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Book part
Publication date: 23 December 2010

Diane E. Davis

In addition to their desire to address the gaps in my own essay, one possible explanation rests in a deeper and more nuanced appreciation of the role of ideology in middle…

Abstract

In addition to their desire to address the gaps in my own essay, one possible explanation rests in a deeper and more nuanced appreciation of the role of ideology in middle-class identity formation, an issue that I ignored almost completely. The importance of understanding the ideological underpinnings of “middle-classness” is a point directly taken up by several of the commentators, but it is best articulated and most convincingly argued by Raka Ray in her nuanced historical examination of the national political projects that sustained the idea of a middle class as moral vanguard and repository of universal values and aspirations. She shows how the “ideological work that middle-class identity performs” sustains unity among disparate middle-class forces, at times achieving such cultural resonance that it will engage even non-middle classes in a common political project. That is, Ray argues that the idea of the middle class as a social category has become so culturally appealing and ideologically hegemonic in modern India that it has even enabled political unity behind the class projects of the elite.

Details

Political Power and Social Theory
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-0-85724-326-3

Abstract

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The Law and Economics of Class Actions
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78350-951-5

Book part
Publication date: 23 December 2010

Raka Ray

Questions about the role and composition of the middle class have been examined and debated in the academy and in the political sphere for more than 100 years. In analyses…

Abstract

Questions about the role and composition of the middle class have been examined and debated in the academy and in the political sphere for more than 100 years. In analyses of the Indian middle class specifically, two questions, both addressed by Diane Davis, seem to excite the most attention. The first has to do with the definition of a middle class, a term that has its origins in a very different social formation as well as its potentially mediating function in democracy. The second and more recent question has to do with what is variously called the “new” or “emerging” middle classes – in short, the middle classes of a liberalizing India.

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Political Power and Social Theory
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-0-85724-326-3

Abstract

Details

Left-Wing Populism
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-83909-203-9

Article
Publication date: 27 September 2022

Md. Khaled Saifullah, Nuzhat Sharmeen and Zaima Ahmed

The novel coronavirus (COVID-19) remains a global public health emergency as declared by the World Health Organization (WHO). The COVID-19 impacted educational…

Abstract

Purpose

The novel coronavirus (COVID-19) remains a global public health emergency as declared by the World Health Organization (WHO). The COVID-19 impacted educational institutions around the world, and they were shut down to minimize the fatalities and spread of the infection. Educational institutions around the world, including Bangladesh, started to conduct online classes as an alternative to physical classes. Therefore, this study assesses the effectiveness of online classes in terms of information and communications technology (ICT) readiness, online class assessment, online class participation, and convenience and flexibility for the educational institutions of Bangladesh.

Design/methodology/approach

To fulfill the objective of the study, data were collected from 817 teachers and students. Additionally, the partial least squares (PLS) regression method was adopted as a quantitative technique.

Findings

The study shows that online class participation, online class assessment, and convenience and flexibility have positive relationships with ICT readiness and the effectiveness of online classes. At the same time, the challenges of online classes have negative relationships with ICT readiness and the effectiveness of online classes.

Practical implications

The study suggests that the government should ensure stable internet connectivity access across the country so that both students and teachers can participate in online classes effectively. Moreover, educational institutional authorities should extend support to the institutions for developing proper ICT infrastructure.

Originality/value

ICT infrastructure readiness is the backbone for effective online education; however, before the COVID-19 pandemic, online education was almost non-existent at the educational institutional level in Bangladesh. The country started developing the ICT infrastructure only when online classes were scheduled to start, and the development is still ongoing. Hence, this study used ICT readiness as a mediator factor. Moreover, primary data are used in this study. The findings of the study will help academicians and policymakers to better understand the effectiveness of online classes.

Details

The International Journal of Information and Learning Technology, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2056-4880

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Article
Publication date: 5 September 2022

Kamil Luczaj

The overarching question of this paper is, “What are the advantages of being an upwardly mobile academic?” The extant academic research on working-class academics has…

Abstract

Purpose

The overarching question of this paper is, “What are the advantages of being an upwardly mobile academic?” The extant academic research on working-class academics has usually emphasized various kinds of “deficits” of working-class academics. In this paper, the author demonstrates that although class positions can constitute a formidable burden, they can translate into specific advantages in academia.

Design/methodology/approach

This study is based on the narrative, phenomenological approach, which has been applied in working-class studies and higher-education research. The empirical material comprises the collection of 25 narrative interviews conducted and analyzed according to the biographical narrative interpretive method (BNIM).

Findings

This paper looks at the experience of working-class academics from a holistic perspective, including both the downsides and upsides of being an “outsider within,” or “insider without.” It uncovers four assets of a working-class background – referred to as “navigational capital,” “revolutionary potential,” “wisdom” and a distinct “working-class pedagogy.”

Practical implications

The working-class pedagogy can be turned into support programs for working-class individuals. Their navigational capital can foster evolutionary changes and small improvements for the benefit of the entire academic community. Their revolutionary dispositions can trigger major reforms, and their unique experiences can be utilized as case studies in teaching.

Originality/value

This paper engages with the literature on the cultural mismatch and cleft habitus in the academic context. It analyzes the positive but rarely discussed aspects of being an upwardly mobile academic with a working-class background. By recognizing these unique assets, it engages with the literature on inclusive universities and can help make higher education more inclusive and sustainable.

Details

Equality, Diversity and Inclusion: An International Journal, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2040-7149

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 21 July 2022

Fouzia Daoudim and Fatima Bakass

This paper aims to propose a dynamic multidimensional approach to identify the middle class and then to reliably study the structural changes that have marked it in terms…

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to propose a dynamic multidimensional approach to identify the middle class and then to reliably study the structural changes that have marked it in terms of demographic and socioeconomic characteristics and aspirations.

Design/methodology/approach

This study uses Moroccan data from the 2007 and 2014 household expenditure surveys. The method consists in applying a factor analysis of mixed data on a set of variables inspired by Bourdieu’s concepts of social space and forms of capital, then performing a hierarchical ascending classification consolidated by the k-means clustering, along with adopting the same indicators and weighting for both years studied to ensure reliable comparison.

Findings

The classification results identified three social classes whose changing size reveals a decline of the lower class and an expansion of the upper and middle classes. Some characteristics of the middle class are becoming close to those of the upper class, like fertility behavior, while a significant gap remains between the two classes in other characteristics, like education. Moreover, middle-class perceptions reflect their downgrading, confirming that the so-called decline of the middle class is more related to feelings than to objective realities.

Originality/value

Middle class studies are generally based on a single criterion (income or consumption) with somewhat arbitrary boundaries that are often ill-suited to developing countries. This paper proposes a new dynamic multidimensional approach to overcome these problems while adopting a new technique for reliable intertemporal comparisons.

Details

International Journal of Development Issues, vol. 21 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1446-8956

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 5 July 2022

Fernando Antonio Ribeiro Serra, Marcos Rogério Mazieri, Isabel Cristina Scafuto, June Alisson Westarb Cruz and Fabio Pinoti

Mission statements are usually related to strategic management and elements related to the organization's identity. Catholic higher education organizations (CHEOs…

Abstract

Purpose

Mission statements are usually related to strategic management and elements related to the organization's identity. Catholic higher education organizations (CHEOs) identity is based on the Charisma of the founder of the Catholic order or congregation. If in contradiction, it puts their organizational legitimacy at risk. If organizations deviate from their identity, it means a mission drift. Even more severe is when mission statements are misaligned with the identity. In this study, the authors seek better understand the mission drift by the misalignment between the mission statement and the organizational identity of the CHEOs.

Design/methodology/approach

The authors examine the mission statements of 112 Catholic CHEOs in Brazil. They used lexical analysis based on descending hierarchical classification and post-factorial analysis. They analyzed the vocabularies of each class extracted from the descending hierarchical classification and determine the presence or absence of the Charisma.

Findings

The results indicate that aspects of Catholic identity through the Charisma are manifested in the organizational mission but are not predominant. There is a variation of the mission statements relative to the Charisma of the orders and congregations. A significant part manifests generically. They respond in a similar and isomorphic way or to internal institutional pressures of CHEOs.

Originality/value

The authors empirically identified a mission drift, considering the mismatch between the mission statement and the Charisma. The authors emphasize that for organizational identity to manifest, it should consider the identity that emerges from the founder's Charisma. This influence must appear in central elements of the organizational identity, such as the mission statements.

Details

International Journal of Educational Management, vol. 36 no. 6
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0951-354X

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 10 August 2022

Ummaha Hazra and Asad Karim Khan Priyo

While online classes have enabled many universities to carry out their regular academic activities, they have also given rise to new and unanticipated ethical concerns. We…

Abstract

Purpose

While online classes have enabled many universities to carry out their regular academic activities, they have also given rise to new and unanticipated ethical concerns. We focus on the “dark side” of online class settings and attempt to illuminate the ethical problems associated with them. The purpose of this study is to investigate the affordances stemming from the technology-user interaction that can result in negative outcomes. We also attempt to understand the context in which these deleterious affordances are actualized.

Design/methodology/approach

We obtain the data from narratives written by students at a top private university in Bangladesh about their experiences of online classes and exams and from focus group discussions with them. We use the lens of affordance theory to identify the abilities that goal-oriented actors – primarily students – obtain from the technology-user interactions, which result in negative outcomes. We also attempt to understand the contextual actualization of those affordances through the lens of Routine Activity Theory (RAT).

Findings

We find three deleterious affordances and three associated deviant outcomes. Non-monitorability which results in academic dishonesty, disguiseability which results in cyber-truancy, and intrudeability which results in embarrassment and harassment. Our findings reveal a deeper underlying problem with the existing educational approach in the universities of Bangladesh and suggest that there is a need to introduce more modern teaching techniques focused on issues such as student engagement and interactive learning.

Originality/value

To the best of our knowledge, this is the first paper that combines affordance theory with RAT to identify unethical practices observed in online class settings in the context of a least developed country like Bangladesh and to examine the environmental components that give rise to the pre-conditions for the unethical practices to surface.

Details

Journal of Information, Communication and Ethics in Society, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1477-996X

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 2 August 2022

Ahmet Aytekin, Ömer Faruk Görçün, Fatih Ecer, Dragan Pamucar and Çağlar Karamaşa

The present study aims to provide a practical and robust assessment technique for assessing countries' investability in global supply chains to practitioners. Thus, the…

Abstract

Purpose

The present study aims to provide a practical and robust assessment technique for assessing countries' investability in global supply chains to practitioners. Thus, the proposed approach can help decision-makers evaluate and select appropriate countries in the expansion process of the global supply chains and reduce risks concerning country (market) selection.

Design/methodology/approach

The present study proposes a novel decision-making approach, namely the REF-Sort technique. The proposed approach has many valuable contributions to the literature. First, it has an efficient basic algorithm and can be applied to solve highly complicated decision-making problems without requiring advanced mathematical knowledge. Besides, some characteristics differentiate REF-Sort apart from other techniques. REF-Sort employs the value or value range that reflects the most typical characteristic of the relevant class in assignment processes. The reference values in REF-Sort and center profiles are similar in this regard. On the other hand, class references can be defined as ranges in REF-Sort. Secondary values, called successors, can also be employed to assign a value to the appropriate class. REF-Sort can also determine the reference and successor values/ranges independently of the decision matrix. In addition, the proposed model is a maximally stable and consistent decision-making tool, as it is resistant to the rank reversal problem.

Findings

The current papers' findings indicate that countries have different features concerning investment. Hence, the current paper pointed out that only 22% of the 95 countries are investable, whereas 19% are risky. Thus, decision-makers should make detailed evaluations using robust, powerful, and practical decision-making tools to make more reasonable and logical decisions concerning country selection.

Originality/value

The current paper proposes a novel decision-making approach to evaluate. According to the authors' information, the proposed model has been applied to evaluate investable countries for the global supply chains for the first time.

Details

Kybernetes, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0368-492X

Keywords

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