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Article
Publication date: 26 October 2010

Cindy Millman, Zhengwei Li, Harry Matlay and Wang‐chan Wong

The aim of this paper is to examine factors that motivate Chinese students' attitudes and perceptions relating to their internet entrepreneurship intentions (IEIs).

Abstract

Purpose

The aim of this paper is to examine factors that motivate Chinese students' attitudes and perceptions relating to their internet entrepreneurship intentions (IEIs).

Design/methodology/approach

This paper is based on the results of a survey of students studying at three universities in China. It explores gender, household incomes, study disciplines, online activities as well as other factors that might influence their internet entrepreneurship intentions.

Findings

It emerges that demographic factors such as gender, household incomes and student status are positively related to their IEIs. The disciplines that a student studies, information and communication technology (ICT) courses and online shopping experiences significantly impact on their IEIs.

Practical implications

The results of this research study provide empirically rigorous evidence for understanding the reasons why some students in Chinese HEIs are more likely than others to become internet entrepreneurs.

Originality/value

Although the survey focuses on respondents studying in Chinese HEIs, the results of this research study could prove useful for entrepreneurship educators in industrially developed and developing countries.

Details

Journal of Small Business and Enterprise Development, vol. 17 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1462-6004

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 24 October 2008

Cindy Millman, Harry Matlay and Fan Liu

This paper aims to provide an overview of entrepreneurship education in the wider context of the Chinese educational system in transition and raise pertinent questions…

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to provide an overview of entrepreneurship education in the wider context of the Chinese educational system in transition and raise pertinent questions regarding its direction and future development.

Design/methodology/approach

A case study approach is used to provide an in‐depth analysis of the challenges and outcomes of the “Know about your business” (KAB) programme initiated by the International Labour Organisation and piloted at the China Youth University for Political Sciences in Beijing.

Findings

The evaluation of the KAB pilot programme showed that it proved largely successful: 43.9 per cent of participating students were very satisfied with it, 52.6 per cent claimed to be satisfied and only 3.5 per cent were not content with it. Student feedback highlighted a small number of problems with this programme, including issues relating to a lack of market research knowledge, limited contact hours, a shortage of business plan models and difficulties in managing related team work.

Originality/value

The results of the pilot programme could be used to further improve and develop entrepreneurship education in general and the KAB programme in particular, with a view to implement it more widely in selective business schools across China.

Details

Journal of Small Business and Enterprise Development, vol. 15 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1462-6004

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 15 May 2007

Cindy Millman and Lynn M. Martin

The aim of the research was to explore the lead roles taken by women in some successful small copreneurial companies by studying similar small firms in one sector.

Abstract

Purpose

The aim of the research was to explore the lead roles taken by women in some successful small copreneurial companies by studying similar small firms in one sector.

Design/methodology/approach

Here, a multiple case study approach was selected, using narrative as a key focus, to explore the way the business had been set up, and its subsequent growth. The role of both partners was also explored, plus strategy, leadership and work: life balance.

Findings

New insights emerge about copreneurship where females take lead roles in management, both at start up and through company development. Female partners had an equal or overriding need for achievement to their partners, possessed great self confidence, perceived no barriers to women in business, took a strategic role in the firm from start up through development, drew salaries equal to their male partners and managed life at home and at work.

Research limitations/implications

The case study approach gives insights but other studies are needed, both quantitative and qualitative, to identify whether these were isolated examples or a common experience for copreneurial firms or for this sector. Two had left scientific jobs to start a food product business – an unexpected finding, requiring further study given the poor records for female participation in UK science professions.

Practical implications

The study provides insights for those agencies supporting business development by adding to the role models and images of women taking a lead role.

Originality/value

The study focuses on an under‐researched area. Here, the five female copreneurs perceive themselves – and are perceived – as entrepreneurs, taking a lead and developing strategic vision for the firm. This is an under‐researched aspect of female enterprise.

Details

Women in Management Review, vol. 22 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0964-9425

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 26 July 2011

Zheng‐wei Li, Cindy Millman and Ren‐yong Chi

Innovation is becoming the key approach for firms to achieve sustainable competitive advantages. The purpose of this paper is to examine whether government public R&D…

Abstract

Purpose

Innovation is becoming the key approach for firms to achieve sustainable competitive advantages. The purpose of this paper is to examine whether government public R&D subsidies have a positive impact on firms' private R&D investment (RDI) under globalization; this paper also investigates the impact of international trade on firms' private RDI in China.

Design/methodology/approach

The paper empirically tests the government support and international trade on firms' private RDI. An online survey was conducted as well as collaborated with the Department of Science and Technology of Zhejiang Province in 2006. The sample was obtained from more than 1,000 firms in high‐tech industries in Zhejiang province, and covers the year 2003‐2005. Linear regression was used for the firm‐level estimations.

Findings

The empirical results indicate that public R&D subsidies and disembodied technology imports positively and significantly impact on firms' private RDI, while non‐high‐tech product exports and embodied technology imports do not have positive effects. Moreover, the results show that high‐tech product exports are positively associated with firms' private RDI but not significantly.

Originality/value

The paper's findings extend the existing understanding of the determinants of firms' RDI in less developed countries, such as China. Moreover, unlike most extant studies, the authors investigate different types of exports and imports and their impacts on firms' RDI, respectively.

Details

Journal of Science and Technology Policy in China, vol. 2 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1758-552X

Keywords

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Abstract

Details

Journal of Small Business and Enterprise Development, vol. 13 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1462-6004

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Article
Publication date: 4 March 2014

Jonathan Matthew Scott, Richard T. Harrison, Javed Hussain and Cindy Millman

This exploratory study aims to examine how knowledge acquired via guanxi (networks and connections) is enabling women in China to overcome a number of significant barriers…

Abstract

Purpose

This exploratory study aims to examine how knowledge acquired via guanxi (networks and connections) is enabling women in China to overcome a number of significant barriers and challenges in order to start and grow successful businesses.

Design/methodology/approach

The authors undertook two in-depth interviews to qualitatively investigate the use of guanxi as a means of overcoming various barriers faced by Chinese women in establishing and growing their businesses.

Findings

The findings suggest that family background (and, in particular, support from parents and spouses), experience, training, education and finance are key success factors influencing the performance of women-led firms in China. The experiences of the two entrepreneurs in the study demonstrate the importance of mentors in helping to develop a woman's business acumen and providing the right contacts to help overcome potential barriers to developing a successful business.

Research limitations/implications

While this study provides a useful first step to better understanding the role of guanxi networks in supporting women-led ventures in China, further research is needed to test the generalizability of the findings.

Originality/value

This study contributes to the limited prior research focusing on the important role of guanxi networks in assisting Chinese women to successfully launch and grow new ventures.

Details

International Journal of Gender and Entrepreneurship, vol. 6 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1756-6266

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 16 March 2010

Javed G. Hussain, Jonathan M. Scott, Richard T. Harrison and Cindy Millman

The purpose of this exploratory paper is to theorise and examine gender differences in the impact of financial capital on Chinese firms' growth, and investigate the role…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this exploratory paper is to theorise and examine gender differences in the impact of financial capital on Chinese firms' growth, and investigate the role of guanxi (connections and networks) in the process of obtaining finance.

Design/methodology/approach

A structured questionnaire is used to collect comprehensive financial data from 18 women to 69 men, which is analysed empirically.

Findings

Women appear to be no more disadvantaged from obtaining finance than men in China and in some respects appear to be in a better position. Both women‐ and men‐led firms are significantly stronger in relation to having access to enough finance to grow than at the start‐up phase. A majority of participants in this study used guanxi to access finance. Furthermore, the paper finds that guanxi is used equally by men and women, and that guanxi‐sourced finance comprised a significant proportion of the overall capital obtained.

Research limitations/implications

One major limitation of the study is that, of the 87 questionnaires returned, 21 per cent are women and 79 per cent are men and, although the findings are not representative or generalisable, the results do suggest a number of possible avenues for future research.

Originality/value

The paper has illuminated the under‐explored area of the financing of growth in women‐led firms in China. This research agenda is particularly important because small‐ and medium‐sized enterprise finance in China is a key need‐to‐know area, there is a paucity of specific research on financing women entrepreneurs in China and of the phenomenal rise of women's entrepreneurship in China.

Details

Gender in Management: An International Journal, vol. 25 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1754-2413

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 1 October 2006

Julie McKeown, Cindy Millman, Srikanth Reddy Sursani, Kelly Smith and Lynn M. Martin

The purpose of this paper is to review the progress made by UK higher education institutions (HEIs) to deliver the enterprise education agenda. The key areas for research…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to review the progress made by UK higher education institutions (HEIs) to deliver the enterprise education agenda. The key areas for research included the type, content and delivery methods of graduate enterprise education being offered in the UK.

Design/methodology/approach

A questionnaire was e‐mailed to 123 HEIs in the UK, together with a brief introduction stating the purpose of the research. These were followed up by telephone calls to request responses.

Findings

The paper finds that provision of entrepreneurship education is varied, with both entrepreneurship and innovation courses on offer. Entrepreneurship education is most often offered at postgraduate level and on a part time basis. Overall, delivery methods proved to be more traditional than anticipated, with few instances of action learning or the use of technology to support learning. There were differences between pre‐ and post‐1992 HEIs, and little attention was given to topic areas evident in relevant UK policy initiatives.

Research limitations/implications

Supports entrepreneurship education, key capacities need to be addressed within HEIs, at senior and other levels, so that graduate enterprise embodies the entrepreneurial spirit and delivers the expected results of governmental focus and intervention.

Originality/value

This is one of the first surveys to explore how enterprise education is delivered within UK HEIs.

Details

Education + Training, vol. 48 no. 8/9
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0040-0912

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 1 October 2006

Javed Hussain, Cindy Millman and Harry Matlay

The purpose of this research is to outline the preliminary results of an empirical investigation into access to finance and related issues, as experienced by SME…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this research is to outline the preliminary results of an empirical investigation into access to finance and related issues, as experienced by SME owner/managers in the UK and in China.

Design/methodology/approach

The authors employed a telephone survey involving a sample of SME owner/managers operating in the UK and in China. A detailed, semi‐structured questionnaire was administered to a selected sample of 32 matched SMEs. The survey requested quantitative and qualitative information on sources of finance, both preferred and actually used by owner/managers, during three stages in their firm's business cycle: at start up, after two years and over the next five years.

Findings

Evidence suggests that there are similarities as well as differences between SME financing in the UK and in China. In terms of initial (start‐up) funding, a large proportion of respondents relied exclusively on financial support from their immediate family. After two years in business, respondents exhibited a higher reliance on own savings and the financial support of bank and other financial institutions. At the end of five years of uninterrupted economic activity, most of the owner/managers in the UK sample relied for their borrowing needs primarily on financial institutions and to a lesser extent upon their own savings. In contrast, owner/managers in China depended mainly upon financial support from their immediate family and to a lesser extent on financial institutions.

Research limitations/implications

The sample for this research study is both small and selective. It is not meant to represent a random or statistically significant selection of either the UK or Chinese SME sectors.

Originality/value

The financing preferences of owner/managers in the sample have been influenced by their perception of the relative strength and weaknesses of domestic finance infrastructures. The results of this research study is indicative of SME owner/managers' financing needs, attitudes and perception. Future developments and the strengthening of the legal and financial infrastructure in China could significantly reduce the comparative gap between owner/manager preferences in these two countries.

Details

Journal of Small Business and Enterprise Development, vol. 13 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1462-6004

Keywords

Content available
Article
Publication date: 4 February 2014

Martin McCracken

Abstract

Details

Education + Training, vol. 56 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0040-0912

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