Over the past eight years, the MELVYL catalog has become one of the largest public access catalogs in the world, and now plays a central role in providing access to the…
Over the past eight years, the MELVYL catalog has become one of the largest public access catalogs in the world, and now plays a central role in providing access to the library resources of the University of California. Currently, under heavy load, the MELVYL catalog supports many hundreds of simultaneous terminal connections, servicing over a quarter of a million queries a week and displaying more than two million records a week to its user community. This article discusses the history of the network that has supported the MELVYL catalog from the early days of its prototype to the present. It also describes both the current technical and policy issues that must be addressed as the network moves into the 1990s, and the roles that the network is coming to play in integrating local automation, the union catalog, access to resource databases, and other initiatives. Sidebars discuss the TCP/IP protocol suite, internet protocol gateways, and Telenet and related inter‐operability problems.
The purpose of this paper is to look back on the last 30 years of technology development for libraries.
The paper presents an interview that took place at the American Library Association Annual Meeting in Anaheim, California.
The paper reveals that many of the developments are slow. There are very few really sudden revolutions in social‐scale technologies. They do not switch on quickly and cannot be sudden because the installed base is too thin.
The paper reveals that there should be some renewed conversation about how libraries can help the public. In the early days of the internet libraries played an enormous uncredited role in teaching the adult population about the internet. There are some opportunities like that now, and one place where we are starting to see signs of it is digital preservation, not as libraries doing it for the cultural record, but helping individuals to do it for their own content.
The nature of information retrieval applications, the Z39.50 protocol, and its relationship to other OSI protocols are described. Through Z39.50 a client system views a remote server's database as an information resource, not merely a collection of data. Z39.50 allows a client to build queries in terms of logical information elements supported by the server. It also provides a framework for transmitting queries, managing results, and controlling resources. Sidebars describe the Z39.50 Implementors Group, the Z39.50 Maintenance Agency, and international standards for OSI library application protocols.
This issue of Library Hi Tech contains a series of articles about the TULIP materials science journal access project, an unprecedented cooperative undertaking involving Elsevier Science Publishing and a number of major universities in the United States.
This article reviews the present and expected future environments for network‐based electronic publishing and network access to bibliographic and journal databases…
This article reviews the present and expected future environments for network‐based electronic publishing and network access to bibliographic and journal databases. Emerging visions of “electronic libraries” are considered. The difficulties inherent in the development of full text and images as networked information are outlined. The growth and diversification of library collections in electronic form and the requisite network access systems are discussed, as are the prospect of increased resource sharing among libraries and the subsequent explosion of document delivery requests (and costs!). The issues of storage and format of electronic publishing are developed, and perspectives on electronic publishing are presented for all those involved: the author, the library, the reader, and the publisher. A change in the scope, and thereby in the definition, of the library is anticipated.
Outlines the traditional issues surrounding authentication and authorization before charting the changing nature of the requirements for these services, as a fully…
Outlines the traditional issues surrounding authentication and authorization before charting the changing nature of the requirements for these services, as a fully networked information environment becomes a reality. Highlights some of the technical, organizational and policy issues which need to be addressed to create appropriate standards and infrastructure.
In September 1990, the U.S. Department of Education's Library Technology and Cooperation Grants Program awarded a three‐year grant to the Florida Center for Library Automation (FCLA), an agency of the Florida State University System, to develop software adhering to the ANSI Z39.50 Information Retrieval protocol standard. The Z39.50 software was to operate over the Open Systems Interconnect (OSI) communications protocols and be integrated with FCLA's NOTIS system, which is shared by all nine state universities in Florida. In order to test the correctness of its Z39.50 software, FCLA sought out other library software developers who would be willing to develop Z39.50 systems of their own. As part of this process, FCLA helped to found the Z39.50 Implementors' Group (ZIG), which has since gone on to improve the standard and promote Z39.50 implementations throughout much of the North American library systems marketplace. Early on in the project, it became apparent that TCP/IP would be a more heavily used communications vehicle for Z39.50 messages than OSI. FCLA expanded its design to include TCP/IP and, by the end of the grant in September 1993, will have a working Z39.50 system that can communicate over both OSI and TCP/IP networks.
Historically, library catalogs have been rather insular, often based on specialized hardware and/or operating systems lacking industry‐standard networking capabilities…
Historically, library catalogs have been rather insular, often based on specialized hardware and/or operating systems lacking industry‐standard networking capabilities. Network access was not a major consideration in the design or selection of these specialized systems. But when library automation systems are attached to the network as an afterthought, they often display unsatisfactory functional characteristics; libraries now face the realities of the wired campus environment and the collision between library automation tradition and the new world of networks.
The need for effective directories of networked information resources becomes more critical as these resources—online library catalogs, file archives, online journal…
The need for effective directories of networked information resources becomes more critical as these resources—online library catalogs, file archives, online journal article repositories, and information servers—proliferate, and as demand grows for intelligent tools to navigate and use such information resources. The existing approaches are based primarily on print‐oriented directories, but print‐oriented directories will not scale to support the future services that will help network users navigate tens of thousands of resources. The paper first explores the “user” perspective in various usage scenarios for employing a database of descriptive information to navigate or access networked information resources. It then considers specific data elements that will be required in a description of these networked information resources. Classification of networked information resources will ultimately rely on large‐scale prototypes, coupled with a new generation of advanced information‐seeking tools, and within the reality of economics.
When the initial library networks were established in the United States, they provided affordable, online automation services that were available from virtually no other…
When the initial library networks were established in the United States, they provided affordable, online automation services that were available from virtually no other source. The surge of automation experienced by American libraries for the past two decades has altered the historical relationships that characterize library cooperation. Local networks are being created and machine‐readable products previously available only from the networks are now being packaged on optical media and distributed to individual institutions. With these technological advances, the need for, services offered by, and financial viability of the networks have begun to undergo dramatic change. This is also a time of great opportunity for libraries and networks. There is on the horizon what may be the infrastructure for a national information network. The realization of this network will require close cooperation of librarians, who have embraced the Open Systems Interconnection (OSI) Reference Model for networking, and members of the academic and research community, which is still relying heavily on the Transmission Control Protocol/Internet Protocols (TCP/IP) for communications purposes.