Search results

1 – 10 of over 127000
Article
Publication date: 14 March 2022

Wenbao Wang, Iwan Harsono, Chich-Jen Shieh, Vadim Samusenkov and Shahab Shoar

Infrastructure projects play a vital role in the development of countries' economies. However, these projects, notably underground ones, are encountering growing claims as…

Abstract

Purpose

Infrastructure projects play a vital role in the development of countries' economies. However, these projects, notably underground ones, are encountering growing claims as they are subject to many unknowns. Without having a clear insight into the causes of claims and their influence on one another, it is not possible to mitigate their adverse impacts on these projects' goals. To this aim, the main purpose of this study is to identify the critical paths leading to cost claims for underground metro projects.

Design/methodology/approach

First, causes of claims were identified through a literature review and then refined to 22 main causes according to the opinions of 148 Iranian experts. A qualitative system dynamics (SD) model was then provided to visualize how various causes interact with each other. The model was developed and validated by drawing on the expertise of industry-related experts, and the critical paths were finally recognized based on their frequency and severity indexes.

Findings

The findings revealed that each cause should be evaluated based on their connections with others as there are complex relations among the causes. It was also shown that the major claim paths among others were initiated due to ambiguous contract clauses, unforeseen physical conditions and land handover problems.

Originality/value

The findings of this study provide a better insight into how various causes of claims for underground metro projects are related to each other and can eventually assist project managers of different parties, even in other countries, to select proportional strategies to mitigate their adverse impacts.

Details

Kybernetes, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0368-492X

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 1 June 1988

T.R. Kirk and U. Arens

Recent interest in nutrition has provoked the use of this subject in the labelling and marketing of food products. Current legislation and guidelines pertaining to this…

Abstract

Recent interest in nutrition has provoked the use of this subject in the labelling and marketing of food products. Current legislation and guidelines pertaining to this area are examined. The importance of nutritional labelling and claims, in supporting efforts by health education staff in promoting nutrition awareness, is described.

Details

British Food Journal, vol. 90 no. 6
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0007-070X

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 1 January 1997

Joanna Gray

This case concerned the validity of assignments to the Investors Compensation Scheme (ICS) of the claims of various individual investors which arose out of the widespread…

Abstract

This case concerned the validity of assignments to the Investors Compensation Scheme (ICS) of the claims of various individual investors which arose out of the widespread mis‐selling of home income plans between 1989 and 1991. The factual background to the case is given in a statement of facts agreed between all parties and appended to the judgment. A FIMBRA regulated firm of independent financial advisers, Fisher Prew Smith Ltd advised the claimants (including Messrs Alford and Armitage in this action), to take out home income plans involving equity release mortgages with the West Bromwich Building Society (WBBS) which were arranged by Hopkin & Sons (the Solicitor Defendants). The firm of independent financial advisers concerned failed and, as they were authorised persons (FIMBRA members), claims against them for negligence, breach of contract, fiduciary and statutory duty were to an extent covered by the s.54A Financial Services Act (FSA) statutory compensation scheme. The claimants were duly compensated by the ICS within a range of 50—75 per cent of their claims at law but despite this many of the individuals affected (including the Plaintiffs in the third and fourth actions) still have outstanding liabilities to the WBBS. When the individual claimants received offers of compensation from the ICS they signed a standard claim form which contained a declaration that the claimants had received no compensation of any kind in relation to the claim and confirmed that they did not expect to receive any such in the future, a declaration that ICS would take over the claimants' rights and claims against third parties on the payment of any compensation. The claim form further provided ‘ICS agrees that the following claim shall not be treated as a third party claim for the purpose of this agreement and the benefits of such claim shall inure to you absolutely: Any claim (whether sounding in recission for undue influence or otherwise) that you have or may have against [the WBBS] in which you claim an abatement of sums which you would otherwise have to repay to that society in connection with the transaction and dealings giving rise to the claim (including interest on any such sums’. The claim form further provided that the claimants agreed, in the event of their receiving any money or assets in respect of the claim from the scheme participant firm or from any FSA trustee, to transfer such money or assets to the ICS. It provided for an assignment to ICS of claimants' third party claims in the following words ‘We hereby assign to ICS each and every third party claim and the benefit thereof’.

Details

Journal of Financial Regulation and Compliance, vol. 5 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1358-1988

Article
Publication date: 1 December 2005

Stephanie Y. Crawford and Catherine Leventis

The purpose of this article is to explore boundaries in marketing and science with respect to labeled claims of herbal products and other dietary supplements.

2840

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this article is to explore boundaries in marketing and science with respect to labeled claims of herbal products and other dietary supplements.

Design/methodology/approach

Supplement manufacturers are allowed to include claims on product labels without meeting an acceptable substantiation standard, as long as such claims are accompanied by an FDA disclaimer statement. While manufacturers are prohibited (though the regulation is often violated) from making specific claims about prevention or treatment of disease, the implied associated health benefits of using dietary supplement products are usually clear from marketed claims. A case example on themes expressed in labeled structure‐function claims for ginkgo biloba is presented to illustrate the issues.

Findings

Marketing of product claims is controversial due to differing perspectives about the truthfulness of claimed health benefits and quality of information presented to consumers. Although dietary supplements could have pharmaceutical‐like properties, they are not required to demonstrate safety and efficacy before market availability. The US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) can take action only if supplements are shown to be unsafe after market introduction.

Practical implications

The need for consumer choice, meaningful information and free‐market access to dietary supplements must be balanced with the demands for truth‐in‐advertising and consumer protection from unreliable claims and adverse health events. Marketing and policy implications are described.

Originality/value

The outcome would help increase consumer confidence, while continuing to allow free‐market forces for the dietary supplement industry, to a large extent.

Details

Journal of Consumer Marketing, vol. 22 no. 7
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0736-3761

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 11 September 2009

Gönül Söyler and Sedef Nehir El

The purpose of this paper is to investigate how Turkish consumers’ attitudes toward grammatical styles of the same nutrition message affect persuasiveness; to determine…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to investigate how Turkish consumers’ attitudes toward grammatical styles of the same nutrition message affect persuasiveness; to determine the consumers’ ability to comply with the nutrition messages and to know possible health benefits of them; and to examine nutrient claims on food packages with information that will help consumers to make healthy diet choices.

Design/methodology/approach

A questionnaire, comprising eight different grammatical styles of a nutrition message for each kind of food or food products, is applied to randomly to 207 subjects. Another questionnaire is designed including nutritional messages. Subjects (n = 200) are asked about their frequency of compliance and how this behavior is beneficial to health. In total, 5,200 food products are scanned for nutrition labels on packages in four hypermarkets. All the nutrient claims found are recorded as well as the wording.

Findings

There are significant effects of grammatical style on persuasiveness, except for meat products. Subjects report that rhetorical question using “how about” in the third message provokes them most. High proportions of subjects have heard of the written nutrition recommendations before. However subjects’ frequencies of compliance with recommendations are low. The relation between compliance and knowledge scores for message 1, 2, 3 and 4 are significant (p < 0.01 and p < 0.05). Of 5,200 foods scanned, 266 foods are recorded for nutrient claims. Fat claims are the most frequent type of nutrient claims; 71 foods have numerical claims; 179 foods have adjectival claims and 16 have both claims.

Originality/value

There have not been any studies on frequency of application of nutrition labeling, consumer attitudes and knowledge of nutrition messages regarding Turkey.

Details

Nutrition & Food Science, vol. 39 no. 5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0034-6659

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 20 February 2009

Joanna Gray

The paper's aim is to report and comment on two preliminary issues that arose from claims being pursued by the Financial Services Compensation Scheme (FSCS) against Abbey…

522

Abstract

Purpose

The paper's aim is to report and comment on two preliminary issues that arose from claims being pursued by the Financial Services Compensation Scheme (FSCS) against Abbey National Treasury Services (ANTS) and NDF Administration Ltd (NDF).

Design/methodology/approach

The paper outlines the facts and explains the decision.

Findings

The FSCS commenced action against ANTS as assignee of the assigned claims and alleged that ANTS had collaborated with NDF in product development and promotion of the Structured Capital at Risk Products and was liable in negligence and misrepresentation to the investors whose claims it held as assignee. Having considered the arguments, the Judge concluded that FSA did have power to make rules enabling FSCS to take assignment of investor claims.

Originality/value

The issues in this case go to the heart of the funding mechanism of the FSCS. The financing of such compensation schemes is a perennially controversial issue in every jurisdiction that has them.

Details

Journal of Financial Regulation and Compliance, vol. 17 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1358-1988

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 17 May 2013

T. Joji Rao and Krishan K. Pandey

The fact that complaints regarding general insurance claims are three times as numerous as those of life insurance claims suggests that claims behaviour of general…

1713

Abstract

Purpose

The fact that complaints regarding general insurance claims are three times as numerous as those of life insurance claims suggests that claims behaviour of general insurers be investigated to minimize operating losses and ensure operational excellence. This paper seeks to address this issue.

Design/methodology/approach

Study of variance and factor analysis has been undertaken to achieve the objective of identifying factors which govern claims in general insurance business. In order to understand the dependency of claims over the sectors and segments, statistical hypothesis testing along with cross tab analysis has been conducted. The study also evaluates the relationship of these factors over the sectors and segments by running a multiple regression.

Findings

An empirical result of the study proves that there exists an association between type of sectors, i.e. public and private and segments of insurance namely fire, marine and miscellaneous. The study also suggests a claim projection model for the general insurance players.

Research limitations/implications

Exclusion of specialized players due to the reason being new entrants and in order to maintain common parlance of sectors may be a limitation to this study.

Originality/value

The study recommends that insurance players should not treat the claims settlement strategies in isolation of segments. The claims projection model as suggested in the study may prove to be extremely helpful in projecting the claims and in turn reduce the increasing underwriting losses.

Details

The Journal of Risk Finance, vol. 14 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1526-5943

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 8 July 2014

Fanny V. Dobrenova, Ralf Terlutter and Sonja Grabner-Kräuter

This paper aims to examine the effects of qualifying language, functional ingredient, ingredient familiarity and inferences of manipulative intent (IMI) on the likelihood…

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to examine the effects of qualifying language, functional ingredient, ingredient familiarity and inferences of manipulative intent (IMI) on the likelihood that consumers make stimulus-based inferences about the level of scientific support for health claims on food.

Design/methodology/approach

An advertisement copy test for a fictitious product bearing a caries risk-reduction claim has been conducted. The test design comprises three claim conditions, each corresponding to one of the sufficient levels of support for nutrient-health relations within the World Health Organization (WHO)-framework.

Findings

The claim conditions have affected the likelihood of making stimulus-based inferences, which is lower for high-level-of-support claims as opposed to low-level-of-support and moderate-level-of-support claims. No effect of ingredient familiarity has been observed. The effect of the functional ingredient featured is significant at the 10 per cent-level. IMI has a negative effect on the likelihood of making a stimulus-based inference.

Research limitations/implications

The survey relies on a demographically homogeneous sample.

Practical implications

Examining the likelihood of stimulus-based inferences about health claim substantiation is essential for assessing the effectiveness of claim formulations and for addressing resulting miscommunication.

Originality/value

The current paper addresses the research gap on consumer ability to identify the level of support for health claims within the European context.

Details

Nutrition & Food Science, vol. 44 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0034-6659

Keywords

Book part
Publication date: 4 May 2020

Matthew C. Canfield

As social movements engage in transnational legal processes, they have articulated innovative rights claims outside the nation-state frame. This chapter analyzes emerging…

Abstract

As social movements engage in transnational legal processes, they have articulated innovative rights claims outside the nation-state frame. This chapter analyzes emerging practices of legal mobilization in response to global governance through a case study of the “right to food sovereignty.” The claim of food sovereignty has been mobilized transnationally by small-scale food producers, food-chain workers, and the food insecure to oppose the liberalization of food and agriculture. The author analyzes the formation of this claim in relation to the rise of a “network imaginary” of global governance. By drawing on ethnographic research, the author shows how activists have internalized this imaginary within their claims and practices of legal mobilization. In doing so, the author argues, transnational food sovereignty activists co-constitute global food governance from below. Ultimately, the development of these practices in response to shifting forms of transnational legality reflects the enduring, mutually constitutive relationship between law and social movements on a global scale.

Book part
Publication date: 1 January 2014

Sagit Mor

This article examines the dialectics of wrongful life and wrongful birth claims in Israel from 1986 until 2012. In May 2012 Israeli Supreme Court declared that while…

Abstract

This article examines the dialectics of wrongful life and wrongful birth claims in Israel from 1986 until 2012. In May 2012 Israeli Supreme Court declared that while wrongful birth claims were still permitted, wrongful life claims were no longer accepted in a court of law. The article examines the conditions that allowed for and supported the expansion of wrongful life/birth claims until 2012. The article identifies two parallel dynamics of expansion: a broadening of the scope of negligent conduct and a view of milder forms of disabilities as damage that merits compensation. The article further suggests four explanations for such doctrinal evolution, two of which emanate from doctrinal ambiguities and the other two are rooted in social factors that have shaped the meaning of disability as a tragedy and state of inferiority. While recent developments seem promising, the article concludes with a word of caution. Such changes may reproduce past injustices mainly because the compensation mechanism has remained an individual-torts based one, which may run counter to the broader struggle for social change for disabled people.

Details

Studies in Law, Politics, and Society
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78350-785-6

Keywords

1 – 10 of over 127000