiating attributes underlie these mechanisms for: raising awareness and/or improving transparency, collaboration in value creation and/or in promoting consumption, and product ownership and/or leverage.

Research limitations/implications

A wide range of used-clothing PSS exists each in its own way extending responsibility. In-depth studies are required to investigate the relationship between servitization and extended responsibility for diverse PSS-types and on type of responsibilities they address.

Practical implications

By identifying the key mechanisms or ways and their underlying characteristics companies can identify new servitization forms and ways to extend their responsibility, identify best practices and establish viability beyond the traditional measures, e.g. financial.

Originality/value

So far no studies have investigated the role of servitization in PSS and how it extends corporate responsibility, especially in industries like textile-fashion, where both resource efficiency and responsibility is low.

Details

Journal of Fashion Marketing and Management: An International Journal, vol. 20 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1361-2026

Keywords

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Article

Omera Khan, Martin Christopher and Bernard Burnes

The purpose of this paper is to address the increasingly important issue of the impact of product design on supply chain risk management in an era of global supply…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to address the increasingly important issue of the impact of product design on supply chain risk management in an era of global supply arrangements. The need to include product design considerations in the development of global supply chain strategies is highlighted.

Design/methodology/approach

The research methodology is based on an in‐depth longitudinal case study of a major UK retailer. Data collection tools included observation of supplier meetings/workshops, semi‐structured interviews and access to key company documentation and archives.

Findings

This paper provides a framework for design‐led supply chain risk management and thus presents a case for recognising design as more than a creative function but as a platform to manage risk in supply chains.

Research limitations/implications

The empirical research reported in this paper is specific to the clothing manufacturing and fashion retail industry. Though the findings will most likely apply to all industries and supply chains where design has an integral role and plays an important part in the competitiveness of the final product, there would be benefit in extending the research into other sectors.

Practical implications

The increased trends to outsourcing and offshore sourcing and the elimination of trade barriers have added to the competitive pressures faced by clothing retailers, hence frameworks to manage supply chain risks are significant to the survival of companies from this sector.

Originality/value

Whilst there is a growing literature in the field of supply chain risk there is less empirical evidence providing practical examples of the impact of product design on risk. Design‐led risk management offers a novel approach to mitigating supply chain risk.

Details

International Journal of Physical Distribution & Logistics Management, vol. 38 no. 5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0960-0035

Keywords

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Article

George K. Stylios

Examines the twelfth published year of the ITCRR. Runs the whole gamut of textile innovation, research and testing, some of which investigates hitherto untouched aspects…

Abstract

Examines the twelfth published year of the ITCRR. Runs the whole gamut of textile innovation, research and testing, some of which investigates hitherto untouched aspects. Subjects discussed include cotton fabric processing, asbestos substitutes, textile adjuncts to cardiovascular surgery, wet textile processes, hand evaluation, nanotechnology, thermoplastic composites, robotic ironing, protective clothing (agricultural and industrial), ecological aspects of fibre properties – to name but a few! There would appear to be no limit to the future potential for textile applications.

Details

International Journal of Clothing Science and Technology, vol. 18 no. 6
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0955-6222

Keywords

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Abstract

Subject area

Governance challenges in reverse value chain.

Study level/applicability

Women employment system in textile and clothing industry.

Case overview

The textile and clothing firms, often frustrated by frequent labor issues, used an innovative employment scheme – Sumangali scheme – to employ young female workers from poor families in rural areas, aged between 18 and 25 years, as apprentices for three years who would stay in dormitories located in the vicinity of the factories, draw low wages with minimum benefits. But the scheme was criticized by labor unions and Europe- and US-based non-governmental organization (NGOs) on the grounds of alleged violation of labor rights such as freedom of association, freedom of movement, exploitative working conditions, low wages with minimum or no benefits, long working hours and abusive supervisors. Their public campaign against the alleged employment practices has put tremendous pressure on the global buyers to take steps to ameliorate the situation. In the wake of campaign by NGOs, few buyers have even terminated the relationship with the manufacturers. Others have warned action against those erring manufacturers. The actions by global buyers, NGOs against some of the women employment practices raised several questions in the minds of manufacturers. They were wondering why US- and Europe-based NGOs were up in arms to dump an employment scheme unmindful of socio-economic realities in India? Is it a clever ploy that developed nations use some private, voluntary, corporate social responsibility norms to stop companies purchasing textile and clothing products from a developing country like India on the grounds of violation of labor rights? As per the International Labor Organization (ILO) Convention No. 81, it is the responsibility of central/state governments to inspect and monitor labor employment practices in an industry. Then why NGOs and other private groups volunteer to become watch dogs of labor practices and launch campaigns against mills? Would it not undermine the role of government in ensuring industrial harmony? Even if NGOs' actions are justified on the grounds of moral and ethical principles, what role should they play when it comes to management–worker relationship? In the Indian context, only the government can interfere if the relationship turns sour? Should NGOs need to use a different set of ethical standards which are more relevant and contextual to the socio-economic environment in India?

Expected learning outcomes

To understand evolution of apparel global value chain and workforce development challenges in India; to explore the link between consumer activism and corporate social responsibility; to explore the challenge of addressing issues such as alleged human rights violation and labor exploitation by independent suppliers located in India; to explore the challenges faced by global buyers in contextualizing, operationalizing and realizing certain human rights along the supply chain located in India; and to explore sustainability challenges of women employment in textile and clothing mills in India.

Supplementary materials

Teaching notes are available for educators only. Please contact your library to gain login details or email support@emeraldinsight.com to request teaching notes.

Social implications

Sustenance of women employment system in India's textile and clothing industry and its associated challenges.

Details

Emerald Emerging Markets Case Studies, vol. 4 no. 8
Type: Case Study
ISSN: 2045-0621

Keywords

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Article

Nicholas Theodorakopoulos, Carmel McGowan, David Bennett, Nada Kakabadse and Catarina Figueira

The purpose of this paper is to demonstrate analytically how entrepreneurial action as learning relating to diversifying into technical clothing – i.e. a high-value

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to demonstrate analytically how entrepreneurial action as learning relating to diversifying into technical clothing – i.e. a high-value manufacturing sector – can take place. This is particularly relevant to recent discussion and debate in academic and policy-making circles concerning the survival of the clothing manufacture industry in developed industrialised countries.

Design/methodology/approach

Using situated learning theory (SLT) as the major analytical lens, this case study examines an episode of entrepreneurial action relating to diversification into a high-value manufacturing sector. It is considered on instrumentality grounds, revealing wider tendencies in the management of knowledge and capabilities requisite for effective entrepreneurial action of this kind.

Findings

Boundary events, brokers, boundary objects, membership structures and inclusive participation that addresses power asymmetries are found to be crucial organisational design elements, enabling the development of inter- and intracommunal capacities. These together constitute a dynamic learning capability, which underpins entrepreneurial action, such as diversification into high-value manufacturing sectors.

Originality/value

Through a refinement of SLT in the context of entrepreneurial action, the paper contributes to an advancement of a substantive theory of managing technological knowledge and capabilities for effective diversification into high-value manufacturing sectors.

Details

Journal of Manufacturing Technology Management, vol. 25 no. 5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1741-038X

Keywords

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