This paper focuses on the design of an inexpensive and accurate range scanner for automatic acquisition of a CAD model of a manufactured part by using two‐dimensional…
This paper focuses on the design of an inexpensive and accurate range scanner for automatic acquisition of a CAD model of a manufactured part by using two‐dimensional images to determine a digitized three‐dimensional shape. In the developed approach, the object is passed at a speed of 4 cm/s through a single linear laser stripe and forty continuous images are captured into the frame memory of the host computer for subsequent processing. A major problem that is encountered in the design of laser stripe scanner is the specula reflection, which can be mitigated by the developed approach. Six center‐locating algorithms are described, which are central to the developed approach. These algorithms are able to achieve sub‐pixel accuracy. The center of mass algorithm that uses three points, gives the best repeatability over the other algorithms. The center of mass algorithm that uses intensity threshold, provides the best linearity over the other algorithms.
Indoor robotic tasks frequently specify objects. For these applications, this paper aims to propose an object-based attention method using task-relevant feature for target…
Indoor robotic tasks frequently specify objects. For these applications, this paper aims to propose an object-based attention method using task-relevant feature for target selection. The task-relevant feature(s) are deduced from the learned object representation in semantic memory (SM), and low dimensional bias feature templates are obtained using Gaussian mixture model (GMM) to get an efficient attention process. This method can be used to select target in a scene which forms a task-specific representation of the environment and improves the scene understanding by driving the robot to a position in which the objects of interest can be detected with a smaller error probability.
Task definition and object representation in SM are proposed, and bias feature templates are obtained using GMM deduction for features from high dimension to low dimension. Mean shift method is used to segment the visual scene into discrete proto-objects. Given a task-specific object, the top-down bias attention uses obtained statistical knowledge of the visual features of the desired target to impact proto-objects and generate the saliency map by combining with the bottom-up saliency-based attention so as to maximize target detection speed.
Experimental results show that the proposed GMM-based attention model provides an effective and efficient method for task-specific target selection under different conditions. The promising results show that the method may provide good approximation to how humans combine target cues to optimize target selection.
The present method has been successfully applied in plenty of natural scenes of indoor robotic tasks. The proposed method has a wide range of applications and is using for an intelligent homecare robot cognitive control project. Due to the computational cost, the current implementation of this method has some limitations in real-time application.
The novel attention model which uses GMM to get the bias feature templates is proposed for attention competition. It provides a solution for object-based attention, and it is effective and efficient to improve search speed due to the autonomous deduction of features. The proposed model is adaptive without requiring predefined distinct types of features for task-specific objects.
This chapter provides an assessment of how the late Portuguese colonial state (especially in Angola and Mozambique) responded to widespread conflict and anticolonial…
This chapter provides an assessment of how the late Portuguese colonial state (especially in Angola and Mozambique) responded to widespread conflict and anticolonial pressures. Focusing on its structures, idioms, and strategies of social transformation and control-especially as they relate to the domains of development and security-my assessment of state response emphasizes the coming together of: coercive repertoires of rule; planned developmental strategies of political, economic and social change; and processes of engineering sociocultural difference. The late colonial state’s developmental and repressive facets are critically assessed through mobilizing theoretical perspectives and empirical analysis.
The purpose of this paper is to review the management of air pollution in Mexico and strategies that have been considered to correct the issues, including potential future directions to further improve air quality for Mexico’s environment and people.
Different serious academic databases were searched for material regarding the issue of air pollution in Mexico, such as Scopus and Social Science Citation Index. Regional concern was an important factor that was considered in this review. Material was considered based on its recency, academic importance and veracity. The studies selected mainly ranged from the mid-1990s to 2018.
Air pollution in Mexico has been a primary issue for the country’s administration and that of Mexico’s North American neighbour, the USA. It has contributed significantly to climate change and has had detrimental effects on both the environment and on the health of Mexican citizens in various ways. While efforts to ameliorate the situation have been relatively strong, it is hoped that ongoing cooperation between Mexico, the USA and Canada will influence the development of stricter emissions standards.
This paper considers current circumstances and whether enough has been done to mitigate Mexico’s significant air pollution problem. It also considers several recommendations made by commentators as to potential future directions to rectify the issues, as no similar review has been made for a developing Country.
The Empire Day Movement, which is associated with the Royal Empire Society, announces that with the object of inducing the Government to take effective action against the practice of selling blended butter, predominantly foreign, under labels and in packets which suggest English origin, a memorial has been signed by representative organisations and members of Parliament of all parties. The memorial, which has been sent to the President of the Board of Trade, the Minister of Agriculture, the Chairman of the Empire Marketing Board, and the Chairman of the Food Council, is as follows :—In the interests of the butter‐consuming public, as well as of agriculture and the promotion of Empire trade, we, the undersigned, call the attention of the Government to the continuance of certain practices to which allusion is made in the fourth report of the Imperial Economic Committee. In paragraph 243 the report says: Blended butter is at present sold under various proprietary brands. In certain cases these brands embody the names of counties or districts which are known to be important agricultural or dairying areas in the Home Country. The suggestion inevitably conveyed in such cases to the bulk of the consumers must be that such butter is of English origin.
The Sanitary Committee of a certain County Council, strong with the strength of recent creation, have lately been animated by a desire to distinguish themselves in some way, and, proceeding along the lines of least resistance, they appear to have selected the Public Analyst as the most suitable object for attack. The charge against this unfortunate official was not that he is incompetent, or that he had been in any way negligent of his duties as prescribed by Act of Parliament, but simply and solely that he has the temerity to reside in London, which city is distant by a certain number of miles from the much favoured district controlled by the County Council aforesaid. The committee were favoured in their deliberations by the assistance of no less an authority than the “Principal” of a local “Technical School”;—and who could be more capable than he to express an opinion upon so simple a matter? This eminent exponent of scientific truths, after due and proper consideration, is reported to have delivered himself of the opinion that “scientifically it would be desirable that the analyst should reside in the district, as the delay occasioned by the sending of samples of water to London is liable to produce a misleading effect upon an analysis.” Apparently appalled by the contemplation of such possibilities, and strengthened by another expression of opinion to the effect that there were as “good men” in the district as in London, the committee resolved to recommend the County Council to determine the existing arrangement with the Public Analyst, and to appoint a “local analyst for all purposes.” Thus, the only objection which could be urged to the employment of a Public Analyst resident in London was the ridiculous one that the composition of a sample of water was likely to seriously alter during the period of its transit to London, and this contention becomes still more absurd when it is remembered that the examination of water samples is no part of the official duty of a Public Analyst. The employment of local scientific talent may be very proper when the object to be attained is simply the more or less imperfect instruction of the rising generation in the rudiments of what passes in this country for “technical education”; but the work of the Public Analyst is serious and responsible, and cannot be lightly undertaken by every person who may be acquainted with some of the uses of a test‐tube. The worthy members of this committee may find to their cost, as other committees have found before them, that persons possessing the requisite knowledge and experience are not necessarily indigenous to their district. Supposing that the County Council adopts the recommendation, the aspirations of the committee may even then be strangled in their infancy, as the Local Government Board will want to know all about the matter, and the committee will have to give serious and valid reasons in support of their case.
This essay tackles the Obama “phenomenon,” from his candidacy to his election, as a manifestation of the new “color-blind racism” that has characterized U.S. racial…
This essay tackles the Obama “phenomenon,” from his candidacy to his election, as a manifestation of the new “color-blind racism” that has characterized U.S. racial politics in the post-civil rights era. Rather than symbolizing the “end of race,” or indeed a “miracle,” Obama's election is a predictable result of contemporary U.S. electoral politics. In fact, Obama is a middle-of-the-road Democrat whose policies since taking office have been almost perfectly in line with his predecessors, especially in terms of his failure to improve the lot of blacks and other minorities. In this essay, I review the concept of color-blind racism and its application to the Obama phenomenon. I also revisit some of my past predictions for Obama's presidency and evaluate their accuracy halfway through his term. Finally, I offer suggestions for constructing a genuine social movement to push Obama and future politicians to provide real, progressive “change we can believe in.”
This chapter is based on a chapter I added for the third edition of my book, Racism without Racists. Louise Seamster, a wonderful graduate student at Duke, helped me update some material, locate new sources, and rework some sections, as well as abridge some of the many footnotes (interested readers can consult the chapter). I kept the first person to maintain the more direct and engaged tone of the original piece and because the ideas (the good, the bad, and the ugly ones) in the chapter are mine, and thus, I wish to remain entirely responsible for them.
Film provides an alternative medium for assessing our interpretations of cultural icons. This selective list looks at the film and video sources for information on and interpretations of the life of Woody Guthrie.
This chapter evaluates the allure and the danger of attributing race-laden crime politics to displaced anxiety. Stuart Scheingold's “myth of crime and punishment” was a…
This chapter evaluates the allure and the danger of attributing race-laden crime politics to displaced anxiety. Stuart Scheingold's “myth of crime and punishment” was a path-setting theory of redirected fear, arguing that socioeconomic “fear of falling” is displaced onto street crime, where the simple morality tale of lawbreaker-versus-state offers the illusion of control. The danger of this theory, I argue, is that it purports to analyze post-1960s’ structural inequality, but it replicates the post-civil rights logic and language of racism as nonstructural – an irrationality, a misplaced emotion, a mere epiphenomenon of class. As a theory that hinges on the malfunction of redirecting structural anxieties onto symbols and scapegoats, the vocabulary of displaced anxieties links punitive (white) subjects to punished (black and Latino) objects through a diagnosis that is, by definition, beyond rationality. The vocabulary of displaced anxiety categorizes the racial politics of law and order as an emotional misfire, thereby occluding the ways in which racial interests are at stake in crime policy and carceral state development.