The year 1848 is considered by historians as a political and economic turning point in France: a major political crisis took place in the form of the February Revolution…
The year 1848 is considered by historians as a political and economic turning point in France: a major political crisis took place in the form of the February Revolution, accompanied by extensive financial troubles for the French government. The economists of that time actively debated the economic causes and consequences of the crisis. This chapter is devoted to the analysis of these financial controversies in French economic thought around 1848. If the political and philosophical debates of 1848 between the liberals and the socialists are quite well known by historians of economic thought, their financial side has been relatively neglected. According to the authors of this chapter, it is nevertheless of great interest to examine the liberal and socialist ideas of that time. This chapter aims to investigate this little-studied question by raising three main issues: the first one consists of presenting the different diagnoses of the 1848 financial crisis from socialist and liberal viewpoints. Second, it proposes an analysis of the content of theoretical controversies about ways to overcome the financial troubles, particularly regarding the trade-off between taxation and debt. Lastly, it emphasizes the role of this period for the subsequent constitution of a financial orthodoxy in France.
Possibilities for self-representation for transgender (trans) and gender non-conforming (GNC) youth must be conceptualized in relation to youths’ placement within frames…
Possibilities for self-representation for transgender (trans) and gender non-conforming (GNC) youth must be conceptualized in relation to youths’ placement within frames of power. Powerful institutional forces in youths’ lives include schools and policing and, as is evidenced by youths’ statements, extend to mass media portrayals. Library approaches that reify the inclusion of representative texts do not adequately meet the needs of trans and GNC youth. As a profession, librarianship must reflect on ideological approaches to gendered embodiment to push against an ongoing repetition of institutional harms done to trans and GNC youth.
This chapter offers examinations of information needs, complex online worlds, and incorporation of histories made invisible by power alongside critical literacy skills as crucial aspects of providing services to all possibly or actually trans and GNC youth. It critically situates the circumstances of trans youths’ lives in relation to the effect that adult perceptions have on trans and GNC youths’ ability to access resources. It provides a framework for reflection on how young adult librarians often unconsciously limit library access by enacting gendered expectations that do not always match the possibility or actuality of youths’ experiences or self-conceptions. The chapter outlines modes of communication – through library materials, programs, community resources and partnerships – that convey deeper understandings of trans and GNC experiences to possibly or actually trans and GNC youth.
Through a review of historically famous cases and a chronicle of neurotechnology development, this chapter discusses brain structure and brain function as two distinct yet…
Through a review of historically famous cases and a chronicle of neurotechnology development, this chapter discusses brain structure and brain function as two distinct yet interrelated paths to understand the relative contributions of anatomical and physiological mechanisms to the human brain–behavior relationship. From an organizational neuroscience perspective, the chapter describes over a dozen neuroimaging technologies that are classified under four groupings: morphologic, invasive metabolic, noninvasive metabolic, and electromagnetic. We then discuss neuroimaging variables that may be useful in social science investigations, and we underscore electroencephalography as a particularly useful modality for the study of individuals and groups in organizational settings. The chapter concludes by considering emerging science and novel brain technologies for the organizational researcher as we look to the future.
The reliability and maintainability of tunnel infrastructure and systems is an important factor in assuring normal operation of a tunnel. Evaluating availability of a large‐scale tunnel that includes civil, electrical, mechanical and electronic systems is a difficult task. The purpose of this paper is to present a methodology for performing such assessments, featuring the use of the Markov model.
The methodology involves application of failure mode, effect and criticality analysis (FMECA), state space diagram construction, formulation of state space equations, and development of transitional matrices. It also involves transformation of multi‐state models into two‐state models (each comprises of an “up” state and a “down” state) through the use of the frequency and duration method for determining the failure and repair rates, as well as the mean‐time‐between‐failures (MTBF) of the entire tunnel. By using the proposed bottom‐up approach, a MTBF tree linking the availability measures of individual equipment with those of sub‐systems, and ultimately the whole tunnel can be developed.
The tunnel availability measures obtained by this analysis can be used in making comparisons between different tunnel designs so as to determine the value for money of various options. Furthermore, weaknesses in a tunnel design can be identified in the analysis. The information obtained from this method can also be used to evaluate adequacy, security and maintainability of a tunnel.
The reliability and maintainability of tunnel infrastructure and systems are crucial factors for ensuring safety of tunnel operation. Unsafe conditions will cause closure of a tunnel. Efforts to improve availability of a tunnel often increase the tunnel's construction cost. Due to the complexity of tunnel systems, it is difficult to compare different tunnel designs, and trade‐off analyses to strike a balance between target availability and construction cost of a tunnel design are seldom performed. This paper presents a systematic methodology to address these issues. This methodology allows tunnel management to evaluate the adequacy, security and maintainability of a tunnel so that design weaknesses can be identified and the value of design improvements can be determined. The methodology can also be used to evaluate designs of other complex systems such as power generation or petrochemical processing plants.
A worked example demonstrating the application of the proposed methodology is presented in this paper.
THE 27th International Air and Space Show at Le Bourget will be without doubt the largest yet to be held. In fact the increase in area of the covered halls will be of the…
THE 27th International Air and Space Show at Le Bourget will be without doubt the largest yet to be held. In fact the increase in area of the covered halls will be of the order of 50 per cent, which puts into perspective the effort that is being put into the Salon by countries with large aerospace industries and the importance with which the Show is regarded. There will be a highly competitive atmosphere at Paris, but at the same time many companies will be emphasizing their international links—in terms of co‐operative ventures, production under licence or sub‐contract work.
We set up an original apparatus to measure the grain grain friction stress inside a granular medium composed of sodo‐silicate‐glass beads surrounded by a water vapor atmosphere.We analyze here the influence of the physico chemistry of water on our glass beads and its consequences on our shear experiment. We found two scales in the analysis of the shear stress signal. On the microscopic scale of one bead, the experimental results show a dependence on the size of beads, on the shear rate and on humidity for the resulting stick slip signal. On the macroscopic scale of the whole assembly of beads, the behavior of the total amplitude of the shear stress depends on the size of the beads and is humidity dependent only for relative humidity larger than 80%. For high degrees of humidity, on the microscopic scale, water lubricates the surface of the beads leading to a decrease in the microscopic resistance to shear while on the macroscopic scale the resistance to shear is increased: the assembly of very humid grains behaves as a rheothickening fluid.
– This paper aims to better understand why neoliberal governance is so resilient to the crises that frequently affect all or part of the economy.
This paper aims to better understand why neoliberal governance is so resilient to the crises that frequently affect all or part of the economy.
The argument of this paper relies on a macroanalysis of discourses surrounding the Global Financial Crisis.
Drawing on Girard and Foucault’s work, this paper argues that the resilience of neoliberalism partly ensues from the proclivity of this mode of governing to foster, for reasons that this paper seeks to highlight, spontaneous and widespread processes of scapegoating in times of turmoil. As a consequence of these processes, crises often are collectively construed as resulting from frauds: the blame is focused on specific actors whose lack of morality is denounced, and this individualizing line of interpretation protects the regime from systemic questioning.
Practical, social and political implications
Particular actors, rather than the system itself, are made accountable when things go wrong. Consequences are paramount. Today’s political economy is characterized with a proclivity toward social reproduction. While substantive change is possible in theory, considerable challenges are involved in practice in overcoming the dominance of neoliberalism in society.
Although Girard’s work has exerted significant influence over a number of disciplines in the social sciences, his ideas have not yet been widely used in governance and accountability-related research. Anthropological theorizations – such as those proposed by Girard – are valuable in providing us with a sense of how power develops in the economy.