Search results

1 – 10 of over 19000
To view the access options for this content please click here
Book part
Publication date: 28 June 2013

Soo-Young Hong, Julia Torquati and Victoria J. Molfese

The importance of early and developmentally appropriate science education is increasingly recognized. Consequently, creation of common guidelines and standards in early…

Abstract

The importance of early and developmentally appropriate science education is increasingly recognized. Consequently, creation of common guidelines and standards in early childhood science education has begun (National Research Council (NRC), 2012), and researchers, practitioners, and policy makers have shown great interest in aligning professional development with the new guidelines and standards. There are some important issues that need to be addressed in order to successfully implement guidelines and make progress toward accomplishing standards. Early childhood teachers have expressed a lack of confidence in teaching science and nature (Torquati, Cutler, Gilkerson, & Sarver, in press) and have limited science and pedagogical content knowledge (PCK) (Appleton, 2008). These are critical issues because teachers’ subject-matter knowledge is a robust predictor of student learning outcomes (Enfield & Rogers, 2009; Kennedy, 1998; Wilson, Floden, & Ferrini-Mundy, 2002) and is seen as a critical step toward improving K-12 student achievement (National Commission on Mathematics and Science Teaching for the 21st Century (NCMST), 2000; NRC, 2000). We argue that the same is true of preschool teachers.

This chapter discusses: (a) theories and practices in early childhood science education (i.e., preschool through 3rd grade) in relation to teaching for conceptual change, (b) research on methods of professional development in early childhood science education, and (c) innovative approaches to integrating scientific practices, crosscutting concepts, and disciplinary core ideas with early childhood professional development.

Details

Learning Across the Early Childhood Curriculum
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78190-700-9

Keywords

To view the access options for this content please click here
Article
Publication date: 4 January 2013

Subadrah Madhawa Nair, Abdul Rashid Mohamed and Nagamah Marimuthu

The purpose of this paper is to investigate the practice of teacher trainees on science and the relevance of science education. The study focuses on teacher trainees'…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to investigate the practice of teacher trainees on science and the relevance of science education. The study focuses on teacher trainees' practice on science teaching and its relevance to understanding science education.

Design/methodology/approach

The study employed a survey method using questionnaires. The samples consist of 80 teacher trainees, majoring in Science Education, from a teachers training institute in Malaysia. The teacher trainees were asked to complete a set of questionnaires on the relevance of their content knowledge of science to Science Education, application of student's home culture in classroom science and in infusing moral education in classroom lessons. The data obtained from the questionnaires were analyzed using descriptive statistical and inferential statistical (independent samples t‐test).

Findings

The results showed that the female trainees' practice of science and the relevance of science education is significantly higher than that of their male counterparts. Besides that, the findings indicate that there is no significant difference between the male and female trainees on their practices of students' home culture applied in classroom science and applying moral education in teaching science. The findings also indicated there is a need to bring in students' home culture into the teaching and learning of science.

Practical implications

Findings of this paper suggest one approach that could be adopted to make science education more relevant to the students understanding is by incorporating teaching strategies that are designed to promote content learning through a cultural relevant curriculum. This will make schools a better place to inculcate environmental concerns for a sustainable future.

Originality/value

This paper highlights the need to educate trainee teachers (male and female) and bring them closer to gain cooperation and commitment to achieve sustainability. The paper also proposes the need to bring in students' home culture, priorities and concern into the teaching and learning of science.

Details

International Journal of Sustainability in Higher Education, vol. 14 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1467-6370

Keywords

To view the access options for this content please click here
Article
Publication date: 4 June 2018

Roslinawati Roslan, Siti Munawirah Panjang, Norashikin Yusof and Masitah Shahrill

The purpose of this study is to analyze the use of feedback to students by a primary teacher teaching the science topic “Life Cycle” in a Year 5 bilingual Bruneian science

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this study is to analyze the use of feedback to students by a primary teacher teaching the science topic “Life Cycle” in a Year 5 bilingual Bruneian science classroom.

Design/methodology/approach

This study used a discourse analysis of one primary science teacher’s use of feedback to his students when teaching the topic “Life Cycle.” The participant was a male primary science teacher who taught a Year 5 science class in one of the government schools in the Brunei-Muara district. Direct observations and video recordings of the teacher’s three consecutive lessons on the topic “Life Cycle” were collected. The transcripts were developed from the teacher–student interactions in the three lessons. The “Questioning-based Discourse” approach (Chin, 2006) was used to analyze the different types of feedback, and the students’ cognitive processes that emerged from the lesson transcripts. The frequencies of the feedback and students’ cognitive processes were calculated using percentages.

Findings

The findings from the three lesson observations indicate that the teacher’s feedback showed a range of strategies which consisted mostly of accepting students’ answers and feedback to elicit, to focus, to probe, to clarify and to extend, respectively. The findings also reveal that the cognitive processes of the students ranged from recalling, predicting, hypothesizing, evaluating and explaining. The analysis shows that the teacher only practiced low-level questioning and the feedback given to the students was mostly for accepting the students’ answers rather than challenging students’ ideas.

Practical implications

The findings reported in this study provide useful insights into the importance of teacher–student interactions in the teaching and learning of science. The “Questioning-based Discourse” analytical framework is worthwhile to analyze the science teacher’s talk and consequently to improve teachers” skills in giving feedback that fosters productive students’ responses.

Originality/value

This paper highlights the need for science teachers to analyze their classroom talk and it recommends how to give useful feedback to students to promote higher cognitive processes amongst students. Brunei has been described as a country where there is a linguistic divide determined by the quality of the school that a student attends (Deterding and Salbrina, 2013). Improving the quality of interaction between teacher and students in such circumstances is essential.

Details

On the Horizon, vol. 26 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1074-8121

Keywords

To view the access options for this content please click here
Book part
Publication date: 26 August 2019

H. Emily Hayden

Purpose – This chapter explores the work of one expert seventh-grade science teacher, Ann, as she used the gradual release of responsibility (GRR) to develop students…

Abstract

Purpose – This chapter explores the work of one expert seventh-grade science teacher, Ann, as she used the gradual release of responsibility (GRR) to develop students’ knowledge and use of science language and conceptual knowledge. Ann’s use of scaffolds such as thoughtful definition, classroom discussion, and writing frameworks is explored, as well as her methods of incorporating language into science inquiry, and the evidence she gathered as proof of learning. Her instructional decision-making and specific instructional actions are analyzed to describe the ways she gradually guided students from heavily scaffolded learning opportunities, through guided practice with extensive modeling, and ultimately to independent and accurate use of science language and conceptual knowledge in spoken and written discourse.

Design/methodology/approach – In a researcher/teacher partnership modeled on the practice embedded educational research (PEER) framework (Snow, 2015) the author worked with Ann over four school years, collecting data that included interviews, Ann’s teaching journal, student artifacts, and vocabulary pre/post-assessments. The initial task of the partnership was review of science standards and curricular documents and analysis of disciplinary language in seventh-grade science in order to construct a classroom science vocabulary assessment that incorporated a scaffolded format to build incremental knowledge of science words. Results of 126 students’ pre/post scores on the vocabulary assessment were analyzed using quantitative methods, and interviews and the teaching journal were analyzed using qualitative techniques. Student artifacts support and triangulate the quantitative and qualitative analyses.

Findings – Analysis of students’ pre/post-scores on the vocabulary assessment supported the incremental nature of vocabulary learning and the value of a scaffolded assessment. Improvement in ability to choose a one-word definition and choose a sentence-length definition had significant and positive effect on students’ ability to write a sentence using a focus science word correctly to demonstrate science conceptual knowledge. Female students performed just as well as male students: a finding that differs from other vocabulary intervention research. Additionally, Ann’s use of scaffolded, collaborative methods during classroom discussion and writing led to improved student knowledge of science language and the concepts it labels, as evident in students’ responses during discussion and their writing in science inquiry reports and science journals.

Research limitations – These data were collected from students in one science teacher’s classroom, limiting generalization. However, the expertise of this teacher renders her judgments useful to other teachers and teacher trainers, despite the limited context of this research.

Practical implicationsScience knowledge is enhanced when language and science inquiry coexist, but the language of science often presents a barrier to learning science, and there are significant student achievement gaps in science learning across race, ethnicity, and gender. Researchers have described ways to make explicit connections between science language, concepts, and knowledge, transcending the gaps and leveling the playing field for all students. Analysis of Ann’s teaching practice, drawn from four years of teacher and student data, provides specific and practical ways of doing this in a real science classroom. Scaffolding, modeling, and co-construction of learning are key.

Originality/value of paper – This chapter details the methods one expert teacher used to make her own learning the object of inquiry, simultaneously developing the insights and the strategies she needed to mentor students. It describes how Ann infused the GRR into planning and instruction to create learning experiences that insured student success, even if only at incremental levels. Ann’s methods can thus become a model for other teachers who wish to enhance their students’ learning of science language and concepts through infusion of literacy activity.

Details

The Gradual Release of Responsibility in Literacy Research and Practice
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78769-447-7

Keywords

To view the access options for this content please click here
Book part
Publication date: 17 December 2003

Sandra K Abell and Katherine S Cennamo

This chapter details our story of developing and using a series of videocases in elementary science teacher preparation. The Reflecting on Elementary Science videocases…

Abstract

This chapter details our story of developing and using a series of videocases in elementary science teacher preparation. The Reflecting on Elementary Science videocases provide models of best practices in reform-based elementary science teaching. They reduce the complexity of teaching into a manageable story situated in a specific context, so that preservice teachers can uncover and reflect upon their theories about science learning and teaching. Through an accompanying research program, we have found that the videocases perturb student thinking and catalyze them to think like a teacher as they refine their science education theories.

Details

Using Video in Teacher Education
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-84950-232-0

To view the access options for this content please click here
Article
Publication date: 26 February 2021

Roberto Reinoso, Jaime Delgado-Iglesias and Itziar Fernández

The purpose of this paper is to analyse student performance and perceptions when a flipped classroom setting is used, in comparison with the traditional model.

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to analyse student performance and perceptions when a flipped classroom setting is used, in comparison with the traditional model.

Design/methodology/approach

The inverted learning model or “flipped classroom” is a pedagogical approach that attempts to reverse the traditional teaching and learning process, making the student the protagonist of their own learning, and is characterised by the theoretical contents being taught “outside the classroom”, allowing students to spend more class time carrying out other types of more practical activities that encourage much more active learning, such as enquiry exercises, problem solving, collaborative projects and so on. The study was conducted on a biology course of the Primary Education Bachelor’s Degree during the 2017/2018 academic year (n = 240).

Findings

The results revealed that better learning outcomes were achieved by students when the flipped classroom methodology was proposed. It has also been found that student perceptions of the teaching approach were more positive when the flipped model was followed. The flipped classroom methodology also seems to foster student participation and motivation more effectively than traditional teaching formats, mainly because the active learning activities that are carried out in this new educative approach manage to involve the students in their own learning processes.

Originality/value

Despite the enhanced popularity of flipped classroom research in multiple educational contexts and the growing number of studies published in recent years, there is little empirical evidence regarding the effect of the flipped classroom on learning outcomes and satisfaction in pre-service teachers.

Details

Information and Learning Sciences, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2398-5348

Keywords

To view the access options for this content please click here
Book part
Publication date: 12 July 2010

Richard Walker, Kimberley Pressick-Kilborn, Erica Sainsbury and Judith MacCallum

Until recently, motivation has been considered to be an individual phenomenon. Motivational theorists have accordingly conceptualised key constructs in individualistic…

Abstract

Until recently, motivation has been considered to be an individual phenomenon. Motivational theorists have accordingly conceptualised key constructs in individualistic terms and emphasised the individual origins and nature of motivation, although they have also long recognised that contextual or social factors have a significant influence on these individual processes. Recently this conceptualisation has been questioned as theorists have suggested, after Vygotsky, that motivation, like learning and thinking, might be social in nature. This idea was first suggested by Sivan (1986) more than twenty years ago but it received a major impetus with the publication of an article by Hickey (1997) eleven years later. Since that time interest in the social nature of motivation has grown as a small number of book chapters and journal articles have been published and conference papers have been presented on the topic. Although some motivational theorists remain sceptical (e.g. Winne, 2004) of this theoretical development, the inclusion of a section on sociocultural approaches to motivation in Perry, Turner, and Meyer's (2006) chapter on classrooms as contexts for motivating learning in the 2nd edition of the Handbook of Educational Psychology suggests that this perspective is being seriously considered by motivational researchers. Similarly, the inclusion of a chapter (Walker, in press-b) on the sociocultural approach to motivation in the 3rd edition of the International Encyclopedia of Education indicates that this approach has achieved some recognition.

Details

The Decade Ahead: Applications and Contexts of Motivation and Achievement
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-0-85724-254-9

To view the access options for this content please click here
Book part
Publication date: 3 February 2015

Cecilia Silva, Molly Weinburgh and Kathy Horak Smith

In a university/district collaboration, three college professors and authors of this chapter co-taught with four teachers over a period of seven years. This study explores…

Abstract

In a university/district collaboration, three college professors and authors of this chapter co-taught with four teachers over a period of seven years. This study explores the perceived changes in thought and practice of both groups as a result of providing three-week summer school programs for fifth and eighth grade emergent bilinguals. This research is grounded in qualitative methodologies of self-study and case study. We present our joint story as a self-study. Data were collected in the form of lesson plan notes, yearly journals, personal notes, audiotapes of meetings, and in-depth interviews/discussions of those involved in the bounded context. Resulting themes were situated meaning, hybrid language, and a 5R Instructional Model. A case study design is used to present the data from the four in-service teachers. Data were collected from field notes and interviews. Several themes emerged from the teacher data, all of which are components of situated meaning: professional development as side-by-side teaching and learning, recognition of and interest in curriculum integration, and change in classroom practice. Findings indicate that the summer program was a meaningful avenue for professional development (PD) for both groups. However, within group similarities were stronger than across group. The experience changed the way we teach and how we develop PD for teachers. The implications for professors and K-12 teachers are discussed and suggestions for further study and PD are given.

Details

Research on Preparing Inservice Teachers to Work Effectively with Emergent Bilinguals
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78441-494-8

Keywords

To view the access options for this content please click here
Book part
Publication date: 19 March 2013

Peter Hubber and Esther Loong

There have been calls to embed Information and Communication Technology (ICT) into pre-service teacher courses in preference to technology only courses as a means to…

Abstract

There have been calls to embed Information and Communication Technology (ICT) into pre-service teacher courses in preference to technology only courses as a means to provide graduate pre-service teachers with the necessary skills to integrate ICT into their teaching practice. This chapter describes a case study of a pre-service science education curriculum course that was designed to embed ICT into its curriculum, assessment and delivery. The tutor modelled best teaching practice in the use of learning technologies. The theoretical framework is Technological Pedagogical and Content Knowledge (TPACK) viewed through a representation construction approach. This approach involved the students undertaking a series of representational challenges where they constructed and critiqued representations. The study found increased student engagement with learning technologies and an enhanced TPACK over the period of the course. Several factors that may have led to these findings are discussed.

Details

Increasing Student Engagement and Retention in e-learning Environments: Web 2.0 and Blended Learning Technologies
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78190-515-9

To view the access options for this content please click here

Abstract

Details

Innovations in Science Teacher Education in the Asia Pacific
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78190-702-3

1 – 10 of over 19000