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Article
Publication date: 15 February 2021

Ningning Feng, Airong Zhang, Rieks D. van Klinken and Lijuan Cui

The purpose of this paper is to develop an integrative model where perceived competence, perceived warmth and “clean green image” of an exporting country are drivers for…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to develop an integrative model where perceived competence, perceived warmth and “clean green image” of an exporting country are drivers for Chinese consumers' trust in food quality and food safety, which in turn predict their willingness to buy fresh fruit from this country.

Design/methodology/approach

Participants (N = 1,583) from the three metropolises in China were surveyed on their perceptions of the competence, warmth and clean green image of seven contrasting exporting countries and their trust in quality, trust in safety and willingness to buy fresh fruit imported from those countries.

Findings

Results support the proposed integrative model, explaining 39%–55% of the variance in willingness to buy. Clean green image was the strongest predictor of willingness to buy through enhanced trust in food quality. The effects of country competence and warmth on willingness to buy through trust in food safety and quality varied with exporting country.

Research limitations/implications

The integrative model and findings of this study can help agri-food industries develop an in-depth understanding of Chinese consumers and to develop targeted strategies to increase willingness to buy through improving consumer trust in food quality and safety.

Originality/value

This study extends the country image framework which previously only consisted of human characteristics (i.e. perceived competence and warmth) by incorporating environmental characteristics (i.e. clean green image) in examining consumers' willingness to buy imported fresh fruit.

Details

British Food Journal, vol. 123 no. 6
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0007-070X

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 12 April 2022

Felix Septianto, Arnold Japutra, Billy Sung and Yuri Seo

This research draws upon construal level theory to investigate how brands can develop effective international marketing strategies using country image versus product image

Abstract

Purpose

This research draws upon construal level theory to investigate how brands can develop effective international marketing strategies using country image versus product image across international markets with different cultural distances between them.

Design/methodology/approach

The paper reports two preliminary studies and three experimental studies in the context of Australian brands using a “clean and greenimage. The preliminary studies explore how product versus country image and cultural similarity are related to construal levels. Then, Study 1 examines consumers from different countries as a proxy of cultural distance, whereas Studies 2 and 3 manipulate levels of cultural distance to test the effects on consumers. Moreover, Study 3 also uses a behavioral outcome as the focal dependent variable and tests the underlying mechanism.

Findings

The results demonstrate a significant interaction effect between country-of-origin positioning and cultural distance, such that an Australian brand emphasizing the country (vs product) image gains more favorable responses among consumers with high levels of cultural distance. Conversely, an Australian brand emphasizing the product (vs country) image gains more favorable responses among consumers with low levels of cultural distance. Further, this research identifies perceived brand cultural authenticity as the underlying process driving the interaction effect.

Originality/value

The findings of this research contribute to the literature on international marketing in general and the country-of-origin literature in particular by examining country-of-origin positioning and cultural distance from the construal level perspective. The research also provides managerial implications on how to promote products in the international market across different cultural distances.

Details

International Marketing Review, vol. 39 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0265-1335

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 9 August 2011

Andrea Insch

The purpose of this paper is to extend the concept of green brands to destinations and to examine the application and limitations of green destination brands for nations…

4151

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to extend the concept of green brands to destinations and to examine the application and limitations of green destination brands for nations adopting this positioning strategy.

Design/methodology/approach

The paper identifies characteristics of green destination brands, drawing on established concepts in corporate branding, destination branding and green marketing. The paper demonstrates the application and limitations of the concept through an in‐depth case study analysis of New Zealand's destination brand to explain the possibilities and problems of building green destination brands at a national level.

Findings

The findings suggest that a holistic, strategic approach to building a green destination brand which emphasizes and qualifies the green essence of a nation's brand is required to avoid the pitfalls, cynicism and criticisms of greenwashing.

Research limitations/implications

The research findings are embedded in the context studied – New Zealand's destination brand. Additional case studies at multiple levels – nations, regions, cities – would offer a rich database to gain a better understanding of the concept and the implications of green destination branding.

Practical implications

Barriers to executing a credible green destination brand position are identified and the implications for destination marketing organizations and their stakeholders are discussed.

Originality/value

A conceptualization of green destination brands is provided and the application and limitations of the concept are demonstrated through an in‐depth case study of a nation that has adopted this positioning strategy. Rather than taking a snapshot research approach, a historical perspective enabled the development of the destination's brand positioning strategy to be captured.

Details

International Journal of Culture, Tourism and Hospitality Research, vol. 5 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1750-6182

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 4 February 2014

Niki Hynes, Barbara Caemmerer, Emeline Martin and Eliot Masters

The purpose of this paper is to examine the use of a positive country image (CI) by companies. First, it examines how organisations embed dimensions of a positive country…

1406

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to examine the use of a positive country image (CI) by companies. First, it examines how organisations embed dimensions of a positive country image into their external marketing communications. Second, it examines the alignment between the countries’ image dimensions and those of the company and how company values and actions could act to either use, abuse and detract from an established CI.

Design/methodology/approach

A two-part methodology was adopted. Two countries with strong positive CIs were chosen for comparison purposes. Content analysis of web sites, together with interviews with company representatives, were undertaken.

Findings

The use of the CI/country-of-origin framework is extended from an extrinsic “made in” cue for consumers, to being part of the value offering of a particular product or service from an organisational perspective is extended. Evidence is structured into a framework of companies which use and/or contribute to the CI.

Research limitations/implications

The two chosen countries both have positive CIs: future research should examine this relationship in countries with different images. The sample size is relatively small and future research should determine the generalisability of the proposed typology.

Practical implications

Generating, communicating and maintaining a CI requires co-ordinated efforts from policy makers but needs to be built on solid foundations of reality: companies using CIs should be cognisant of the alignment between their actions, messages and the CI.

Originality/value

This study extends prior work by examining the relationship between CI, company strategy, products and services offered and the manner in which companies action's can affect CI.

Details

International Marketing Review, vol. 31 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0265-1335

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 22 September 2021

Amna Farrukh, Sanjay Mathrani and Aymen Sajjad

Despite differing strategies towards environmental sustainability in developed and developing nations, the manufacturing sector in these regional domains faces substantial…

Abstract

Purpose

Despite differing strategies towards environmental sustainability in developed and developing nations, the manufacturing sector in these regional domains faces substantial environmental issues. The purpose of this study is to examine the green-lean-six sigma (GLSS) enablers and outcomes for enhancing environmental sustainability of manufacturing firms in both, a developed and developing country context by using an environment-centric natural resource-based view (NRBV).

Design/methodology/approach

First, a framework of GLSS enablers and outcomes aligned with the NRBV strategic capabilities is proposed through a systematic literature review. Second, this framework is used to empirically investigate the GLSS enablers and outcomes of manufacturing firms through in-depth interviews with lean six sigma and environmental consultants from New Zealand (NZ) and Pakistan (PK) (developed and developing nations).

Findings

Analysis from both regional domains highlights the use of GLSS enablers and outcomes under different NRBV capabilities of pollution prevention, product stewardship and sustainable development. A comparison reveals that NZ firms practice GLSS to comply with environmental regulatory requirements, avoid penalties and maintain their clean-green image. Conversely, Pakistani firms execute GLSS to reduce energy use, satisfy international customers and create a green image.

Practical implications

This paper provides new insights on GLSS for environmental sustainability which can assist industrial experts and academia for future strategies and research.

Originality/value

This is one of the early comparative studies that has used the NRBV to investigate GLSS enablers and outcomes in manufacturing firms for enhancing environmental performance comparing developed and developing nations

Details

International Journal of Lean Six Sigma, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2040-4166

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 11 May 2010

Jodyanne Kirkwood and Sara Walton

Ecopreneurs are those entrepreneurs who start for‐profit businesses with strong underlying green values and who sell green products or services. This is an emerging field…

7703

Abstract

Purpose

Ecopreneurs are those entrepreneurs who start for‐profit businesses with strong underlying green values and who sell green products or services. This is an emerging field where research is still in its infancy. Research has been called for to understand the factors that motivate these ecopreneurs to start businesses – and that is the focus of this study. The aim of this paper is to compare the findings with results of extant literature on entrepreneurial motivations.

Design/methodology/approach

This study comprises 14 in‐depth case studies of ecopreneurial companies in New Zealand in 2008. Participants were interviewed in a face‐to‐face, semi‐structured format. In total, 88 secondary sources such as media reports, industry statistics, and information from company web sites were also collected.

Findings

Ecopreneurs were motivated by five factors: their green values; earning a living; passion; being their own boss; and seeing a gap in the market. Ecopreneurs appear to have quite similar motivations to entrepreneurs in general, aside from their green motivations. They had lower level financial motivations than have been found in prior research on entrepreneurs. The ecopreneurs were primarily pulled into entrepreneurship, which bodes well for their ongoing success. The paper presents a number of contributions to both the ecopreneurship and entrepreneurship literatures.

Research limitations/implications

The small sample is a potential limitation and the country context may also influence the findings.

Originality/value

This is one of the largest samples of ecopreneurs to date. Given the emerging nature of the field of ecopreneurship, this study's conclusions require further research and testing. A total of 11 such suggestions for future research are made.

Details

International Journal of Entrepreneurial Behavior & Research, vol. 16 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1355-2554

Keywords

Book part
Publication date: 31 December 2010

Douglas G. Pearce and Christian Schott

While the need to respond to the wide-ranging challenges posed by climate change has been widely emphasized, there is still a relative lack of attention being given to the…

Abstract

While the need to respond to the wide-ranging challenges posed by climate change has been widely emphasized, there is still a relative lack of attention being given to the type, scale, and nature of responses that are taking place in different economic sectors and parts of the world. This chapter provides a review of the tourism-related responses to the implications of climate change in the context of New Zealand. This is a country where tourism is a very important sector of the economy that depends heavily on the credibility of its green and unspoilt destination image. However, due to its relative isolation in the South Pacific, New Zealand requires most international tourists to travel long distances, which results in considerable greenhouse gas emissions. The chapter outlines the private and public sectors' responses to these challenges with particular attention to their collaboration.

Details

Tourism and the Implications of Climate Change: Issues and Actions
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-0-85724-620-2

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 16 August 2013

Rachel Dodds, Sonya Graci, Soyoung Ko and Lindsay Walker

While global wine consumption is growing, environmental sustainability in the wine industry is also receiving increased attention from retailers, governments…

2730

Abstract

Purpose

While global wine consumption is growing, environmental sustainability in the wine industry is also receiving increased attention from retailers, governments, environmental groups, and consumers. New Zealand has experienced a winery boom over the past two decades with a 173 per cent increase in the number of wineries. Along with this growth, wineries are also facing issues such as water consumption, its impact on community, and waste management. The study therefore seeks to examine: the current sustainability initiatives undertaken by wineries; what drives the wine industry to engage in sustainable practices; and barriers to implementing sustainable practices.

Design/methodology/approach

Using a mixed method research approach, this study uses a triangulated approach to examine interviews and questionnaires to determine motivations and elements of influence.

Findings

This study found that the strong drivers for the sustainability initiatives are their concern about the state of the environment and social responsibility, followed by requirements for exporting and protection of agricultural land.

Research limitations/implications

A limitation of this study was a low response rate from the online questionnaire, which may influence or bias study results. However, detailed face‐to‐face interviews help to gain clarification on concepts and study results.

Practical implications

While global wine consumption is growing, environmental sustainability in the wine industry is also receiving increasing attention from retailers, governments, environmental groups and consumers. New Zealand has experienced a winery boom over the past two decades with a 173 per cent increase in the number of wineries. Along with this growth, wineries are also facing issues such as water consumption, its impact on community, and waste management.

Originality/value

Although there are many studies about the wine industry, relatively few studies have examined sustainability elements from a mixed‐method approach to determine practical elements which may influence practices undertaken. It also examines practices undertaken by wineries, barriers to implementation and incentives to further implementation.

Details

International Journal of Wine Business Research, vol. 25 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1751-1062

Keywords

Open Access
Article
Publication date: 16 March 2015

Ian Yeoman, Marcela Palomino-Schalscha and Una McMahon-Beattie

The world is changing and key change agents include climate change and scarcity of resources. The purpose of this paper is to address how New Zealand and tourism could…

4778

Abstract

Purpose

The world is changing and key change agents include climate change and scarcity of resources. The purpose of this paper is to address how New Zealand and tourism could address the future and generate appropriate strategic responses.

Design/methodology/approach

Using the process of scenario analysis and drawing upon recent research from the www.tourism2050.com project, this paper describes the circumstances, drivers, economic consequences and key decisions that New Zealand would have to take in order to position itself as an eco paradise. The background to the scenario presumes overarching behaviours in a cooperative world in which resources are scarce.

Findings

The scenario portrays a future of collective individualism, where a high degree of personal freedom exists but within the constraints of a world in which there is a scarcity of resources. A communitarian ethos drives policy making with an emphasis on efficient resource use and waste minimisation. New Zealand is a nation favoured by climate change. Environmental intellectual property is one of the nation's key resources and in the spirit of achieving a global environmental equilibrium these technologies are shared with the rest of the world. Life is simple. Competitive individualism is equated with excess and resource waste, while cooperation, harmony, and the continuation of a global cooperative psyche are seen as the foundation stones of the continued, relatively comfortable survival of humanity. Tourism is a luxury and activities are environmentally ethical. Visitors are well‐off, purposeful, highly respectful and careful to prove their worth.

Originality/value

Eco paradise represents the classic tale of a prisoner's dilemma in which decision makers and consumers ponder the betterment of humankind against individualism. The scenario concludes with a strategic map of the core decisions New Zealand's tourism industry would have to take. The significance of the paper is its portrayal of a possible future to industry leaders, researchers and stakeholders thereby facilitating decision making in order to adapt to this future.

Details

Journal of Tourism Futures, vol. 1 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2055-5911

Keywords

Case study
Publication date: 22 May 2021

Ashutosh Dash

The learning outcomes of this paper is as follows: to review the basic differences between the two evolving bonds, i.e. green vs masala bonds in the Indian capital market;…

Abstract

Learning outcomes

The learning outcomes of this paper is as follows: to review the basic differences between the two evolving bonds, i.e. green vs masala bonds in the Indian capital market; to comprehend the factors that need to be considered in deciding the type of bond to be issued; to assess complexities, such as process, timing, risk and location in relation to the issue of the green bonds; and to understanding the rudiments of bond economics, such as pricing, all-in-cost and yield-to-maturity of bonds and make a comparison of all-in-cost of the Reg-S bond and green bond to Indian Railway Finance Corporation (IRFC).

Case overview/synopsis

In September 2017, IRFC, a public sector undertaking registered as a Non-Banking Finance Company with Reserve Bank of India under the administrative control of the Ministry of Railways, was planning to raise US$500m 10-year green bonds from investors in Asia, Europe and the Middle East. The green bond proceeds were proposed to be used for low carbon transport and in this way, contribute significantly to the green initiatives of the Indian Railways. Many companies in India had issued regular bonds without labeling them as green but had used the proceeds of the bond for climate-aligned assets. Therefore, a bigger challenge before the IRFC management was the economics of green bond for getting a nod from the Board of Governors to go ahead. Some preliminary estimates on cost of green bonds were received from few bankers but to see that the terms of green bonds are met eventually, the Director (Finance) developed his own estimate of the cost of the new bonds. The Managing Director and Director (Finance) of IRFC were trying to figure out the economic advantage of green bonds besides its social benefits.

Complexity academic level

MBA Programme Executive Training.

Supplementary materials

Teaching notes are available for educators only.

Subject code

CSS 1: Accounting and Finance.

Details

Emerald Emerging Markets Case Studies, vol. 11 no. 1
Type: Case Study
ISSN: 2732-4443

Keywords

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