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Article
Publication date: 6 July 2018

Clive G. Long, Olga Dolley and Clive Hollin

In the UK, the mental health treatment requirement (MHTR) order for offenders on probation has been underused. A MHTR service was established to assess the effectiveness…

Abstract

Purpose

In the UK, the mental health treatment requirement (MHTR) order for offenders on probation has been underused. A MHTR service was established to assess the effectiveness of a partnership between a probation service, a link worker charity and an independent mental healthcare provider. Short-term structured cognitive behavioural interventions were delivered by psychology graduates with relevant work experience and training. Training for the judiciary on the MHTR and the new service led to a significant increase in the use of MHTR orders. The paper aims to discuss these issues.

Design/methodology/approach

A total of 56 (of 76 MHTR offenders) completed treatment in the first 12 months. A single cohort pre-post follow-up design was used to evaluate change in the following domains: mental health and wellbeing; coping skills; social adjustment; and criminal justice outcomes. Mental health treatment interventions were delivered under supervision by two psychology graduates who had relevant work experience and who were trained in short term, structured, cognitive behavioural (CBT) interventions.

Findings

Clinically significant changes were obtained on measures of anxiety and depression, and on measures of social problem solving, emotional regulation and self-efficacy. Ratings of work and social adjustment and pre-post ratings of dynamic criminogenic risk factors also improved. This new initiative has addressed the moral argument for equality of access to mental health services for offenders given a community order.

Originality/value

While the current initiative represents one of a number of models designed to increase the collaboration between the criminal justice and the mental health systems, this is the first within the UK to deliver a therapeutic response at the point of sentencing for offenders with mental health problems. The significant increase in the provision of MHTR community orders in the first year of the project has been associated with a decrease in the number of psychiatric reports requested that are time consuming and do not lead to a rapid treatment.

Details

Journal of Criminal Psychology, vol. 8 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2009-3829

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Article
Publication date: 12 March 2014

Clive G. Long, Olga Dolley and Clive R. Hollin

The purpose of this paper is to assess the effectiveness of a gender-specific group treatment programme for personality disordered (PD) women in a medium secure…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to assess the effectiveness of a gender-specific group treatment programme for personality disordered (PD) women in a medium secure psychiatric setting.

Design/methodology/approach

In all, 56 consecutive admissions with a primary diagnosis of personality disorder (mostly borderline type) and co-morbidity were assessed according to their participation in, and benefit from, a core set of five manualised group treatments that focused on social and interpersonal deficits, instability of mood and problematic substance use. A single cohort pre-test post-test comparison design was used with evaluation based on global change over an amalgam of self-report group specific outcome measures.

Findings

In all, 70 per cent of patients attended three or more core groups, with attendance for each group ranging from 85 to 53 per cent. Between 65 and 77 per cent of patients showed a significant improvement on pre-group psychometrics. Patients who achieved a significant positive change in one group tended to do so in others. In all, 85 per cent of patients who completed two or more groups had overall positive direction of change scores. Those who benefited from treatment engaged more quickly, were more likely to have been admitted from hospital, to have previously engaged in therapy and to score lower on measures of impulsivity and personality pathology.

Research limitations/implications

In a clinically representative study the absence of a control group limits the extent to which observed changes can be attributed to described interventions.

Practical implications

Findings reflect the importance of providing a broad clinical approach to changing cognitive behavioural functioning with PD patients in secure settings. They also highlight the need to improve ways of engaging patients at an earlier stage of hospital stay and of increasing the acceptability and uptake of relevant group treatments. Further evidence-informed service developments are needed to meet these challenges.

Originality/value

The study adds to a small literature on the clinical impact of a gender-specific group treatment programme for PD women in secure settings.

Details

Journal of Criminal Psychology, vol. 4 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2009-3829

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Article
Publication date: 1 March 2008

Clive Long, Andrew McLean, Anita Boothby and Clive Hollin

Self‐reported quality of life (QOL) was examined in a cohort of detained psychiatric in‐patients. Two patient groups, categorised as high and low on the Lehman Quality of…

Abstract

Self‐reported quality of life (QOL) was examined in a cohort of detained psychiatric in‐patients. Two patient groups, categorised as high and low on the Lehman Quality of Life Interview (QOLI) in terms of their ‘satisfaction with life in general’, were compared. A model of satisfaction with life derived from a logistic regression analysis contained three measures: (high) QOLI satisfaction rating for living situation, (low) suicidality and (high) motivation and energy. The practical implications of these findings are discussed in terms of assessment, symptom relief and environmental change.

Details

The British Journal of Forensic Practice, vol. 10 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1463-6646

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Article
Publication date: 21 February 2011

Andy Smith, Jackie Bird and Clive Long

Despite widespread work on the process of safeguarding vulnerable adults, there is a relative absence of research in secure psychiatric settings where reliance is placed…

Abstract

Despite widespread work on the process of safeguarding vulnerable adults, there is a relative absence of research in secure psychiatric settings where reliance is placed on external community safeguarding teams. This study analyses safeguarding incidents over a three‐year period in a medium secure psychiatric setting for women. It focuses on incident type, the characteristics of victims and perpetrators and safeguarding processes, including protection strategies. The action implications of the findings are discussed with reference to the unique feature of the patient population and setting and the extant research literature.

Details

The Journal of Adult Protection, vol. 13 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1466-8203

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Article
Publication date: 8 February 2013

Clive G. Long

The purpose of this paper is to review issues of relevance to practitioners using group cognitive behavioural therapy (CBT) with women in secure settings.

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to review issues of relevance to practitioners using group cognitive behavioural therapy (CBT) with women in secure settings.

Design/methodology/approach

The extant literature on CBT as applied to women in secure settings is reviewed to highlight best practice. Aspects of best practice are illustrated with examples from a women's medium secure service.

Findings

Obstacles include the characteristics of the patient group, treatment non compliance and an environment that accepts the primacy of security over treatment. Environmental and need factors amenable to intervention are highlighted in addition to CBT specific considerations that include the timing and intensiveness of treatment, content and delivery of therapy, treatment readiness and use of the group process. The use of a manualised CBT group treatment aid attempts to ensure treatment integrity is associated, and which is associated with treatment outcome. A focus on the social and environmental factors that attribute to the therapeutic milieu is vital to treatment generalisation, as is harnessing the therapeutic potential of the built environment. Finally, treatment evaluation imposes a structure that can facilitate progress in treatment.

Originality/value

There is comparatively little work on CBT group treatments for women in secure settings. Attempts to synthesise best practice initiatives in this area are helpful in guiding treatment developments.

Details

The Journal of Forensic Practice, vol. 15 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2050-8794

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Article
Publication date: 16 August 2011

Clive G. Long, Vikki Langford, Rebecca Clay, Lorraine Craig and Clive R. Hollin

The purpose of this paper is to describe the architectural design considerations and effects of moving patients from an adapted Victorian medium secure unit to a purpose…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to describe the architectural design considerations and effects of moving patients from an adapted Victorian medium secure unit to a purpose built facility.

Design/methodology/approach

Patients and staff views of the old and new unit environments were compared in terms of homeliness, architectural features, ward atmosphere (WAS) and patient satisfaction.

Findings

The new unit was rated as more homely. The change of environment did not increase risk behaviours and was associated with a reduction in symptomatology.

Research limitations/implications

Limitations of the study include the small‐sample size and choice of measure of WAS. More research is needed into the constituents of “planned” environments where the physical environment is the primary intervention.

Practical implications

These include the need for close collaboration among architects, clinicians and patients in order to maximise the therapeutic benefit of the built environment.

Originality/value

This paper contributes to a small literature that “bridges” architectural, psychiatric and environmental domains.

Details

The British Journal of Forensic Practice, vol. 13 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1463-6646

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Article
Publication date: 16 November 2012

Clive G. Long, Ellen Banyard, Emily Fox, Jackie Somers, Denise Poynter and Rachel Chapman

The aim of this paper is to investigate reasons for treatment non‐attendance for dual diagnosis women in secure psychiatric settings.

Abstract

Purpose

The aim of this paper is to investigate reasons for treatment non‐attendance for dual diagnosis women in secure psychiatric settings.

Design/methodology/approach

A semi structured interview was used to investigate patients' reasons for session non attendance on the day of non participation across four wards. Reasons for non attendance were grouped using the mulifactorial offender readiness model (MORM) categories of affective, volitional, behavioural, cognitive and external. Assignment of responses to categories was undertaken by a two person team and inter rater reliability was assessed.

Findings

Patients' rates of attendance varied by ward and level of security (low vs medium); and diagnosis. Systematic enquiry about the reasons for non attendance led to increased session attendance. Reasons for non attendance were cognitive reflecting negative evaluations of treatment and treatment outcomes. Psychological therapies and educational sessions were deemed the most important along with one‐to‐one clinician appointments.

Originality/value

Issues of treatment engagement and the timing of treatment interventions are major issues in the care of secure psychiatric patients, particularly those with a primary diagnosis of personality disorder. Findings highlight the importance of systematic enquiry about reasons for non attendance and suggest potential interventions designed to improve engagement.

Details

Advances in Dual Diagnosis, vol. 5 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1757-0972

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 17 September 2009

Clive Long, Addic Brillon, Donna Schell and Paula Webster

The nutrition and eating habits of women in a secure psychiatric service were surveyed using in vivo participation, observation and self‐report procedures. It was…

Abstract

The nutrition and eating habits of women in a secure psychiatric service were surveyed using in vivo participation, observation and self‐report procedures. It was predicted that high levels of obesity were partly related to unhealthy eating preferences, over‐consumption of food and environmental factors that supported an unhealthy lifestyle. The results indicated an obesogenic environment in which patients made unhealthy food choices to supplement meals. Post‐survey initiatives have led to increased satisfaction with a healthier and more palatable diet and proactive attempts to help patients engage with a therapeutic and healthier lifestyle to address obesity. The importance of environmental change, education and motivational strategies to engage patients is highlighted.

Details

The British Journal of Forensic Practice, vol. 11 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1463-6646

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 9 September 2014

Clive G. Long, Geoffrey Dickens and Olga Dolley

The purpose of this paper is to assess the antecedent behaviours and consequences of firesetting for women in a secure psychiatric setting along with treatment engagement…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to assess the antecedent behaviours and consequences of firesetting for women in a secure psychiatric setting along with treatment engagement factors. To explore predictions made about emotionally expressive subtype firesetters by the multi-trajectory theory of adult firesetting (M-TTAF).

Design/methodology/approach

In total, 75 individual firesetting episodes involving 25 female multiple firesetters were assessed using the St Andrew's Fire and Arson Risk Instrument. Assessments were made of treatment readiness, firesetting related self-efficacy, insight and barriers to change.

Findings

Findings support the relationship between recidivist firesetting and the psychological features of psychosis, personality disorder and substance misuse. The reported association of firesetting with suicidal thoughts, depression, interpersonal problems, anger/revenge motivation and lack of planning supports the view that behaviour is used to manage distressing life experience and as a “cry for help”. However, in a quarter of incidents there was an intention to harm others and evidence of premeditation in twelve percent. A small but significant minority lacked insight into their behaviour, were not ready for treatment and had low firesetting related self-efficacy. Predictions made by the M-TTAF about likely clinical features and motivators of emotionally expressive firesetters were largely supported.

Originality/value

The study highlights the importance of a detailed and specific risk assessment of firesetting that leads to identification of individual risk factors and an individualised treatment approach. This is of particular importance given the complex problems presented by women in secure settings and by the diversity of the conditions associated with fires set by each individual.

Details

Journal of Criminal Psychology, vol. 4 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2009-3829

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 1 May 2005

Clive Long and Kelly Jones

Although smoking is a major health problem among forensic psychiatric inpatient populations, a multitude of factors (motivational, environmental, procedural and…

Abstract

Although smoking is a major health problem among forensic psychiatric inpatient populations, a multitude of factors (motivational, environmental, procedural and psychiatric) militate against effective treatment. Despite this, few studies have reported on the use of population‐appropriate treatment approaches. This pilot study reports the results of group and individual treatments involving combination nicotine replacement therapy (NRT), motivational enhancement therapy (MET) and cognitive behavioural treatment. The importance of selecting patients with some skills in emotional regulation is highlighted, along with ways of reducing institutional obstacles to change and maximising environmental support for quit attempts.

Details

The British Journal of Forensic Practice, vol. 7 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1463-6646

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