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Article

Ciaran B. Trace and Yan Zhang

The purpose of this article is to examine the ways in which self-tracking data have meaning and value in and after the life of the creator, including how such data could…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this article is to examine the ways in which self-tracking data have meaning and value in and after the life of the creator, including how such data could become part of the larger historical record, curated in an institutional archive. In doing so, the article expands upon existing shared interests among researchers working in the areas of self-tracking, human–computer interaction and archival science.

Design/methodology/approach

A total of 18 people who had self-tracked for six months or more were recruited for the study. Participants completed a survey which gathered demographic data and characteristics vis-à-vis their self-tracking behavior. In-person semi-structured interviews were then conducted to ascertain the beliefs of the participants regarding the long-term use and value of personal quantified-self data.

Findings

The findings reveal the value that people place on self-tracking data, their thoughts on proper modes for accessing their archive once it moves from the private to the public space, and how to provide fidelity within the system such that their experiences are represented while also enabling meaning making on the part of subsequent users of the archive.

Originality/value

Today’s quantified-self data are generally embedded in systems that create a pipeline from the individual source to that of the corporate warehouse, bent on absorbing and extracting insight from a totality of big data. This article posits that new opportunities for knowing and for design can be revealed when a public interest rationale is appended to rich personalized collections of small data.

Details

Journal of Documentation, vol. 76 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0022-0418

Keywords

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Article

Ciaran B. Trace

The purpose of this paper is to argue that researchers in the information disciplines should embrace ethnomethodology as a way of forming deeper insights into the…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to argue that researchers in the information disciplines should embrace ethnomethodology as a way of forming deeper insights into the relationship between people and recorded knowledge.

Design/methodology/approach

The paper introduces the core concepts of ethnomethodology as a means of articulating what this perspective brings to the understanding of the way that society is accomplished. A selection of key studies are then examined to highlight important ethnomethodological findings about the particular relationship of documents to human actions and interactions.

Findings

Ethnomethodology highlights the fact that people transform their experiences, and the experiences of others, into documents whose status as an objective object help to justify people’s actions and inferences. Documents, as written accounts, also serve to make peoples’ actions meaningful to themselves and to others. At the same time, ethnomethodology draws attention to the fact that any correct reading of these documents relies partly on an understanding of the tacit ideologies that undergird people’s sense-making and that are used in order to make decisions and get work done.

Originality/value

This conceptual framework contributes to the information disciplines by bringing to the fore certain understandings about the social organization of document work, and the attendant social arrangements they reveal. The paper also outlines, from a methodological perspective, how information science researchers can use ethnomethodology as an investigative stance to further their knowledge of the role of documents in everyday life.

Details

Journal of Documentation, vol. 72 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0022-0418

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Article

Ciaran B. Trace

This article aims to examine a particular sub‐set of human information behavior that has been largely overlooked in the library and information science (LIS) literature;…

Abstract

Purpose

This article aims to examine a particular sub‐set of human information behavior that has been largely overlooked in the library and information science (LIS) literature; how people are socialized to create and use information.

Design/methodology/approach

Naturalism and ethnomethodology were used as theoretical frameworks to examine what a group of fifth grade students were taught about documents, how this information was imparted to them, and how social factors were manifested in the construction and form of those documents. Two concepts are shown to be critical in the explication of students as document creators and users: the notion that there is a “stock of knowledge” that underlies human interaction (some of which relates to recorded information), and that this socialization process forms part of a school's “hidden curriculum.”

Findings

Students were socialized to be good (in the sense of being competent) creators and users of documents. Part of the role of “being a student” involved learning the underlying norms and values that existed in relation to document creation and use, as well as understanding other norms and values of the classroom that were captured or reflected by documents themselves. Understanding “document work” was shown to be a fundamental part of student affiliation; enabling students to move from precompetent to competent members of a school community.

Originality/value

This research demonstrated that people possess a particular stock of knowledge from which they draw when creating and using information. Competence in this aspect of human information behavior, while partly based on one's own experience, is shown to be largely derived or learned from interaction with others.

Details

Journal of Documentation, vol. 63 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0022-0418

Keywords

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Article

Salman Ahmad, Ciaran Connolly and Istemi Demirag

Using Dean's (2010) analytics of government, this research explores how regimes of governing practices are linked to the underlying policy rationalities in dealing with…

Abstract

Purpose

Using Dean's (2010) analytics of government, this research explores how regimes of governing practices are linked to the underlying policy rationalities in dealing with the UK government's COVID-19 testing policies as a strategy for governing at a distance, including how targets were set and operationalized.

Design/methodology/approach

This paper draws on the UK government's policy documents, other official publications (plans) and parliamentary discourse, together with publicly available media information related to its COVID-19 policies.

Findings

This research reveals that, with respect to the governance of COVID-19 in the UK, testing has the dual role of inscription for the government's performance and classification for the pandemic risks. The analysis illustrates that the central role of testing is as a technology for classification for identifying and monitoring the virus-related risks. Moreover, our discourse analysis suggests that initially COVID-19 testing was used by the UK government more for performance communication, with the classificatory role of testing and its performativity as a strategic device evolving and only being acknowledged by government gradually as the underlying testing infrastructure was developed.

Research limitations/implications

This paper is based upon publicly available reports and other information of a single country's attempts to control COVID-19 over a relatively short period of time.

Originality/value

This paper provides a critical understanding of the role of (accounting) numbers in developing an effective government policy for governing COVID-19.

Details

Accounting, Auditing & Accountability Journal, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0951-3574

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Article

Şengül Öymen Gür and Şengül Yalçınkaya Erol

Due to discontent arising from the application of Modernism's totalitarian and homogenising logic to house design, recent research has concentrated on differences between…

Abstract

Due to discontent arising from the application of Modernism's totalitarian and homogenising logic to house design, recent research has concentrated on differences between cultures, societies and ethnic groups to the extent that today's students of architecture have difficulty finding sources which point to any universally valid values and preferences adopted by contemporary populations. In this study seventeen major design principles stemming from man-environment relationships, such as privacy, territoriality, personal space, backstage behaviour, orientation, and so on, as deduced from Turkish traditional houses, are investigated in terms of similarities among cultures. Samples of contemporary houses are selected from Turkey and elsewhere. Between local and international house designs full matches are depicted and verified by way of statistical analyses across fourteen items, such as living space subdivisions for guests and family, indirect access to the house (modulation), multi-purpose living space subdivisions (hierarchical living space), individualized bathrooms in bedrooms, independent family rooms, semi-closed spaces on the first floor, larger fenestration on upper floors as opposed to opacity of ground floors, segregated garden space, powerful demarcation of the garden space, orientation toward the house's own territory, bathrooms being situated in night time domains, differentiated status of spaces, multiple uses for stair landings (such as for hiding places for goods). Only three items showed some variance: closed balconies on upper floors were local, and semi-open spaces on ground floors were international tendencies. The practice of allowing direct access from the main entrance to a vertical circulation area was also predominantly a local choice.

Details

Open House International, vol. 36 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0168-2601

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Article

Raul Seppa

Small privately held firms extensively use debt provided by principal owners and households (inside-debt) as an alternative capital source to straight equity capital. The…

Abstract

Purpose

Small privately held firms extensively use debt provided by principal owners and households (inside-debt) as an alternative capital source to straight equity capital. The purpose of the research study is to investigate inside-debt-bankruptcy relations.

Design/methodology/approach

Inside-debt-bankruptcy relation is tested on three prominent bankruptcy prediction models using correlation and logit regression analysis. Sample consists of 314 Estonian small firms. Financial reports of 2007 are modelled against bankruptcies declared in 2009.

Findings

Results imply that users of inside-debt are less profitable; they have weaker liquidity position and less retained earnings. Leverage is not found to be significant determinant between inside-debt users and non-users. Fundamental finding of the study suggests that the use of inside-debt is significantly and positively related to bankruptcy probability. While inside-debt carries no risk elements per se, findings are robust to indicate that the use of inside-debt has significant power to signal for increasing bankruptcy risk and as such, reducing information asymmetry of small firms.

Research limitations/implications

This study is limited to single country data. Bankruptcy data fall to the period of economical recession. It is suggested to repeat the study in a normal economical situation and to extend sample size over different countries.

Practical implications

Findings contribute to the understanding of firms' financial risk, firm behaviour and capital structure development. In a lending industry, results shall supplement to prudent credit risk assessment techniques and design of bankruptcy models in general.

Originality/value

To the author's best knowledge, inside-debt-bankruptcy relation is not studied so far in the existing academic literature.

Details

Baltic Journal of Management, vol. 9 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1746-5265

Keywords

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Article

Alpa Dhanani and Ciaran Connolly

This paper aims to examine the accountability practices of large United Kingdom (UK) charities through public discourse.

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to examine the accountability practices of large United Kingdom (UK) charities through public discourse.

Design/methodology/approach

Based on the ethical model of stakeholder theory, the paper develops a framework for classifying not‐for‐profit (NFP) accountability and analyzes the content of the annual reports and annual reviews of a sample of large UK charities using this framework.

Findings

The results suggest that contrary to the ethical model of stakeholder theory, the sample charities' accountability practices are motivated by a desire to legitimize their activities and present their organizations' activities in a positive light. These results contradict the raison d'être of NFP organizations (NFPOs) and the values that they espouse.

Research limitations/implications

Understanding the nature of accountability reporting in NFPOs has important implications for preparers and policy makers involved in furthering the NFP agenda. New research needs to examine shifts in accountability practices over time and assess the impact of the recent self‐regulation developed to enhance sector accountability.

Originality/value

This paper contributes to the NFP accountability literature by: first, developing a framework of NFP accountability through public discourse using the ethical model of stakeholder theory; and second, advancing the understanding of the accountability practices of large UK charities.

Details

Accounting, Auditing & Accountability Journal, vol. 25 no. 7
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0951-3574

Keywords

Abstract

Details

Teacher Preparation in Ireland
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78714-512-2

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Abstract

Details

Communication and Information Technologies Annual
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78560-785-1

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Book part

Rachel Aldred

Purpose – This chapter examines how activism and advocacy have shaped the policy and politics of cycling.Methodology – Evidence drawn upon includes policy documents and…

Abstract

Purpose – This chapter examines how activism and advocacy have shaped the policy and politics of cycling.

Methodology – Evidence drawn upon includes policy documents and interviews with advocates and activists, some carried out as part of the Economic and Social Research Council Cycling Cultures project. The chapter focuses on the United Kingdom but within a comparative context drawing upon material from The Netherlands and the Republic of Ireland.

Findings – The chapter argues that cycling has always been constructed in relation to social movements and social identities, and so the politics of cycling varies depending on the relationship of cycling to politics more broadly. Understanding this context can contribute to the analysis of policy and infrastructural debates within and between cycling movements.

Research limitations – The research could be strengthened by a comparative focus upon middle- and lower-income countries, where the demographic profile of cyclists is likely to be different leading to distinctively different politics of cycling.

Research implications – The politics of cycling should be considered as crucial in shaping the content and outcomes of cycling policies, particularly in terms of understanding – and redressing – perceived policy failures.

Social implications – The chapter argues that the current political and economic situation is generating distinctive political problems for cycling movements, and this is already beginning to produce new debates and changes in forms of advocacy and activism.

Details

Cycling and Sustainability
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78052-299-9

Keywords

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