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Book part
Publication date: 5 June 2018

Rita L. Bailey

Speech pathology services have not been traditionally provided within school classroom settings. This chapter will describe the service-delivery options for provision of…

Abstract

Speech pathology services have not been traditionally provided within school classroom settings. This chapter will describe the service-delivery options for provision of speech pathology services in classroom settings. A review of select research related to the efficacy of these services is included as applied examples for educators.

Details

Viewpoints on Interventions for Learners with Disabilities
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78743-089-1

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 7 September 2022

Ajit Kumar

Case-based classroom teaching-learning process (hereafter, case method) has provided a very productive teaching-learning environment for a long time. In the case method…

Abstract

Purpose

Case-based classroom teaching-learning process (hereafter, case method) has provided a very productive teaching-learning environment for a long time. In the case method, students are expected to meet some prerequisites, such as reading and analyzing the case in advance, listening to the classroom discussion and actively participating in the discussion. However, it is frequently reported in Indian business schools that students do not prepare the assigned case before the scheduled class. The under-preparation of cases results in low-quality discussion, high absenteeism, passive attitude and lack of energy.

Design/methodology/approach

This study modeled the case method using an IGEO (input-guide-enablers-output, commonly used in any process modeling) framework to identify challenges in the case-based classroom teaching-learning process. A novel customized classroom teaching-learning process called the EPDE (explain, practice, discuss, explore) method replaced the case method. These two teaching-learning processes were used for teaching two groups of MBA students.

Findings

The novel EPDE method effectively addressed the case method challenges. It resulted in better learning outcomes in the Indian B-school context.

Originality/value

The purpose of the study is to examine the impact of an alternative to the traditional case study method in a college classroom among MBA students. Two points make this study original and unique: (1) The IGOE process modeling framework is used to model teaching-learning processes, such as the case and EPDE methods. Using IGOE for teaching-learning processes is unique and is not available in the literature and (2) the EPDE method is a novel concept.

Details

International Journal of Educational Management, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0951-354X

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 24 August 2022

Suma Sumithran, Raqib Chowdhury and Melissa Barnes

Adult student identities within EAL (English as an Additional Language) classrooms have often been positioned as static, homogenised and exoticised within scholarly…

Abstract

Purpose

Adult student identities within EAL (English as an Additional Language) classrooms have often been positioned as static, homogenised and exoticised within scholarly literature. Within such positioning, teachers have embraced pedagogical practices which classify students by country of origin and represent student identities within binaries of Self and the Other, limiting these students' identity positionings for adoption within the EAL classroom. As a result, students are often rendered voiceless by essentialist discourses on culture and identity in the classroom that serve to replicate and reinforce dominant societal discourses and strengthen existing institutional power structures.

Design/methodology/approach

By drawing on a postcolonial theoretical framework comprising theories of race, identity, power, representation, synecdoche and Third Space, this paper interrogates current literature to understand the complex multidimensional and dynamic cultural identities of adult EAL students.

Findings

This paper reveals that adult EAL students are still being oversimplified within the classroom, not just disadvantaging students and institutions, but also hindering multicultural pedagogies.

Originality/value

This paper suggests that teachers require opportunities for critical reflection incorporated within a critical pedagogy in decolonised classrooms that can not only build respectful and equitable awareness of their students' cultural identities and educational and historical backgrounds but provide important implications for effective pedagogical practices.

Details

Qualitative Research Journal, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1443-9883

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 30 August 2022

Megan Burfoot, Nicola Naismith, Ali GhaffarianHoseini and Amirhosein Ghaffarianhoseini

Informed by acoustic design standards, the built environments are designed with single reverberation times (RTs), a trade-off between long and short RTs needed for…

Abstract

Purpose

Informed by acoustic design standards, the built environments are designed with single reverberation times (RTs), a trade-off between long and short RTs needed for different space functions. The novel intelligent passive room acoustic technology (IPRAT) has the potential to revolutionise room acoustics, thus, it is imperative to analyse and quantify its effect. IPRAT achieves real-time room acoustic improvement by integrating passive variable acoustic technology (PVAT) and acoustic scene classification (ASC). This paper aims to compare IPRAT simulation results with the AS/NZS 2107:2016 Australian/New Zealand recommended design acoustic standards.

Design/methodology/approach

In this paper 20 classroom environments are virtually configured for the simulation, multiplying 5 classrooms with 4 aural situations typical to New Zealand classrooms. The acoustic parameters RT, sound clarity (C50) and sound strength (G) are considered and analysed in the simulation. These parameters can be used to determine the effects of improved acoustics for both teacher vocal relief and student comprehension. The IPRAT was assumed to vary RT and was represented in the simulation by six different absorption coefficient spectrums.

Findings

The optimised acoustic parameters were derived from relationships between C50, RT and G. These relationships and optimal RTs contribute a unique database to literature. IPRAT’s advantages were discerned from a comparison of “current,” “attainable” and “optimised” acoustic parameters.

Originality/value

By quantifying the effect of IPRAT, it is understood that IPRAT has the potential to satisfy the key recommendations of professional industry standards (for New Zealand namely; AS/NZS 2107:2016 recommended design acoustic standards).

Details

Smart and Sustainable Built Environment, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2046-6099

Keywords

Book part
Publication date: 30 December 2011

Yujing Ni, Qiong Li, Xiaoqing Li and Jun Zou

This chapter provides a synthesis of the research project which investigated whether or not the most recent mathematics curriculum reform has reached the classroom and…

Abstract

This chapter provides a synthesis of the research project which investigated whether or not the most recent mathematics curriculum reform has reached the classroom and influenced classroom practice and student learning in the mainland China. Three types of evidence for change as a result of the curriculum reform were examined. These included the beliefs and perceptions of teachers about learning and teaching mathematics, the cognitive features of learning tasks and of classroom interaction that were implemented in classroom, and student learning outcomes. Two groups of elementary math teachers and their students participated in the study. One group had participated in the reform implementation in classroom for several years, and the other group had used the conventional curriculum when the project was conducted in 2005. About 150 videotaped class sessions were analyzed from 58 classrooms of the two groups. Survey methods were used to probe the changes in the beliefs and perceptions of teachers about teaching and learning mathematics. The student learning outcomes were assessed for three times with multiple measures of mathematics achievement. Findings of the project provide the converging evidence that the curriculum reform has resulted in some of the expected changes. Reform teachers were more likely to hold a dynamic view of mathematics and to indicate the importance to provide students the learning opportunity to hypothesize, to proof, and to communicate in learning mathematics. The reform classrooms used more learning tasks with higher cognitive demands. The teachers in the reform classrooms asked more questions that required students to describe procedures leading to their answers and the students in the reform classrooms raised more questions in learning mathematics. Students of the reform classrooms showed to have achieved a relatively more balanced development in different cognitive areas of mathematics achievement.

Details

The Impact and Transformation of Education Policy in China
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78052-186-2

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Book part
Publication date: 8 August 2005

Cynthia Young Buckley

This qualitative research study focused upon collaboration between regular and special education teachers in middle school inclusive social studies classrooms. Data…

Abstract

This qualitative research study focused upon collaboration between regular and special education teachers in middle school inclusive social studies classrooms. Data sources included interviews, observations and a review of Individualized Education Plans (IEPs). Two pairs of regular and special education teachers (high and low collaborators) were selected from three schools in different counties. Major findings included a description of the ways teachers formed and maintained their relationships, the role of administrators, and obstacles that needed to be overcome. Lack of time was identified as the greatest obstacle. IEPs were not found to be useful. Teacher use of accommodations and strategies tended to be global, rather than individualized. Perceptions of role were examined by teacher type.

Details

Cognition and Learning in Diverse Settings
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-84950-353-2

Book part
Publication date: 30 December 2004

Wendy A. Harriott

During the last decade, school districts throughout the United States have implemented inclusion programs utilizing a variety of models. A growing number of school…

Abstract

During the last decade, school districts throughout the United States have implemented inclusion programs utilizing a variety of models. A growing number of school districts are including all students with disabilities, even those with severe disabilities, into general education classrooms (Thousand & Villa, 1990). Although the term inclusion has no legal definition, and has been interpreted by educational professionals in a variety of ways, the concept has been in existence under the least restrictive environment (LRE) provision of PL 94-142, The Education for all Handicapped Children Act of 1975, PL 101-476, The Individuals with Disabilities Education Act (IDEA) of 1990 and most recently within PL 105-17, The Individuals with Disabilities Education Act Amendments (IDEA) of 1997. According to IDEA (1997), public education agencies are required to ensure that: to the maximum extent appropriate, children with disabilities, including children in public or private institutions or other care facilities, are educated with children who are nondisabled; and that special classes, separate schooling or other removal of children with disabilities from the regular educational environment occurs only if the nature or severity of the disability is such that education in regular classes with the use of supplementary aids and services cannot be achieved satisfactorily [Authority 20 U.S.C. 1412 (a) (5)].The concept of inclusion has been defined in various ways within the literature. Catlett and Osher (1994) reviewed policy statements of professional organizations and found at least seven different definitions for inclusion. Currently, in education, inclusion is the term used when students with disabilities are placed in general education classrooms for a portion of the school day (Falvey et al., 1995b). The term inclusion is differentiated from mainstreaming. Mainstreaming refers to the placement of students with disabilities in general education classrooms with appropriate instructional support (Meyen, 1990). When students are mainstreamed, they are usually prepared prior to placement into general education and are expected to “keep up” with the general classroom expectations (Rogers, 1993). Students with disabilities who are mainstreamed receive the same or nearly the same curriculum as general education students and are expected to “fit” into the general curriculum and classroom. On the other hand, within inclusive programs, the general education teacher is expected to make adaptations to provide a suitable environment for students with disabilities. Within the literature on inclusion, there are a variety of interpretations of the definition of inclusion (e.g. Gartner & Lipsky, 1987; Rogers, 1993; Stainback & Stainback, 1984). For the purposes of this chapter, inclusion is defined as programs in which students with disabilities (with the exception of gifted) are eligible for special education, have an individualized education program (IEP), and receive their education in general education classrooms using different, modified, and/or additional curricula from students without disabilities. This definition of inclusion is similar to “selective inclusion” as described by Zionts (1997). Selective inclusion refers to partial general education class placement of students with disabilities (Zionts). The assumption that this definition is based on is that general education is not always appropriate for every student; some students may benefit by receiving individualized services in addition to general education.

Details

Administering Special Education: In Pursuit of Dignity and Autonomy
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-84950-298-6

Book part
Publication date: 11 September 2012

Rebecca A. Marcon, Phyllis K. Kalifeh, Beverly G. Esposito, Lynn C. Hartle and Saralyn R. Grass

Florida Partners in Education and Research for Kindergarten Success (PERKS) was an effective, large-scale professional development initiative to move Florida's early…

Abstract

Florida Partners in Education and Research for Kindergarten Success (PERKS) was an effective, large-scale professional development initiative to move Florida's early childhood workforce toward increased education and improved practices. This 7-month professional development intervention succeeded in increasing teacher knowledge, enhancing quality of the classroom literacy environment, and notably improving language development of children in high-need communities. These changes were generally sustained as seen in positive ratings of the classroom literacy environment a year later and children's maintenance of learning across the summer months prior to kindergarten entry. In addition, Florida PERKS provided preliminary answers regarding intensity of technical assistance needed to create positive change. Technical assistance delivered onsite was best, with no notable advantage found for weekly over monthly visits. To fully sustain change, however, may require continued support of teachers beyond a single school year when working with teachers who lack college degrees.

Details

Early Education in a Global Context
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78190-074-1

Keywords

Book part
Publication date: 9 November 2020

Tremaine R. Young and Crystal R. Chambers

Public education in the United States is White, middle class, and urban/suburban normed. However, in the past decade, national population trends show an increase in…

Abstract

Public education in the United States is White, middle class, and urban/suburban normed. However, in the past decade, national population trends show an increase in minority populations, particularly in the southeastern United States. This trend has resulted in a cultural mismatch between teachers who are not trained in strategies that are responsive to the needs of a diverse student population. Novice teachers in a rural school district in eastern North Carolina participated in a study to examine the degree to which they were prepared to successfully interact with their culturally diverse student populations through the lens of culturally relevant classroom management (CRCM), based on their training at either historically White (HWIs) or Black (HBCUs) postsecondary institutions. As part of this larger study, we found that teachers trained at HWIs, although well-intentioned, enter the classroom far less prepared than their HBCU-trained counterparts. However, for both groups of novice teachers, intercultural interactions earlier in their lives seem to have a greater influence than institutional effects on effective, culturally relevant classroom management practices.

Book part
Publication date: 12 July 2010

Julianne C. Turner

Translating motivational research to classroom instruction may be so difficult because the two enterprises of psychological research and teaching are inherently different…

Abstract

Translating motivational research to classroom instruction may be so difficult because the two enterprises of psychological research and teaching are inherently different in goals and assumptions. Whereas psychological theory is meant to be broad and generalizable, educational practice must attend to individual and situational differences. For instance, a great deal of research suggests that mastery goal structures are related to desirable beliefs and behaviors. However, knowing that this is so does not help teachers know how to foster mastery goals in their classrooms and whether or how practices might vary given differences among students, developmental levels, and content areas. As Patrick (2004) noted, the theoretical notion of mastery goal structure as it is currently conceptualized was not developed in classrooms and does not address how a mastery goal structure is either manifested or communicated to students. Although it makes theoretical sense to provide “appropriate challenge” to students, how a teacher adapts that principle to students with a range of abilities and attitudes, from challenge seekers to avoiders, is not obvious. Research can provide only a general theoretical heuristic for understanding tendencies and does not necessarily explain individuals' behavior over time (Turner & Patrick, 2004). For motivational research to be meaningful and useful to educators, it needs to help them interpret student behavior as specific responses to specific sets of circumstances. Pajares (2007) expressed this well when he noted:Research findings … drawn from educational psychology broadly, and motivation theory and research in particular are bounded by a host of situated, cultural factors that must be attended to if the constructs themselves are to have any, as William James (1907/1975) termed it, practical, or cash, value. (p. 30)Therefore, in its present form, theory may not appear useful to teachers because of its seeming lack of specificity. These issues apply to all current theories of motivation.

Details

The Decade Ahead: Applications and Contexts of Motivation and Achievement
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-0-85724-254-9

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