Search results

1 – 10 of over 8000
To view the access options for this content please click here
Article
Publication date: 16 March 2010

Yi Lin and Bailey Forrest

The purpose of this paper is to reveal the mechanism underlying three fascinating problems that have been investigated by many first class scholars in sociology throughout history.

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to reveal the mechanism underlying three fascinating problems that have been investigated by many first class scholars in sociology throughout history.

Design/methodology/approach

The thinking logic and figurative method of the general systemic yoyo model, combined with laboratory experiments, are collectively employed to present a brand new methodology for the study of three unsettled problems in the research of civilizations.

Findings

The paper provides novel explanations for such fascinating but unsettled problems as: what factors determine whether a civilization is to live or die? What brings prosperity to a specific geographic region? How does a new emerging or reviving civilization adopt elements of existing or other civilizations to build or reconstruct its own organizational structure?

Originality/value

This paper presents how laws and conclusions developed in systems science in general and the systemic yoyo model in particular can bring forward tangible results in social science with solid scientific merits. Considering the importance of the conclusions drawn in this paper, it is expected that this paper will produce results that can be truly useful for policy makers at national and international levels.

Details

Kybernetes, vol. 39 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0368-492X

Keywords

To view the access options for this content please click here
Book part
Publication date: 15 October 2005

Yuri V. Yakovets

Regional civilizations have existed for more than 5,000 years. Each has evolved from primitive, social and political systems into much more complex ones to meet the…

Abstract

Regional civilizations have existed for more than 5,000 years. Each has evolved from primitive, social and political systems into much more complex ones to meet the challenges of historical ages and successive world civilizations (Yakovets, 2000). In the third millennium, regional civilizations face a new challenge – globalization and post-industrial world civilization.

Details

Eurasia
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-84950-011-1

To view the access options for this content please click here
Article
Publication date: 1 March 1992

John Conway O'Brien

A collection of essays by a social economist seeking to balanceeconomics as a science of means with the values deemed necessary toman′s finding the good life and society…

Abstract

A collection of essays by a social economist seeking to balance economics as a science of means with the values deemed necessary to man′s finding the good life and society enduring as a civilized instrumentality. Looks for authority to great men of the past and to today′s moral philosopher: man is an ethical animal. The 13 essays are: 1. Evolutionary Economics: The End of It All? which challenges the view that Darwinism destroyed belief in a universe of purpose and design; 2. Schmoller′s Political Economy: Its Psychic, Moral and Legal Foundations, which centres on the belief that time‐honoured ethical values prevail in an economy formed by ties of common sentiment, ideas, customs and laws; 3. Adam Smith by Gustav von Schmoller – Schmoller rejects Smith′s natural law and sees him as simply spreading the message of Calvinism; 4. Pierre‐Joseph Proudhon, Socialist – Karl Marx, Communist: A Comparison; 5. Marxism and the Instauration of Man, which raises the question for Marx: is the flowering of the new man in Communist society the ultimate end to the dialectical movement of history?; 6. Ethical Progress and Economic Growth in Western Civilization; 7. Ethical Principles in American Society: An Appraisal; 8. The Ugent Need for a Consensus on Moral Values, which focuses on the real dangers inherent in there being no consensus on moral values; 9. Human Resources and the Good Society – man is not to be treated as an economic resource; man′s moral and material wellbeing is the goal; 10. The Social Economist on the Modern Dilemma: Ethical Dwarfs and Nuclear Giants, which argues that it is imperative to distinguish good from evil and to act accordingly: existentialism, situation ethics and evolutionary ethics savour of nihilism; 11. Ethical Principles: The Economist′s Quandary, which is the difficulty of balancing the claims of disinterested science and of the urge to better the human condition; 12. The Role of Government in the Advancement of Cultural Values, which discusses censorship and the funding of art against the background of the US Helms Amendment; 13. Man at the Crossroads draws earlier themes together; the author makes the case for rejecting determinism and the “operant conditioning” of the Skinner school in favour of the moral progress of autonomous man through adherence to traditional ethical values.

Details

International Journal of Social Economics, vol. 19 no. 3/4/5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0306-8293

Keywords

To view the access options for this content please click here
Article
Publication date: 1 June 2001

John Conway O’Brien

The purpose of this paper is to re‐examine the views of Freud in his Civilization and its Discontents and compare his idea of civilization with that of other scholars in…

Abstract

The purpose of this paper is to re‐examine the views of Freud in his Civilization and its Discontents and compare his idea of civilization with that of other scholars in order to determine if we will ever be able to create a society which will endure in these days of nuclear power. The dangers to humanity are great, the solution difficult to see. Freud emphasized self‐interest and aggressiveness as the failings in man which would lead to the collapse of civilization, summed up in the Latin tag: homo homine lupus. Freud rejected out of hand religion as a remedy for man’s aggressiveness. This view of civilization is compared with that of Albert Schweitzer in his The Philosophy of Civilization. Schweitzer sees the enduring society as one in which man has become ethical and thereby dedicated himself to the good of society and in so doing shows a reverence for life. This study then examines the view of Ortega y Gasset, who finds in The Revolt of the Masses the success of society to lie in the efforts of men of talent, select men who have dedicated themselves to the advancement of society in accordance with the old adage, noblesse oblige. Finally we examine the Civilisation of Kenneth Clark, which is concerned with man’s development in the arts as he removes himself farther and farther from the state of the savage. The views of Arnold Toynbee on civilization are examined. Toynbee finds that our civilization, Western Christendom, will play an ever decreasing role in the global society. Toynbee also fears the coming of a nuclear holocaust but is confident there will be survivors. The possibility of a nuclear war attests the aggressiveness of man. Finally, to illustrate the evil effects of nuclear power, a brief glance is taken at the horrors that overtook the citizens of the Japanese cities of Hiroshima and Nagasaki when they were the targets of the atomic bomb in 1945. The only feasible solution to this grave problem appears to be a nuclear‐weapon‐free world. Even then the world is not safe from the aggressive nature of some rogue nation which seeks to take advantage of such a situation and dominate the world. This contingency is commonly referred to as the genie is out of the bottle. The number of genies increased when North Korea, India and Pakistan claimed the addition of nuclear weapons to their arsenal. Man has to control his fellow man’s urge to advance his self‐interest at any cost, if we are to endure. As Freud in his perspicacity put it: homo homine lupus.

Details

International Journal of Social Economics, vol. 28 no. 5/6/7
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0306-8293

Keywords

To view the access options for this content please click here
Article
Publication date: 16 March 2010

Yi Lin and Bailey Forrest

The purpose of this paper is to reveal the mechanism underlying many inexplicable phenomena observed in social organizations and human history by using the general…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to reveal the mechanism underlying many inexplicable phenomena observed in social organizations and human history by using the general systemic yoyo model.

Design/methodology/approach

Such traditional tools as laboratory experiments, calculus‐based methods, quantitative reasoning of microeconomics, and set‐theoretical logic are collectively employed to present a brand new method for the study of many unsettled problems in the research of civilizations.

Findings

Among a whole series of open problems, novel explanations are provided for important questions like: how do civilizations or cultures form? Why did Western democracy not originate in Eastern Asian or other parts of the world? Why does each blown‐up that it bridges a transition between organizational expansion and contraction represents a weakest link in the evolution of a social entity? Why are there nation states within a civilization? Why is the Western civilization having multiple centers or core states, while the Sinic civilization has one core state and the Islamic civilization does not seem to have any core states? How can policy makers separate civilizations from each other?

Originality/value

This work presents how systems science in general and the systemic yoyo model in particular can bring forward tangible results in social science with solid scientific merits. Owing to the novelty of reasoning and sound conclusions derived on solid scientific foundations, it is expected that this work will produce such results that can be truly useful for policy makers at national and international levels.

Details

Kybernetes, vol. 39 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0368-492X

Keywords

To view the access options for this content please click here
Article
Publication date: 9 February 2015

Bruno André Giraudon

Abstract

Details

International Journal of Conflict Management, vol. 26 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1044-4068

To view the access options for this content please click here
Article
Publication date: 11 April 2016

David Howden and Joakim Kampe

The authors begin with an admittedly simplistic statement: “civilization” is best represented by the increased availability of utility providing goods and services. In…

Abstract

Purpose

The authors begin with an admittedly simplistic statement: “civilization” is best represented by the increased availability of utility providing goods and services. In other words, civilization is synonymous with economic development. The purpose of this paper is to concern three questions. First, how does civilization develop? Second, what is time preference and how does it affect the development of civilization, or what the authors call the “process of civilization.” Third, what factors affect time preference, and how do changes in time preference affect this civilizing process? Through these three questions, the authors provide the theoretical answer to why civilization developed, instead of the more common historical how civilization actually developed.

Design/methodology/approach

The authors survey a variety of theories of civilization, and then develop an alternative that answers the question of “how civilization develops” rather than the more common “how did civilization develop.”

Findings

Endogenous reductions in time preference are determined to be the best explanation of the spark that instigates the process of civilization. It also allows for other approaches to fall under its umbrella, thus providing one general theory in place of the current-specific theories.

Originality/value

The value lies in the creation of a general theory of civilization, against which other theories looking at specific factors can be gauged.

Details

International Journal of Social Economics, vol. 43 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0306-8293

Keywords

To view the access options for this content please click here
Article
Publication date: 1 December 1999

Leslie Armour

The globalisation of the world economy has left governments less powerful and threatened cultures with homogenisation. The Huntington thesis – that the world is now…

Abstract

The globalisation of the world economy has left governments less powerful and threatened cultures with homogenisation. The Huntington thesis – that the world is now divided into rival civilisations and that they are likely to be the source of the next round of world conflicts – may seem weak in the light of this. In fact many people fear that economic efficiency will produce a single culture and, because it will be dominated by hotly competing corporations with little restraint, will threaten civility itself. R.G. Collingwood even argued that economics as a practical science threatens civilisation by its very existence. This paper argues that, if one takes seriously Collingwood’s own distinction between wealth and riches, and if a co‐operative economy can be made to flourish, civilisation can readily survive. Wealth in these terms is a community resource which frees up human possibilities, riches are personal barricades and a source of power, and we can understand how to maximise wealth without creating unnecessary riches. In these terms the three main competing civilisations – that of the West, that of Islam, and the Chinese civilisation which is exemplified, for instance in Taiwan, may well survive and remain distinct. They represent basic human choices. For one can have societies in which the major focus is on individuals, societies in which it is on the community as a whole, and societies in which it is on families, social groups, churches and other institutions which comprise civil society.

Details

International Journal of Social Economics, vol. 26 no. 12
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0306-8293

Keywords

To view the access options for this content please click here
Article
Publication date: 24 June 2006

Anne Scrimgeour

During the first half of the nineteenth century Aboriginal schools were established in a number of Australian colonies as a part of a project to ‘civilise’ Aboriginal…

Abstract

During the first half of the nineteenth century Aboriginal schools were established in a number of Australian colonies as a part of a project to ‘civilise’ Aboriginal people. Using the case study of schools established in Adelaide, South Australia, in the 1840s, this article examines differences in the way the notion of ‘civilisation’ was understood by colonial educators and civilisers, and how these differences impacted on the form of schooling provided. In particular, the article compares the views of German Lutheran missionaries who established the first Aboriginal school in Adelaide in 1839, and those of Governor George Grey, who instituted changes in the approach taken in Aboriginal education which reflected his own views about ‘civilisation’ and the ‘civilising’ process

Details

History of Education Review, vol. 35 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0819-8691

Keywords

Content available
Article
Publication date: 11 February 2019

Seth D. Baum, Stuart Armstrong, Timoteus Ekenstedt, Olle Häggström, Robin Hanson, Karin Kuhlemann, Matthijs M. Maas, James D. Miller, Markus Salmela, Anders Sandberg, Kaj Sotala, Phil Torres, Alexey Turchin and Roman V. Yampolskiy

This paper aims to formalize long-term trajectories of human civilization as a scientific and ethical field of study. The long-term trajectory of human civilization can be…

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to formalize long-term trajectories of human civilization as a scientific and ethical field of study. The long-term trajectory of human civilization can be defined as the path that human civilization takes during the entire future time period in which human civilization could continue to exist.

Design/methodology/approach

This paper focuses on four types of trajectories: status quo trajectories, in which human civilization persists in a state broadly similar to its current state into the distant future; catastrophe trajectories, in which one or more events cause significant harm to human civilization; technological transformation trajectories, in which radical technological breakthroughs put human civilization on a fundamentally different course; and astronomical trajectories, in which human civilization expands beyond its home planet and into the accessible portions of the cosmos.

Findings

Status quo trajectories appear unlikely to persist into the distant future, especially in light of long-term astronomical processes. Several catastrophe, technological transformation and astronomical trajectories appear possible.

Originality/value

Some current actions may be able to affect the long-term trajectory. Whether these actions should be pursued depends on a mix of empirical and ethical factors. For some ethical frameworks, these actions may be especially important to pursue.

Details

foresight, vol. 21 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1463-6689

Keywords

1 – 10 of over 8000