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Article

Gemma Bridge, Beth Armstrong, Christian Reynolds, Changqiong Wang, Ximena Schmidt, Astrid Kause, Charles Ffoulkes, Coleman Krawczyk, Grant Miller, Stephen Serjeant and Libby Oakden

The study aims to compare survey recruitment rates between Facebook, Twitter and Qualtrics and to assess the impact of recruitment method on estimates of energy content…

Abstract

Purpose

The study aims to compare survey recruitment rates between Facebook, Twitter and Qualtrics and to assess the impact of recruitment method on estimates of energy content, food safety, carbon footprint and animal welfare across 29 foods.

Design/methodology/approach

Two versions of an online survey were developed on the citizen science platform, Zooniverse. The surveys explored citizen estimations of energy density (kcal) or carbon footprint (Co2) and food safety or animal welfare of 29 commonly eaten foods. Survey recruitment was conducted via paid promotions on Twitter and Facebook and via paid respondent invites on Qualtrics. The study included approximately 500 participants (Facebook, N˜11 (ratings 358), Twitter, N˜85 (ratings 2,184), Qualtrics, N = 398 (ratings 11,910)). Kruskal–Wallis and Chi-square analyses compared citizen estimations with validated values and assessed the impact of the variables on estimations.

Findings

Citizens were unable to accurately estimate carbon footprint and energy content, with most citizens overestimating values. Citizen estimates were most accurate for meat products. Qualtrics was the most successful recruitment method for the online survey. Citizen estimates between platforms were significantly different, suggesting that Facebook and Twitter may not be suitable recruitment methods for citizen online surveys.

Practical implications

Qualtrics was the favourable platform for survey recruitment. However, estimates across all recruitment platforms were poor. As paid recruitment methods such as Qualtrics are costly, the authors recommend continued examination of the social media environment to develop appropriate, affordable and timely online recruitment strategies for citizen science.

Originality/value

The findings indicate that citizens are unable to accurately estimate the carbon footprint and energy content of foods suggesting a focus on consumer education is needed to enable consumers to move towards more sustainable and healthy diets. Essential if we are to meet the 2030 Sustainable Development Goals of zero hunger, good health and wellbeing and responsible consumption and production. The study highlights the utility of Zooniverse for assessing citizen estimates of carbon footprint, energy content, animal welfare and safety of foods.

Details

British Food Journal, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0007-070X

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Article

Niels Ole Pors

The purpose of this paper is to analyse the introduction of citizen services in the public libraries in Denmark. The paper focuses on how library staff has perceived the…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to analyse the introduction of citizen services in the public libraries in Denmark. The paper focuses on how library staff has perceived the introduction and how the library visitors look at it. The paper further elicits information about differences between library visitors using this service and visitors not using it.

Design/methodology/approach

The paper examines the introduction of citizen services in two local libraries. It focuses on staff reactions and perceptions and it also analyses the use and perception of the service in relation to the traditional services. The paper is based on interviews with the involved library staff, citizen service users and administrative staff. The paper is also founded on a survey among library visitors in the two libraries. The survey was conducted as an on‐line and a paper‐based survey.

Findings

The major findings of the paper are that the library staff as a whole welcome the new work tasks because they feel that it is of value for the local community. The findings also indicate that a feared conflict between service tasks and authority tasks did not pose a problem in reality. The library visitors as a whole also welcomed the citizen service in the local libraries and perceived it as a kind of service improvement. Nearly, 25 per cent of the users have used this service in the library and they appreciated it very much. However, the service does not rank high in the visitors' perception of significance of library services. It indicates that the library visitors appreciate new services that are convenient but also that it does not matter that much. The paper also indicates that it is frequent library visitors who use citizen services in library most. There is no indication of the new library users as an effect of the introduction of citizen services in the library.

Research limitations/implications

The limitation is, of course, that the paper is based on a study of only two local branches and it would be scientifically problematic to generalise the results – at least in a statistical sense.

Originality/value

The paper is based on a traditional evaluation study. It is one of the comprehensive assessments of introduction of citizen services in Denmark and some of the findings will be of wider interest for other libraries that intend to take up the cooperative service.

Details

New Library World, vol. 111 no. 7/8
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0307-4803

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Expert briefing

A profile of the Citizens movement.

Details

DOI: 10.1108/OXAN-DB199135

ISSN: 2633-304X

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Geographic
Topical
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Article

Richard R. Johnson

The most frequent type of citizen complaint filed against police officers involves how the officer uses interpersonal communication. The most common context of police…

Abstract

The most frequent type of citizen complaint filed against police officers involves how the officer uses interpersonal communication. The most common context of police‐citizen contact is the traffic stop, and verbal judo is the most widely used police training program in interpersonal communication intended to reduce citizen complaints and improve citizen cooperation. However, does verbal judo meet citizen expectations for appropriate traffic stop behavior? In order to determine what communication behaviors citizens view as appropriate during traffic stops, a sample of 245 college students were surveyed about their preferences with regard to the officers' behavior. The responses of the sample support the use of verbal judo techniques during routine traffic stops. The responses also demonstrated support for the theory of procedural justice.

Details

Policing: An International Journal of Police Strategies & Management, vol. 27 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1363-951X

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Article

Fabio Cassia and Francesca Magno

According to the “New Public Management” paradigm, citizens are viewed as active participants through all the different steps of service planning and provision…

Abstract

Purpose

According to the “New Public Management” paradigm, citizens are viewed as active participants through all the different steps of service planning and provision. Nonetheless, citizens' involvement is still far from being systematically applied within local governments. The purpose of this paper is to give a contribution to this stream of research by investigating whether a part of this resistance could be explained by the differences between public administrators and elected officials' perspectives on the role of the citizens in service quality improvement processes.

Design/methodology/approach

A mail survey was conducted among a sample of Italian town municipalities in May and June of 2010. A total of 102 questionnaires were returned (59 from politicians and 43 from public managers), and these questionnaires were then analysed through t‐tests and regressions.

Findings

Findings support the existence of a statistically significant difference between public administrators' and elected officials' attitudes. Differences exist in three main issues: the relative importance of citizens as sources of inputs to improve public service quality, the objectives of citizens' involvement and the structure of citizens' preferences.

Research limitations/implications

Results could have been influenced by the degree of New Public Management development within the specific research setting (Italian local governments).

Practical implications

Formalising the role, the timing and the contribution of citizens' involvement to the municipal decision‐making process could help to mitigate the mentioned dualism. Creating a favourable cultural background and sharing a citizen‐oriented vision within the whole organisation, from top levels to front‐line employees, is fundamental.

Originality/value

This paper is the first to suggest that these resistances toward involving citizens in quality improvement processes could be due to the differences between administrators' and elected officials' perspectives.

Details

The TQM Journal, vol. 23 no. 5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1754-2731

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Article

Anupriya Khan and Satish Krishnan

The purpose of this study is to develop an in-depth understanding of the overall process of facilitating co-creation of e-government services, focusing on the government's…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this study is to develop an in-depth understanding of the overall process of facilitating co-creation of e-government services, focusing on the government's role in fostering citizen engagement.

Design/methodology/approach

This study conducted a meta-synthesis of qualitative case studies encompassing analyses on a case-specific level followed by syntheses on a cross-study level.

Findings

Through meta-synthesis, the study developed an integrated framework, the process theory view of enabling co-creation of e-government services, illustrating how co-creation could be initiated and facilitated by the government.

Research limitations/implications

By providing critical insights into co-creation steps, the process theory view offers a holistic theoretical understanding of enabling co-creation by identifying factors driving and motivating governments to initiate co-creation activities, interpreting the prerequisites for co-creation and the importance of impact assessment.

Practical implications

This study offers important implications for public authorities, administrators and policymakers by helping them enhance their knowledge base on the co-creation process to facilitate a higher level of collaboration between citizens and government for effective and efficient public service delivery through e-government.

Originality/value

While it is widely acknowledged that citizen engagement is crucial for improving and transforming the development and delivery of e-government services, it is equally recognized as a challenging and complex task. Through a meta-synthesis of qualitative case studies, this study is one of the first to develop a process theory view for offering a holistic understanding and crucial insights for addressing the concerns over the co-creation of e-government services.

Details

Internet Research, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1066-2243

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Article

Sohail Raza Chohan, Guangwei Hu, Asad Ullah Khan, Ahmad Tisman Pasha and Muhammad Atif Sheikh

The purpose of this paper is to describe the application of design and behavior science collectively in refining the government to citizens’ (G2C) cognitive-communication…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to describe the application of design and behavior science collectively in refining the government to citizens’ (G2C) cognitive-communication by using artificial intelligence (AI) artifacts. It investigates the citizens’ behavior intention to use AI cognitive-communication channels in e-government services.

Design/methodology/approach

This study reveals the potential of unification in design and behavior science paradigms when integrated into AI artifacts in measuring the constructive outcome of proposed architecture that embraces the perceived risk and trust in citizens’ usage behavior intentions. To evaluate the practical relevance of design science paradigm, action research was incorporated by developing an app as an exemplified scenario.

Findings

The weaknesses of traditional G2C channel communication obliterated by AI virtual agents. This study proposes a five-layer architecture model created with citizens-centered design highlighting the improved relevance for G2C cognitive-communication. The behavior model supports citizens’ usage behavior intentions through trust as a positive attribute and negative attribute as a perceived risk.

Research limitations/implications

This study contributes to the knowledge of design science paradigm particularly to AI-based cognitive G2C communication. The architecture serves for deploying virtual agents to automate the public officials for decision-making processes. The authors have constructed a cognitive-communication model and have examined the relationships among the extents of cognitive-communication model. This channel has the potential to significantly transform G2C cognitive and intelligent communication.

Practical implications

This cognitive-communication channel has the potential to significantly transform the communication between government and citizens. Such a model can be an interest of developers, researchers and government policymakers in a holistic approach drawn from theory and methods of both design and behavior science to create a successful communication scenario.

Social implications

Advances in technology are not without social implications. The study results can dramatically improve the efficiencies of government workplaces and can augment the human working. It will help to reduce the government services discriminations among the citizens and contribute to society through social inclusion.

Originality/value

This study addresses the duality in information system research by first defining the theoretical framework for G2C cognitive-communication architecture and then developing a research model drawn upon a citizens’ service usage behavioral theory. It will also contribute to providing important perceptions of AI practices in the public sector.

Details

Transforming Government: People, Process and Policy, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1750-6166

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Article

Jeffrey A. Stone and S. Hakan Can

The purpose of this paper is to determine the demographic, resource and internal competition factors that influence both the level of citizen engagement provided by…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to determine the demographic, resource and internal competition factors that influence both the level of citizen engagement provided by municipal Twitter accounts as well as the primary purposes for which those accounts are used.

Design/methodology/approach

This research uses a mixed-methods approach. Twitter data were content analyzed and categorized according to their specific purposes (information dissemination, community building or calls to action). Twitter engagement was measured as an index variable constructed from prior research, and multiple regression was used to determine the factors which best predict both account engagement and tweet purposes.

Findings

The results show that two factors (a multiplatform approach and fiscal health) along with the interaction of those factors predict the level of Twitter-based citizen engagement. Median citizen age was found to significantly predict the percentage of municipal tweets with purposes of information dissemination and community building.

Originality/value

This study adds to the literature on public sector social media use by examining the purposes and practices of local government Twitter use, providing a context for examining how Twitter is employed by local governments for citizen engagement.

Details

Online Information Review, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1468-4527

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Book part

Marloes Vlind and Peer Smets

Purpose – Based on a case study of citizens’ summits in Amsterdam, this chapter examines competing aims bound up in attempts to create an in-between space where…

Abstract

Purpose – Based on a case study of citizens’ summits in Amsterdam, this chapter examines competing aims bound up in attempts to create an in-between space where participants struggle to obtain a sense of belonging against the background of (non)diversity.

Methodology/Approach – A qualitative case study approach is used based on participant observation, informal talks with participants, and interviews with the summit organizers.

Findings – A citizens’ summit can be seen as an in-between space where narratives of citizens should dominate instead of (local) governmental rhetoric. Citizens´ summits create a voice for citizens who are normally less heard in the public debate. To what extent this can be achieved depends on how a summit enables a diversity of participants to practice dialogue, create common ground and share ownership of ideas, problems and solutions. Our findings provide insight into contested belonging within the democratic system in the Netherlands and elsewhere.

Social Implications – We suggest that belonging, space and diversity affect social boundaries between those in the electoral democratic system and those participating in citizens’ summits. Focussing on these can lead towards more inclusive democratic systems for all.

Originality/Value of the Paper – Citizens’ summits are often seen as a democratic tool that supplements the electoral democracy. This study looks at the interactions between participants, revealing much about the functioning of deliberative space in citizens’ summits. We also focus on the issue of participant diversity and how senses of belonging include or exclude sections of society.

Details

Contested Belonging: Spaces, Practices, Biographies
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78743-206-2

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Book part

Maarten Van Craen

In this chapter, I reflect on the foundations of the “fair policing from the inside out” approach to identify elements that may complement and refine this theoretical framework.

Abstract

Purpose

In this chapter, I reflect on the foundations of the “fair policing from the inside out” approach to identify elements that may complement and refine this theoretical framework.

Methodology/approach

I address the question of how fair policing can be achieved from a multidisciplinary perspective. Insights and empirical evidence from criminology, psychology, management, and political science/public administration are used to theorize the relationship between internal and external procedural justice.

Findings

Both the theoretical framework itself and the conceptual model that has been derived from it are refined. In total, four aspects are elaborated: (1) I stress more explicitly the potential mediating role of moral alignment with citizens; (2) I point more explicitly at the potential mediating role of trust in supervisors and moral alignment with supervisors; (3) I hypothesize that strain/stress may mediate the relationship between internal and external procedural fairness; and (4) I hypothesize several links between mediators.

Originality/value

This chapter contributes to the challenge of theorizing the origins of fair policing. It aims at widening the scope of police research.

Details

The Politics of Policing: Between Force and Legitimacy
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78635-030-5

Keywords

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