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Despite a decade of economic liberalisation, the police service has been largely spared any reform of its State monopoly position. Removed from the constant need to…
Despite a decade of economic liberalisation, the police service has been largely spared any reform of its State monopoly position. Removed from the constant need to maintain a competitive edge which spurs the private sector, the police service has found itself undermined by the same problems as other State monopolies: high and rising costs, top‐heavy bureaucracy, a lack of flexibility and a propensity to favour ever greater increments in resourcing. New working practices and methods are slow to be implemented because of the inherent conservatism of the structure. There is now considerable pressure to review performance in terms of efficiency, effectiveness and value for money whilst providing a quality service.
Reforms to the international postal market.
The purpose of this article discusses the design of underground eco-houses using a dome structure of light construction while taking into account the historical experience…
The purpose of this article discusses the design of underground eco-houses using a dome structure of light construction while taking into account the historical experience of the development of the local population. This article considered the traditions of folk architecture and modern sophistication in the creation of energy-efficient eco-houses in foreign countries in the context of architecture and construction of affordable residential homes for the local population.
The research presented in this paper was motivated by the need for developing agro-tourism facilities in hard-to-reach areas of the Silk Road in Southern Kazakhstan causes the construction of eco-houses built using local construction materials. Since ancient times in Southern Kazakhstan and during seasonal migrations in yurts of light construction, people have lived in mud-brick houses deep in the ground. Along with architectural and artistic solutions in building construction, great importance was attached to saving material resources, labour costs and achieving heat stability of residential buildings.
In the architectural and planning solution of the eco¬-house, progressive directions of construction of agrotechnical structures using renewable energy sources are adopted. Particular importance was given to the choice of the construction site on an elevated area nearby historical monuments and a favourable season for the construction of eco-houses with considering the natural and climatic characteristics of rural areas of Southern Kazakhstan.
This paper discussed the issues of insulation, ventilation and improving the eco-house microclimate comfort using local building materials. Improving the architectural and artistic expressiveness of the eco-house in terms of the tradition of folk architecture was also explicitly discussed in this paper.
Tables with the justification of expediency of construction of economical eco-houses in natural and climatic conditions of Kazakhstan and Central Asia are provided. The results help to improve the energy efficiency of eco-houses in Kazakhstan by using renewable energy sources.
Social benefits are associated with the use of local raw materials. Eco-houses built from traditional building materials can become accessible to a wide range of people and stimulate the development of small businesses. This may be associated with the construction of eco-houses to serve visiting tourists in remote picturesque oases, as well as the manufacture of dome structures, felt products and the preparation of reed panels and so on.
The thermotechnical characteristics of the region's ground energy are given, which can significantly save the cost of heating the eco-house. Solutions for optimal insolation, ventilation of the eco-house are provided, taking into account the natural and climatic conditions of Southern Kazakhstan.