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Refugee crisis has been often seen as a matter owing its occurrence to political instability of different countries. The study on refugee crisis has very recently come up…
Refugee crisis has been often seen as a matter owing its occurrence to political instability of different countries. The study on refugee crisis has very recently come up with climate becoming a major factor in playing an advanced role in this alarming crisis. Climate change as a phenomenon has been a much debatable issue, but its direct relation to the refugee crisis has been noticed very recently. It has been noted that due to marked temperature changes and sea level rise many countries with large coastal outlines are facing risks of submergence and salinity. In this study the case of Bangladesh, which is slowly subsiding into the waters of the Bay of Bengal and facing severe consequences due to effects of climate change, is highlighted. This has well affected the coastal population of Bangladesh, who have been grouped under the category of what geographers term as climate refugees. Due to the inaction of state authorities, such population is forced to first migrate internally and then externally. The fragile border of Bangladesh and India thus pushes such refugees to the Indian subcontinent, which in turn creates socio-economic and political impact on India. This study argues that despite several legislative measures at international level, the refugee crisis is not dealt with seriously and concerns need to be adopted to give protection.
– The purpose of this paper is to show how typologies for environmentally induced population movement need to be understood in a contextualised manner in order to be useful.
The purpose of this paper is to show how typologies for environmentally induced population movement need to be understood in a contextualised manner in order to be useful.
This study interrogates some academic discourses concerning environmentally induced population movement. By analysing key environmental factors said to contribute to population movement, in addition to considering time factors, this study uses the case of Tuvalu to demonstrate overlapping categories and the importance of contextualisation.
Current typologies provide a basis for considering a wide variety of motives for environmentally induced population movement, in relation to different drivers, motivations, time scales, and space scales. Yet contextualisation is required for policy and practice relevance.
All typologies have limitations. Any typology should be taken as a possible tool to apply in a particular context, or to support decision making, rather than presenting a typology as universal or as an absolute without dispute.
Rather than disputes over typologies and definitions, bringing together different views without reconciling them, but recognising the merits and limitations of each, can provide a basis for assisting people making migration decisions.
None of the typologies currently available applies to all contexts of environmentally induced population movement – nor should any single typology necessarily achieve that. Instead, it is important to thrive on the differences and to contextualise a typology for use.
Development of effective disaster risk reduction (DRR) strategies for communities at risk of being affected by natural disasters is considered essential, especially in the…
Development of effective disaster risk reduction (DRR) strategies for communities at risk of being affected by natural disasters is considered essential, especially in the wake of devastating disaster events reported worldwide. As part of a wider research study investigating community perspectives on existing and potential strategies for enhancing resilience to natural disasters, community perspectives on infrastructure and structural protection requirements were investigated. The paper aims to discuss these issues.
Patuakhali region in South-Western Bangladesh is a region significantly at risk of multiple natural hazards. In order to engage local communities and obtain their perspectives, focus group discussions were held with local community leaders and policy makers of at-risk communities in Patuakhali region, South-Western Bangladesh.
Infrastructure and structural protection requirements highlighted included multi-purpose cyclone shelters, permanent embankments and improved transport infrastructure. Much of the discussions of focus group interviews were focused on cyclone shelters and embankments, suggesting their critical importance in reducing disaster risk and also dependence of coastal communities on those two measures.
The research design adopted sought to answer the research questions raised and also to inform local policy makers on community perspectives. Local policy makers involved in DRR initiatives in the region were informed of community perspectives and requirements, thus contributing to community engagement in implementing DRR activities.
It is imperative that microcredit organisations (MCOs) have a high level of awareness of the environmental context in which their clients pursue their livelihoods. This is…
It is imperative that microcredit organisations (MCOs) have a high level of awareness of the environmental context in which their clients pursue their livelihoods. This is particularly true for regions that experience regular environmental and economic shocks. However, to date this level of analysis has been largely absent from impact studies. The purpose of this paper is to overcome this lack of contextual analysis by using Bangladesh as a pertinent example.
Drawing on empirical data and a wide range of literature from a variety of disciplines, including geography, development studies, economics and anthropology, the paper aims to provide an in‐depth analysis of the dual impact of flooding and microcredits in Bangladesh.
Over the last few years the use of preventive mitigation and coping strategies has declined in Bangladesh. The most widely cited reason for this is financial constraints as a result of declining rural incomes despite a large presence of MCOs in the country. In order to overcome cash shortages many people have resorted to borrowing from a variety of sources, which has become effectively the single most important coping strategy employed. In conjunction with lowered debt capacity and restrictive terms under which microcredits are disbursed, higher indebtedness, creating a potential for poverty traps, is the outcome.
For MCOs to be able to claim that their work alleviates poverty they have to demonstrate sensitivity towards the needs of their clients. Yet, the added risks imposed by recurring environmental stressors have been markedly absent from their studies. This paper proposes that the environmental context not only is important but also draws attention to some of the negative consequences that it can have on livelihood sustainability.