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Article
Publication date: 1 March 1999

Clifton P. Campbell

Instructional materials enhance the teaching/learning process by exhibiting information necessary to acquire knowledge and skills. Focuses on printed forms of…

Abstract

Instructional materials enhance the teaching/learning process by exhibiting information necessary to acquire knowledge and skills. Focuses on printed forms of instructional materials and provides detailed information, including examples, on five types of job performance aids, three types of instruction sheets, and two types of modules. Checklists of considerations that affect the quality of finished products are also provided. Job performance aids (JPAs)provide procedural or factual guidance in the performance of tasks. They store essential details in a variety of functional forms for use just before or during task performance. Research shows that JPAs are a cost‐effective supplement or alternative to training. They reduce the time needed to master task performance and facilitate the transfer of learning from the training setting to the job. Instruction sheets assure that all trainees have the same complete and accurate information for performing practical work and for completing assignments. These sheets also help manage large groups of trainees with diverse abilities who are working simultaneously at several different tasks. Modules are carefully structured documents which facilitate self‐directed and self‐paced learning. While their components may vary, modules typically include learning objectives, an introduction, instructional content, directions, learning activities, and test questions with feedback answers. With modules, trainees assume personal responsibility for their progress. Regardless of the care used in their preparation, all types of instructional materials must be evaluated prior to general use. Presents a comprehensive quality control procedure for confirming effectiveness and value. This was prepared to enhance both formal classroom instruction and individual study. Figures, tables, checklists, appendices, and a glossary of keywords and terms, supplement the text in explaining the content.

Details

Journal of European Industrial Training, vol. 23 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0309-0590

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Article
Publication date: 1 February 1989

Clifton P. Campbell

Job analysis is the common basis for designing a training course orprogramme, preparing performance tests, writing position (job)descriptions, identifying performance…

Abstract

Job analysis is the common basis for designing a training course or programme, preparing performance tests, writing position (job) descriptions, identifying performance appraisal criteria, and job restructuring. Its other applications in human resource development include career counselling and wage and salary administration. Job analysis answers the questions of what tasks, performed in what manner, make up a job. Outputs of this analytical study include: (a) a list of the job tasks; (b) details of how each task is performed; (c) statements describing the responsibility, job knowledge, mental application, and dexterity, as well as accuracy required; and (d) a list of the equipment, materials, and supplies used to perform the job. Various techniques for conducting a job analysis have been used. Each has its advantages and disadvantages. As a result, different techniques or combinations of techniques are appropriate to different situations. The combined on‐site observation and individual interview techniques are recommended for industrial, trade, craft, clerical, and technical jobs because they generate the most thorough and probably the most valid information. A job analysis schedule is used to report the job information obtained through observations and individual interviews. The schedule provides a framework of 12 items in which to arrange and describe important job analysis information. These 12 items are organised into four sections. Section one consists of items one through four. These items identify the job within the establishment in which it occurs. The second section presents item five, the work performed. It provides a thorough and complete description of the tasks of the job. The Work Performed section describes what the job incumbent does, how it is done, and why it is done. Section three presents items six through nine. These are the requirements placed on the job incumbent for successful performance. It is a detailed interpretation of the basic minimum (a) responsibility, (b) job knowledge, (c) mental application, and (d) dexterity and accuracy required of the job incumbent. The fourth section includes three items which provide background information on the job. These items are: (a) equipment, materials and supplies; (b) definitions of terms; and (c) general comments. Appendix A is a glossary of terms associated with job analysis. It is provided to facilitate more exacting communication. A job analysis schedule for a complex and a relatively simple job are included in Appendices B and C. These examples illustrate how important job analysis information is arranged and described. Appendix D provides a list of action verbs which are helpful when describing the manipulative tasks of a job.

Details

Journal of European Industrial Training, vol. 13 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0309-0590

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Article
Publication date: 1 April 1989

Clifton P. Campbell and Gerald D. Cheek

After a course, do trainees transfer acquired behaviours and usethem back at work? Often the process is blocked for various reasons, andthis nullifies the effect of the…

Abstract

After a course, do trainees transfer acquired behaviours and use them back at work? Often the process is blocked for various reasons, and this nullifies the effect of the training. Useful guidelines are given. If utilised, much more training would be considerably more effective than is currently the case.

Details

Journal of European Industrial Training, vol. 13 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0309-0590

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Article
Publication date: 1 April 1988

Clifton P. Campbell and Richard B. Armstrong

Scoring procedures used during the measurement of task performance should be reliable and unbiased. Reliability means that evaluation of task performance will not vary…

Abstract

Scoring procedures used during the measurement of task performance should be reliable and unbiased. Reliability means that evaluation of task performance will not vary over time, and different examiners will evaluate the examinee the same way in any given testing situation. Unbiased scoring procedures ensure that evaluations are not influenced by inappropriate factors, such as the human tendency to be lenient or overly generous.

Details

Journal of European Industrial Training, vol. 12 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0309-0590

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Article
Publication date: 1 January 1988

Clifton P. Campbell and Richard B. Armstrong

Introduction Employers have often hired graduates of vocational training programmes based on their diplomas and certificates rather than on their capabilities. As a…

Abstract

Introduction Employers have often hired graduates of vocational training programmes based on their diplomas and certificates rather than on their capabilities. As a result, these employers do not frequently hold vocational education/training in the highest regard. Additionally, the profession itself is concerned about the discouraging outcomes of some vocational programmes. Employers, governing bodies and taxpayers are all insisting that vocational programmes become more accountable.

Details

Journal of European Industrial Training, vol. 12 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0309-0590

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Article
Publication date: 1 November 1997

Clifton P. Campbell

By supplying the skilled workers needed, occupational training plays a fundamental role in the maintenance of a healthy economy. Although planners are not accountable for…

Abstract

By supplying the skilled workers needed, occupational training plays a fundamental role in the maintenance of a healthy economy. Although planners are not accountable for ensuring a perfect fit between training offerings and employment opportunities, they should anticipate shortages and surpluses of skilled workers. Decision makers can then take corrective action to expand, improve, curtail, or discontinue existing training or add new offerings. In order to discern skilled worker shortages/surpluses, the labour market demand must be determined. Workforce projection and forecasting approaches and labour market signalling approaches are used to make these determinations. The strengths and weaknesses of each approach must be considered when selecting the ones to use. Discusses a number of viable approaches and lists their strengths and weaknesses in tables to facilitate comparisons. Also includes supplemental instruments as examples and to provide guidance in determining workforce requirements. An appendix defines the terminology used.

Details

Journal of European Industrial Training, vol. 21 no. 8
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0309-0590

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Article
Publication date: 1 March 2000

Clifton P. Campbell

Developing instructional materials is a formidable task. Expertise, motivation, time and special equipment are all necessary to prepare quality items. Furthermore, very…

Abstract

Developing instructional materials is a formidable task. Expertise, motivation, time and special equipment are all necessary to prepare quality items. Furthermore, very few things in training are completely new and, if even a part of existing materials is appropriate for accomplishing training needs, it should be seriously considered. This article develops and explains a procedure for identifying, locating, gathering, examining and adapting instructional materials. It concludes with the importance of, and a methodology for, trying out and revising the materials. If this evaluation procedure is omitted, because of time or other resource constraints, there is a risk that instructional materials will not facilitate attainment of the learning objectives. When this happens, the entire adaptation effort will have been in vain.

Details

Education + Training, vol. 42 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0040-0912

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Article
Publication date: 1 December 1994

Clifton P. Campbell

Increasingly, training professionals are being asked to justify whethertraining is a worthwhile investment. Discusses the need to justifytraining expenditures with…

Abstract

Increasingly, training professionals are being asked to justify whether training is a worthwhile investment. Discusses the need to justify training expenditures with documented benefits. Provides details, along with examples, on how to calculate the direct, indirect, and full costs of a training course or programme. Also describes the feasibility of linking training outcomes to organizational improvements and the selection of training outcomes (benefits) to be measured and quantified.

Details

Industrial and Commercial Training, vol. 26 no. 11
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0019-7858

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Article
Publication date: 1 April 1985

Clifton P. Campbell

Today, more than ever, training programmes are being held accountable for providing the “work‐ready” graduates that employers want. Yet, after years of research and…

Abstract

Today, more than ever, training programmes are being held accountable for providing the “work‐ready” graduates that employers want. Yet, after years of research and debate, there is still no consensus on the best course of action for achieving programme accountability. However, many see cause for optimism in an Instructional Systems Methodology for planning, developing, implementing and evaluating training programmes. This competency (performance)‐based systems approach ensures that trainees are taught the knowledge and skills essential for successful job performance.

Details

Journal of European Industrial Training, vol. 9 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0309-0590

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Article
Publication date: 1 February 1995

Clifton P. Campbell

Increasingly, training professionals are being asked to justifywhether training is a worthwhile investment. Following on from part one,describes four practical methods for…

Abstract

Increasingly, training professionals are being asked to justify whether training is a worthwhile investment. Following on from part one, describes four practical methods for determining the cost‐effectiveness of training. Presents details and examples on how to use each method. Also identifies the advantages and disadvantages of each method. Ends with a skill check which provides an opportunity to apply the content covered.

Details

Industrial and Commercial Training, vol. 27 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0019-7858

Keywords

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