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Book part
Publication date: 22 August 2006

Charlotte Benson and Edward J. Clay

Two worldwide trends in recent decades are commonly noted and sometimes linked in discussing disasters. First, the reported global cost of natural disasters has risen…

Abstract

Two worldwide trends in recent decades are commonly noted and sometimes linked in discussing disasters. First, the reported global cost of natural disasters has risen significantly, with a 14-fold increase between the 1950s and 1990s (Munich Re, 1999). During the 1990s, major natural catastrophes are reported to have resulted in economic losses averaging an estimated US$ 54 billion per annum (in 1999 prices) (ibid). Record losses of some US$ 198 billion were recorded in 1995, the year of the Kobe earthquake – equivalent to 0.7 percent of global gross domestic product (GDP) (ibid).

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Developmental Entrepreneurship: Adversity, Risk, and Isolation
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-84950-452-2

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Article
Publication date: 24 June 2020

Shahzad Alvi and Umer Khayyam

This study aims to examine peoples’ perception of climate change. It assessed their attitude, behavioural motivation for mitigating and adapting to climate change in the…

Abstract

Purpose

This study aims to examine peoples’ perception of climate change. It assessed their attitude, behavioural motivation for mitigating and adapting to climate change in the two capital cities of South Asia: Islamabad in Pakistan and Dhaka in Bangladesh.

Design/methodology/approach

This study used the quantitative research technique based on responses of 800 close-ended questions embedded in a close-ended questionnaire, which were filled-out from randomly selected sample of respondents. The primary data was analysed and presented through tabulation. For binary dependent variables, the standardised logistic coefficients were projected for more reliable estimates.

Findings

The findings reveal that the population of both capital cities have a low personal perception of climate change. Also, the dwellers of both cities have a low level of motivation to take mitigative and adaptive measures against climatic hazards. The results of the logistic regression model further indicate that the people who believe that climate change is a threat to their lives are more likely to adopt mitigative and adaptive strategies. This mostly applies to the people with a relatively higher income and education level.

Research limitations/implications

This study implies to create awareness and sensitise the local community in both the capitals and beyond through information dissemination. Further, the availability of toolkits to handle emergencies remains imperative in registering attitudinal and behavioural changes to reduce the impacts of climate variability in poor localities.

Originality/value

This research study analysed the link between climate change mitigation and energy conservation from the societal attributes of perception, motivation, attitude and behaviour, which remains essential for community-based mitigation against climatic hazards.

Details

International Journal of Climate Change Strategies and Management, vol. 12 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1756-8692

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Article
Publication date: 11 April 2016

Christine Wamsler and Ebba Brink

Cities are both at risk and the cause of risk. The interconnectedness of urban features and systems increases the likelihood of complex disasters and a cascade or “domino”…

Abstract

Purpose

Cities are both at risk and the cause of risk. The interconnectedness of urban features and systems increases the likelihood of complex disasters and a cascade or “domino” effect from related impacts. However, the lack of research means that our knowledge of urban risk is both scarce and fragmented. Against this background, the purpose of this paper is to examine the unique dynamics of risk in urban settings.

Design/methodology/approach

Based on literal reading, grounded theory and systems analysis, this conceptual paper presents a framework for understanding and addressing urban risk. It conceptualizes how interdependent, interconnected risk is shaped by urban characteristics and exemplifies its particularities with data and analysis of specific cases. From this, it identifies improvements both in the content and the indicators of the successor to the Hyogo Framework for Action (HFA2) that will be adopted in 2015.

Findings

While it is common to see disasters as “causes”, and the destruction of the built environment as “effects”, this paper highlights that the intricate links between cities and disasters cannot be described by a unidirectional cause-and-effect relationship. The city–disasters nexus is a bidirectional relationship, which constantly shapes, and is shaped by, other processes (such as climate change).

Practical implications

This paper argues that in-depth knowledge of the links between cities’ characteristic features, related systems and disasters is indispensable for addressing root causes and mainstreaming risk reduction into urban sector work. It enables city authorities and other urban actors to improve and adapt their work without negatively influencing the interconnectedness of urban risk.

Originality/value

This paper presents a framework for understanding and addressing urban risk and further demonstrates how the characteristics of the urban fabric (physical/spatial, environmental, social, economic and political/institutional) and related systems increase risk by: intensifying hazards or creating new ones, exacerbating vulnerabilities and negatively affecting existing response and recovery mechanisms.

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International Journal of Disaster Resilience in the Built Environment, vol. 7 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1759-5908

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Article
Publication date: 23 August 2018

Shahriar Rahman, Md Sayful Islam, Md Nyeem Hasan Khan and Md Touhiduzzaman

The purpose of this paper is to focus on the local-level initiatives through coastal afforestation, the natural and socio-economic context of the study area (Hatiya…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to focus on the local-level initiatives through coastal afforestation, the natural and socio-economic context of the study area (Hatiya Upazila of Noakhali District, Bangladesh) and the adaptation and DRR strategies generated through coastal afforestation in coastal Bangladesh.

Design/methodology/approach

Field observations, focus group discussions (FGDs), semi-structured interviews, and transects were accomplished in both the dry and wet season. Spatial database generated and land use mapping integrated social and technical investigation. Five FDG sessions with participants from different livelihood options (fishermen, farmers and social representatives) were organised and, on average, 15~18 participants participated in each participatory session.

Findings

Mangrove plantation can be used to access new land and create alternative livelihoods, which are important for local community adaptation and to reduce disaster risks. Mangrove plantations provide chances for new land management options to be developed for use in Bangladesh.

Research limitations/implications

This study was conducted only at the south-central coastal district of Bangladesh. Data collection to summarise all the socio-economic issues is limited.

Practical implications

This paper can be used for the integration of geospatial and social research techniques to understand the community approach to fight against climate change-induced impacts.

Originality/value

The research is solely conducted by the authors. The conducted approach is a blend of social and technical knowledge and techniques in generating community resilience at the south-central coast of Bangladesh.

Details

Management of Environmental Quality: An International Journal, vol. 30 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1477-7835

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Article
Publication date: 1 October 2004

John Goodier

Abstract

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Reference Reviews, vol. 18 no. 7
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0950-4125

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Book part
Publication date: 25 September 2012

Buyana Kareem

Purpose – The chapter explores the gender dimensions of climatic impacts in urban areas and draws lessons for cities in Africa.Methodology – The data presented was…

Abstract

Purpose – The chapter explores the gender dimensions of climatic impacts in urban areas and draws lessons for cities in Africa.

Methodology – The data presented was generated through focus group discussions with female and male residents of Kasubi-Kawaala neighborhood in Kampala city as well as extensive review of relevant literature.

Findings – Climatic impacts in Kasubi-Kawaala and Kampala city at large, mainly include prolonged dry spells, erratic heavy rains, and seasonal floods, which destroy physical infrastructure, expose households to environmental health hazards, contaminate air and water sources, and lead to unprecedented spread of cholera and malaria. These climatic impacts on one hand do worsen gender inequalities across different urban sectors, while on the other such gender inequalities contribute to the intensity of climatic impacts. These are the gender dimensions of climatic impacts in urban areas that require deep examination while planning to adapt or reduce emissions.

Research limitation – The methods used to collect data were qualitative in nature and therefore no statistical data was obtained on gender inequalities and climatic impacts. But the review of different literature did enable the study gain relevant descriptive statistics on the effects of climatic change in Kampala city.

Value of the chapter – There have been studies on gender and climate change in Africa, but many of these have focused on rural settings and women in particular. This chapter provides a relational understanding on women's interface relative to men's interface with climatic impacts in Kampala with the aim of drawing lessons that can be applied to local circumstances in different African cities.

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Urban Areas and Global Climate Change
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78190-037-6

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Article
Publication date: 4 November 2013

Caxton H. Matarira, Deepa Pullanikkatil, Tawanda Kaseke, Everness Shava and Desmond Manatsa

This study was conducted to assess the socio-economic implications of climate change on the three ecological regions of Lesotho. In the view that climate change is…

Abstract

Purpose

This study was conducted to assess the socio-economic implications of climate change on the three ecological regions of Lesotho. In the view that climate change is affecting agriculture, subsistence communities are at risk. The paper aims to discuss these issues.

Design/methodology/approach

Two villages were randomly selected from three regions of Lesotho and at least 40 households in each region. The full range of economic activities undertaken was covered to understand how climate affects the communities, and how they are. A livelihood sensitivity matrix was used to determine which resources and livelihoods are most vulnerable to different types of climatic hazards and how the different livelihood activities are impacted by different climate hazards.

Findings

A large percentage of the community (>95 percent) was aware of the changing climate and the effects on land productivity. Food crops are the most vulnerable to weather, followed by soil and livestock. Climate variables of major concern were hail, drought and dry spells which reduced crop yields.

Originality/value

This research is important especially to policy makers to make informed decisions in as far as climate change response strategies in Lesotho are concerned. This research thus gives a baseline on these climate change impacts on subsistence communities.

Details

International Journal of Climate Change Strategies and Management, vol. 5 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1756-8692

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Book part
Publication date: 31 December 2010

Tawhidul Islam, M. Aminur Rahman and Fuad Mallick

Living with physical hazards is an everyday issue for the people of Bangladesh because different seasons bring different kinds of uncertainties. Sometimes traditional…

Abstract

Living with physical hazards is an everyday issue for the people of Bangladesh because different seasons bring different kinds of uncertainties. Sometimes traditional knowledge and practices (Alam, 2007) help them to adjust to these conditions; in some occasions, these hazards turn into catastrophic disasters causing deaths and bringing unbearable damages in different sectors. In addition to the tangible damages incurred due to hazards, in most of the cases, these hazards injure the internal social organizations at different levels (for example, household, community, and institutional) and affect their assets. Thus, the community resilience is greatly weakened, which makes people susceptible to upcoming hazards. Scientists suggest that climate change-induced threats and uncertainties in the forms of erratic rainfall patterns that result in drought conditions and sometimes floods, abnormal foggy conditions, change in the wind direction and the characteristic patterns of seasons, anomalies in the temperature regimes, and the occurrence of cyclones will bring new dimensions to existing situations. These natural hazards, temperature rises, and sea level rise–induced inundations will contribute to the breakdown of the traditional systems of living; they also bring change in topographical factors (for example, flooding), biophysical factors (changes in the crop yields, runoff, risks of the spread of infectious diseases, changes in the vegetation pattern), and socioeconomic factors (per capital income, health, education, population density) (World Bank, 2001).

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Climate Change Adaptation and Disaster Risk Reduction: An Asian Perspective
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-0-85724-485-7

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Article
Publication date: 21 March 2016

Eugene Loh Chia, Anne Marie Tiani, Denis Jean Sonwa, Alba Saray Perez-Teran and Berenger Tchatchou

This paper aims to examine the contribution of forests resource systems to the different aspects of community well-being, the implications of climate variability on the…

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to examine the contribution of forests resource systems to the different aspects of community well-being, the implications of climate variability on the different sources of well-being and further identifies direct and indirect social and policy opportunities relevant for communities to enhance their capabilities in the face of climate variability and change in the Tri-National de la Sangha landscape of Cameroon.

Design/methodology/approach

It illustrates on data collected from focus group discussions and from 151 households randomly selected in three villages to operationalize the conceptual links between community well-being and vulnerability.

Findings

The study shows that vulnerability to climate change interferes with community strategies to achieve well-being, in addition to non-climatic processes which are both internal and external to communities. The study further indicates that healthy forest ecosystems provide opportunities for the local folks to build assets, improve food security, improve health and reduce risks. However, this requires capacity building and the channeling of resources to the local level, in addition to win–win sectoral policy amendments.

Research limitations/implications

Biophysical methods required to complement community perceptions on the suitability of forest resource systems to climate variability.

Practical implications

This paper argues that appropriate strategies which aim at improving well-being needs to capture the role of forest ecosystems, climate change risks and uncertainty and macroeconomic and social processes.

Originality/value

This study contributes to the literature on the relationship between climate risk and the well-being of forest communities. This is relevant for practitioners and policy makers to reflect on the risk of climate change and the rationale for conserving forest resources for community well-being in the post-2015 Millennium Development Goals conclusions.

Details

International Journal of Climate Change Strategies and Management, vol. 8 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1756-8692

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Article
Publication date: 21 September 2017

Bayes Ahmed

“No climate change, no climate refugees”. On the basis of this theme, this paper aims to propose a method for undertaking the responsibility for climate refugees literally…

Abstract

Purpose

“No climate change, no climate refugees”. On the basis of this theme, this paper aims to propose a method for undertaking the responsibility for climate refugees literally uprooted by liable climate polluting countries. It also considers the historical past, culture, geopolitics, imposed wars, economic oppression and fragile governance to understand the holistic scenario of vulnerability to climate change.

Design/methodology/approach

This paper is organized around three distinct aspects of dealing with extreme climatic events – vulnerability as part of making the preparedness and response process fragile (past), climate change as a hazard driver (present) and rehabilitating the climate refugees (future). Bangladesh is used as an example that represents a top victim country to climatic extreme events from many countries with similar baseline characteristics. The top 20 countries accounting for approximately 82 per cent of the total global carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions are considered for model development by analysing the parameters – per capita CO2 emissions, ecological footprint, gross national income and human development index.

Findings

Results suggest that under present circumstances, Australia and the USA each should take responsibility of 10 per cent each of the overall global share of climate refugees, followed by Canada and Saudi Arabia (9 per cent each), South Korea (7 per cent) and Russia, Germany and Japan (6 per cent each). As there is no international convention for protecting climate refugees yet, the victims either end up in detention camps or are refused shelter in safer places or countries. There is a dire need to address the climate refugee crisis as these people face greater political risks.

Originality/value

This paper provides a critical overview of accommodating the climate refugees (those who have no means for bouncing back) by the liable countries. It proposes an innovative method by considering the status of climate pollution, resource consumption, economy and human development rankings to address the problem by bringing humanitarian justice to the ultimate climate refugees.

Details

International Journal of Climate Change Strategies and Management, vol. 10 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1756-8692

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