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Article
Publication date: 2 December 2020

Hocine Boumaraf and Louisa Amireche

The purpose of this paper is to move beyond the stage of analysis of exclusively physical microclimatic phenomena and extending ourselves to the study of the impact of the…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to move beyond the stage of analysis of exclusively physical microclimatic phenomena and extending ourselves to the study of the impact of the microclimate environment on the user behavior in public spaces. This paper will open up new opportunities for the development of urban open spaces and facilitate the decision-making for urban decision-makers, city managers and planners to make the right urban planning decision.

Design/methodology/approach

The methodology for identifying the links between microclimatic quality of urban routes and behaviors was developed on the basis of the results obtained from field surveys carried out in nine public urban areas of the city of Biskra, three urban space are located in a traditional urban fabric (the medina) and the other five in new urban areas, in the two climatic seasons (winter, summer) of 2019. For this exploratory research, two types of instruments were used to collect data from environmental and human monitoring.

Findings

Improving microclimatic conditions in urban spaces can allow people to spend more time outside, with the possibility of increasing their social cohesion. The overall objective of this research is to better understand the impact of microclimatic characteristics on pedestrian behavior of nine selected public urban spaces in the city of Biskra, Algeria. To characterize this impact, the authors developed an approach based on crossing data of field surveys, including structured interviews with a questionnaire and observations of human activities (video recordings), as well as microclimate monitoring, conducted during the two climatic seasons (winter, summer) 2019. The analysis of the results allowed to verify the impact of the two climatic seasons (winter, summer) on the variation in the density of occupancy of the different urban areas studied and the duration of the user stations. The authors also illustrated that the number of individuals higher in the traditional urban spaces of the city of Biskra or the conditions of climate comfort are more comfortable than the urban spaces in the new urban areas of the city of Biskra during the summer, which is the season most problematic.

Originality/value

In recent years, there has been a proliferation of scientific studies on the subject of control of microclimatic characteristics and, in particular, on the consideration of the thermal comfort of persons by qualitative analysis, prediction and representation of the perception of external environments. Improving microclimatic conditions in urban spaces can allow people to spend more time outside, with the possibility of increasing their social cohesion. This study highlights the importance of climate-conscious urban design and design flexibility. Urban environments can be modified in summer and winter to provide a better outdoor thermal environment for users. In addition, this study also shows the importance of harmony between microclimate and urban design. Such harmony can be achieved by including requirements for a climate-conscious urban design in the planning regulations for cities in arid zones.

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Article
Publication date: 9 May 2016

Chiemi Iba, Ayumi Ueda and Shuichi Hokoi

Frost damage is well-known as the main cause of roof tile deterioration. The purpose of this paper is to develop an analytical model for predicting the deterioration…

Abstract

Purpose

Frost damage is well-known as the main cause of roof tile deterioration. The purpose of this paper is to develop an analytical model for predicting the deterioration process under certain climatic conditions. This paper describes the results of a field survey conducted to acquire fundamental information useful to this aim.

Design/methodology/approach

A field survey of roof tile damage by freezing was conducted in an old temple precinct in Kyoto, Japan. Using detailed observations and photographic recordings, the damage progress was clarified. To examine the impact of climatic conditions upon the damage characteristics, weather data and roof tile temperatures were measured and logged in the winter season.

Findings

The deterioration process was observed under the climatic conditions associated with the measured temperature of the roof tiles. In particular, it was revealed that the orientation has a significant influence on increasing or decreasing the risk of frost damage. For certain distinctive forms of damage, the deterioration mechanisms were estimated from the viewpoint of the moisture flow and temperature distribution in the tile.

Originality/value

This study contributes to the elucidation of the mechanism behind frost damage to roof tiles. The findings will guide the construction of a numerical model for frost damage prediction.

Details

Structural Survey, vol. 34 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0263-080X

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 27 July 2012

Ernest L. Molua

The purpose of this study is to establish household‐level food security risks associated with climate variation, and how households respond to these risks in a patriarchal…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this study is to establish household‐level food security risks associated with climate variation, and how households respond to these risks in a patriarchal society such as in Northern Cameroon where subsistence women producers have less control over resources required to support the food production sector which depends entirely on the quality of the rainy season.

Design/methodology/approach

Primary data from 116 female‐headed households (FHHs) and 184 male‐headed households (MHHs) is examined for the three Northern provinces of Cameroon. The survey generated information on the response and coping strategies to climatic variation; and the socioeconomic impacts of climate on households. The multinomial logit model is employed to establish the determinants of the choice selection for climate risk coping options by households.

Findings

Both FHHs and MHHs are exposed to stresses related to food production and availability, low incomes and food accessibility and utilization of food supplies, heightened by the real and perceived effects of the variability of current climate. Short‐term coping choices include diversification of livelihood which in turn impacts food accessibility and consumption choices.

Practical implications

A seasonal pattern is revealed in household expenditure with households spending more than 70 percent of their income on food in spring. The lowest food expenditures are in summer. Market and income manipulation choices for food supply stability include a range of non‐farm income generation strategies to cope with expected shortages induced by climatic variability. The current climate variation, household demography, and farming conditions via access to credit, tenure, and extension service delivery are significant determinants of coping choices for households perceiving change in climatic patterns.

Originality/value

Significant seasonal patterns in household food availability, accessibility and utilization are observed with important implications for both household welfare and as precursor to long‐term adaptation to climate change.

Details

International Journal of Climate Change Strategies and Management, vol. 4 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1756-8692

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 1 December 2007

Zbigniew Bromberek

The argument presented in this paper is based on distinctive and exploitable differences which merit putting eco-tourists, eco-resorts and the coastal tropics into…

Abstract

The argument presented in this paper is based on distinctive and exploitable differences which merit putting eco-tourists, eco-resorts and the coastal tropics into categories of their own. Such differences should inform planning and design process when working in this environment, which is both very sensitive and valuable. The paper aims to describe the main characteristics of the coastal tropics as a climate targeted by eco-tourism. Differences between eco-tourists and residents are presented through definition of comfort. Climatic and other factors influencing comfort limits are at the core of discussion, in which passive design is seen as the most appropriate response to challenges of the tropical coast setting. The design opportunities for the desirable climate modifications in eco-friendly resorts together with some passive design features are briefly presented. These architectural design solutions are set against theoretical principles specific to tropical coastal regions. The focus is on human responses to environmental factors, and on their implications. The paper concludes with a few recommendations aimed to deliver indoor conditions consistent with climatic preferences of itinerant environmentally conscious users of buildings in the coastal tropics. Such an approach is expected to minimize impacts the facility will make on the environment.

Details

Open House International, vol. 32 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0168-2601

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 9 September 2020

Crystal Drakes, Adrian Cashman, Eric Kemp-Benedict and Timothy Laing

The use of socio-economic scenarios in small island developing states (SIDS) when assessing, and planning for, the impacts of global changes on national socioeconomic and…

Abstract

Purpose

The use of socio-economic scenarios in small island developing states (SIDS) when assessing, and planning for, the impacts of global changes on national socioeconomic and environmental systems is still in its infancy. The research conducts a cross-scale foresight scenario exercise to produce regional scenarios and national storylines for Caribbean islands that are of “partial” consistency to the shared socioeconomic pathways (SSPs) and representative concentration pathways (RCPs) and shows how future socioeconomic and climatic changes can be applied to inform natural resource management decisions.

Design/methodology/approach

To develop the scenarios, the study uses a three-staged linking process using mixed methods to “triangulate” each technique to compensate for weaknesses of one method by introducing a complementary method at each stage. A participatory-expert stepwise approach with feedback loops is used and complemented with a climate sensitive tourism water demand model.

Findings

Four regional exploratory socio-economic scenarios were constructed that are partially consistent with global scenarios. In addition, national storylines for four island states were developed based on the regional scenarios. Using RCP 4.5 hotel water demand in Barbados is estimated under three of the regional scenarios based on compatibility. The results indicate there is a 17% difference between the highest and lowest estimated water demand, indicating the effect of varying socio-economic conditions on water demand.

Originality/value

The paper contributes to the literature by presenting regional socio-economic scenarios, specifically for SIDS, that are partially consistent with both global climatic RCPs and SSPs using a cross-scale approach. The scenarios are then used to demonstrate how future socio-economic pathways impact on freshwater demand.

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Article
Publication date: 29 June 2010

Jose Antonio Orosa, Armando C. Oliveira and Angel Martín Costa

Conditions monitoring system (CMS) is a tool for describing the present condition of the components of a system. To achieve this objective, there is a need to develop an…

Abstract

Purpose

Conditions monitoring system (CMS) is a tool for describing the present condition of the components of a system. To achieve this objective, there is a need to develop an efficient fault prediction algorithm. This paper seeks to address this issue.

Design/methodology/approach

The paper analyses four real wind farms with control charts of indices derived from UNE EN15341:2008 standard indicators, as the main CMS algorithm to define which index must be considered for improving wind farm maintenance and related costs.

Findings

The findings show that climatic conditions are related to maintenance cost indices. Employing the statistical control process of various wind energy converter (WEC) indices proposed by wind farm operators is an adequate procedure to monitor and control wind farm performance. In particular, only the maintenance cost index and the hourly maintenance cost index presented a clear relationship with respect to weather conditions.

Practical implications

Climatic conditions must form the basis for organising maintenance activities. Despite this, future maintenance models must be centred on indices obtained from experience, like the maintenance cost index and hourly maintenance cost index, and not solely in general indicators defined by standards.

Originality/value

A practical case study of wind farm maintenance based in the new UNE EN15341:2008 standard and wind farm operators experience is shown, defining real indices to be employed in future maintenance procedures.

Details

Industrial Management & Data Systems, vol. 110 no. 6
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0263-5577

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 1 March 1987

H. Junginger and W. Werner

Photographic films and glass plates are widely used as phototools for PCB production. In this two‐part paper photographic and physical characteristics of the products are…

Abstract

Photographic films and glass plates are widely used as phototools for PCB production. In this two‐part paper photographic and physical characteristics of the products are discussed as well as their differences and specific features. Terms such as contrast, density, speed, processing, etc. are explained and dimensional stability is discussed in depth. Suggestions are made for proper handling of the photographic materials.

Details

Circuit World, vol. 13 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0305-6120

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Article
Publication date: 20 February 2020

Kamal Pandey and Bhaskar Basu

The rapid urbanization of Indian cities and the population surge in cities has steered a massive demand for energy, thereby increasing the carbon emissions in the…

Abstract

Purpose

The rapid urbanization of Indian cities and the population surge in cities has steered a massive demand for energy, thereby increasing the carbon emissions in the environment. Information and technology advancements, aided by predictive tools, can optimize this energy demand and help reduce harmful carbon emissions. Out of the multiple factors governing the energy consumption and comfort of buildings, indoor room temperature is a critical one, as it envisages the need for regulating the temperature. This paper aims to propose a mathematical model for short-term forecasting of indoor room temperature in the Indian context to optimize energy consumption and reduce carbon emissions in the environment.

Design/methodology/approach

A study is conducted to forecast the indoor room temperature of an Indian corporate building structure, based upon various external environmental factors: temperature and rainfall and internal factors like cooling control, occupancy behavior and building characteristics. Expert insight and principal component analysis are applied for appropriate variables selection. The machine learning approach using Box–Jenkins time series models is used for the forecasting of indoor room temperature.

Findings

ARIMAX model, with lagged forecasted and explanatory variables, is found to be the best-fit model. A predictive short-term hourly temperature forecasting model is developed based upon ARIMAX model, which yields fairly accurate results for data set pertaining to the building conditions and climatic parameters in the Indian context. Results also investigate the relationships between the forecasted and individual explanatory variables, which are validated using theoretical proofs.

Research limitations/implications

The models considered in this research are Box–Jenkins models, which are linear time series models. There are non-linear models, such as artificial neural network models and deep learning models, which can be a part of this study. The study of hybrid models including combined forecasting techniques comprising linear and non-linear methods is another important area for future scope of study. As this study is based on a single corporate entity, the models developed need to be tested further for robustness and reliability.

Practical implications

Forecasting of indoor room temperature provides essential practical information about meeting the in-future energy demand, that is, how much energy resources would be needed to maintain the equilibrium between energy consumption and building comfort. In addition, this forecast provides information about the prospective peak usage of air-conditioning controls within the building indoor control management system through a feedback control loop. The resultant model developed can be adopted for smart buildings within Indian context.

Social implications

This study has been conducted in India, which has seen a rapid surge in population growth and urbanization. Being a developing country, India needs to channelize its energy needs judiciously by minimizing the energy wastage and reducing carbon emissions. This study proposes certain pre-emptive measures that help in minimizing the consumption of available energy resources as well as reducing carbon emissions that have significant impact on the society and environment at large.

Originality/value

A large number of factors affecting the indoor room temperature present a research challenge for model building. The paper statistically identifies the parameters influencing the indoor room temperature forecasting and their relationship with the forecasted model. Considering Indian climatic, geographical and building structure conditions, the paper presents a systematic mathematical model to forecast hourly indoor room temperature for next 120 h with fair degree of accuracy.

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Article
Publication date: 5 May 2020

Wafa Ghaffour, Mohammed Nabil Ouissi and Marc André Velay Dabat

The preservation of historic urban centres prevents anarchic development of the city and ensures a harmonious evolution of the urban form. It also improves the quality of…

Abstract

Purpose

The preservation of historic urban centres prevents anarchic development of the city and ensures a harmonious evolution of the urban form. It also improves the quality of life in the context of climate and environmental change. Morphological and geometric indicators of the urban fabric are key parameters in the formation of external microclimates. They provide a positive effect on the thermal comfort of pedestrians. The objective of this work is to study the impact of the site morphology on the external microclimate and to understand the relationship between the subjective perception and the objective quantification of the thermal environment. The result of this study has allowed us to propose solutions for the creation of a microclimate favourable to the appropriation of outdoor spaces. The authors finally propose guidelines for the design and rehabilitation of the historic site based on the establishment of links between the site's configuration, microclimatic conditions and users' perceptions.

Design/methodology/approach

Part of this study included the analysis of the microclimate of the historic “Bab El Hadid” district of the City of Tlemcen, by developing a questionnaire survey and a numerical simulation validated by measurements of the microclimate the authors made on site. To complete this task, the authors applied the Envi-met 4.1 model during the coldest month of the winter and the hottest month of the summer. Urban parameters are represented at different measurement points characterised by a variability of the sky view factor (SVF).

Findings

The results presented in terms of average expected the predicted mean vote (PMV) voting, solar access and air temperature. They show that thermal conditions are directly related to the SVF, the height/width ratio (H/L) of streets as well as the orientation of urban canyons. The points located in the streets facing North–South, present an acceptable performance. Streets shaded by trees with a canyon aspect ratio of between 1.18 and 1.70 reduce heat stress in outdoor spaces. The PMV models discussed provide information on the most appropriate locations for pedestrians. The authors have proposed urban orientations that could limit unfavourable conditions in outdoor spaces. They are useful for architects and urban planners in the design and rehabilitation of historic centres.

Originality/value

In Tlemcen, the microclimate is not taken into account in the design and rehabilitation of urban fabrics. For this specific purpose, the authors want to stress in the research the importance of safeguarding urban heritage through the renewal of the old city and the bioclimatic rehabilitation of its urban spaces.

Details

Smart and Sustainable Built Environment, vol. 10 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2046-6099

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 1 February 1999

ISSAKA NDEKUGRI and BARRY MCDONNELL

A new edition of the FIDIC Red Book is under discussion. It is an issue whether this edition should be based on the current edition or there should be a complete break…

Abstract

A new edition of the FIDIC Red Book is under discussion. It is an issue whether this edition should be based on the current edition or there should be a complete break with tradition in favour of a contract based on a new philosophy such as that of the NEC, which is reported to be used in many countries in circumstances in which the Red Book would otherwise have been used. This article compares the two contracts on the way they deal with site conditions issues. The comparison is on equity and clarity in risk allocation, adequacy of contractual procedures for dealing with unforeseeable conditions encountered, effectiveness of contractual machinery for dispute resolution, and compliance with reported new developments in successful contractual practices in underground construction. Studies highlighting the recurring frequency of claims for unforeseen ground conditions suggest a need for such particular attention to this aspect of construction. Although a desire for some equity in risk sharing is discernible in both contracts, there is room for improvement in the clarity of both contracts. Each contract has commendable features which are not present in the other. However, a better approach involves a combination of these features with full compliance of the reported modern developments in successful contracting practices.

Details

Engineering, Construction and Architectural Management, vol. 6 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0969-9988

Keywords

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